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Novel H1N1 Influenza

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1. A Novel Natural Influenza A H1N1 Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitory Peptide Derived from Cod Skin Hydrolysates and Its Antiviral Mechanism (PubMed)

A Novel Natural Influenza A H1N1 Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitory Peptide Derived from Cod Skin Hydrolysates and Its Antiviral Mechanism In this paper, a novel natural influenza A H1N1 virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitory peptide derived from cod skin hydrolysates was purified and its antiviral mechanism was explored. From the hydrolysates, novel efficient NA-inhibitory peptides were purified by a sequential approach utilizing an ultrafiltration membrane (5000 Da), sephadex G-15 gel column (...) binding might be the driving force for the binding affinity of PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL to NA. The cytopathic effect reduction assay showed that the peptide PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL protected Madin⁻Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells from viral infection and reduced the viral production in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 value was 471 ± 12 μg/mL against H1N1. Time-course analysis showed that PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL inhibited influenza virus in the early stage of the infectious cycle. The virus titers

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2018 Marine drugs

2. Hybrid inorganic-organic capsules for efficient intracellular delivery of novel siRNAs against influenza A (H1N1) virus infection (PubMed)

Hybrid inorganic-organic capsules for efficient intracellular delivery of novel siRNAs against influenza A (H1N1) virus infection The implementation of RNAi technology into the clinical practice has been significantly postponing due to the issues regarding to the delivery of naked siRNA predominantly to target cells. Here we report the approach to enhance the efficiency of siRNA delivery by encapsulating the siRNA into new carrier systems which are obtained via the combination of widely used (...) layer-by-layer technique and in situ modification by sol-gel chemistry. We used three types of siRNAs (NP-717, NP-1155 and NP-1496) in encapsulated form as new therapeutic agents against H1N1 influenza virus infection. By employing the hybrid microcontainers for the siRNA encapsulation we demonstrate the reduction of viral nucleoprotein (NP) level and inhibition of influenza virus production in infected cell lines (MDCK and A549). The obtained hybrid carriers based on assembled biodegradable

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2017 Scientific reports

3. An Influenza HA and M2e Based Vaccine Delivered by a Novel Attenuated Salmonella Mutant Protects Mice against Homologous H1N1 Infection (PubMed)

An Influenza HA and M2e Based Vaccine Delivered by a Novel Attenuated Salmonella Mutant Protects Mice against Homologous H1N1 Infection Attenuated Salmonella strains constitute a promising technology for the development of a more efficient multivalent protein based vaccines. In this study, we constructed a novel attenuated strain of Salmonella for the delivery and expression of the H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) and the conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e). We demonstrated (...) -specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and provides significant immune protection against a highly pathogenic H1N1 influenza virus.

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2017 Frontiers in microbiology

4. Estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Elementary Schools Using the SIR Model (PubMed)

Estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Elementary Schools Using the SIR Model The novel influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (A/H1N1pdm) pandemic of 2009-2010 had a great impact on society.We analyzed data from the absentee survey, conducted in elementary schools of Oita City, to evaluate the A/H1N1pdm pandemic and to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0 ) of this novel strain.We summarized the overall absentee data and calculated the cumulative infection

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2017 The open nursing journal

5. Preparation and evaluation of a novel, live, attenuated influenza H1N1 vaccine strain produced by a modified classical reassortment method (PubMed)

Preparation and evaluation of a novel, live, attenuated influenza H1N1 vaccine strain produced by a modified classical reassortment method Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV)-based Vero cells could provide a better choice to control and prevent influenza virus infections. This study used the human influenza virus A/Yunnan/1/2005Vca(H3N2) (YN/05Vca) as a donor strain. YN/05Vca has a double phenotype of cold adaption (ca) and Vero cell adaption (va). The parental virus strain used (...) was the wild-type A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1) (SI/06wt). The study employed the modified classical reassortment method to generate a new virus strain. After co-infection of Vero cells, some different sub-types of the reassorted viruses were generated randomly. Then, the specific anti-serum (anti-YN/05Vca) could combine with and neutralize the donor virus, and the original parental virus could not grow in Vero cells at a low temperature until it was re-structured with the meaningful gene fragment from

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2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

6. Winthrop-University Hospital Infectious Disease Division's swine influenza (H1N1) pneumonia diagnostic weighted point score system for hospitalized adults with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and negative rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs). (PubMed)

Winthrop-University Hospital Infectious Disease Division's swine influenza (H1N1) pneumonia diagnostic weighted point score system for hospitalized adults with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and negative rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs). In spring 2009, a novel strain of influenza A originating in Veracruz, Mexico, quickly spread to the United States and throughout the world. This influenza A virus was the product of gene reassortment of 4 different genetic elements: human influenza (...) , swine influenza, avian influenza, and Eurasian swine influenza. In the United States, New York was the epicenter of the swine influenza (H1N1) pandemic. Hospital emergency departments (EDs) were inundated with patients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) requesting screening for H1N1. Our ED screening, as well as many others, used a rapid screening test for influenza A (QuickVue A/B) because H1N1 was a variant of influenza A. The definitive laboratory test i.e., RT-PCR for H1N1 was developed

2017 Heart & Lung

7. Bacteria meets influenza A virus: A bioluminescence mouse model of Escherichia coli O157:H7 following influenza A virus/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) strain infection (PubMed)

Bacteria meets influenza A virus: A bioluminescence mouse model of Escherichia coli O157:H7 following influenza A virus/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) strain infection Objective To develop a bioluminescence-labelled bacterial infection model to monitor the colonization and clearance process of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the lungs of mice following influenza A virus/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) strain (IAV/PR8) infection. Methods BALB/c mice were administered IAV/PR8 or 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline (...) clearance from the lungs compared with mice treated with PBS. There were also consistent findings between the bioluminescence imaging and the CFU measurements in terms of identifying bacterial colonization and monitoring the clearance dynamics of E. coli O157:H7-lux in mouse lungs. Conclusion This novel bioluminescence-labelled bacterial infection model rapidly detected bacterial colonization of the lungs and monitored the clearance dynamics of E. coli O157:H7-lux following IAV/PR8 infection.

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2018 The Journal of international medical research

8. Elicitation of Protective Antibodies against a Broad Panel of H1N1 Viruses in Ferrets Preimmune to Historical H1N1 Influenza Viruses (PubMed)

Elicitation of Protective Antibodies against a Broad Panel of H1N1 Viruses in Ferrets Preimmune to Historical H1N1 Influenza Viruses Most preclinical animal studies test influenza vaccines in immunologically naive animal models, even though the results of vaccination may not accurately reflect the effectiveness of vaccine candidates in humans that have preexisting immunity to influenza. In this study, novel, broadly reactive influenza vaccine candidates were assessed in preimmune ferrets (...) . These animals were infected with different H1N1 isolates before being vaccinated or infected with another influenza virus. Previously, our group has described the design and characterization of computationally optimized broadly reactive hemagglutinin (HA) antigens (COBRA) for H1N1 isolates. Vaccinating ferrets with virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines expressing COBRA HA proteins elicited antibodies with hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) activity against more H1N1 viruses in the panel than VLP vaccines

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2017 Journal of virology

9. Novel H1N1 Influenza

Novel H1N1 Influenza Novel H1N1 Influenza Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Novel H1N1 Influenza Novel H1N1 Influenza (...) Aka: Novel H1N1 Influenza , H1N1 Novel Influenza From Related Chapters II. Definitions -Like Illness (ILI) Documented fever >37.8 C. or (>100 F) and-or and Absence of another cause III. Epidemiology Reported l 12, 2009 in Veracruz, Mexico and WHO declared pandemic by l 27, 2009 Widespread in United States in September, 2009 Peak this early is unprecedented (previously outbreaks started in October and November) Global pandemic declared over as of August 2010 United States H1N1 outcomes Cases: 61

2018 FP Notebook

10. Transmission and pathogenicity of novel reassortants derived from Eurasian avian-like and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice and guinea pigs (PubMed)

Transmission and pathogenicity of novel reassortants derived from Eurasian avian-like and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice and guinea pigs Given the present extensive co-circulation in pigs of Eurasian avian-like (EA) swine H1N1 and 2009 pandemic (pdm/09) H1N1 viruses, reassortment between them is highly plausible but largely uncharacterized. Here, experimentally co-infected pigs with a representative EA virus and a pdm/09 virus yielded 55 novel reassortant viruses that could (...) be categorized into 17 genotypes from Gt1 to Gt17 based on segment segregation. Majority of novel reassortants were isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Most of reassortant viruses were more pathogenic and contagious than the parental EA viruses in mice and guinea pigs. The most transmissible reassortant genotypes demonstrated in guinea pigs (Gt2, Gt3, Gt7, Gt10 and Gt13) were also the most lethal in mice. Notably, nearly all these highly virulent reassortants (all except Gt13) were characterized

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2016 Scientific reports

11. Complexes of Oligoribonucleotides with d-Mannitol Modulate the Innate Immune Response to Influenza A Virus H1N1 (A/FM/1/47) In Vivo (PubMed)

Complexes of Oligoribonucleotides with d-Mannitol Modulate the Innate Immune Response to Influenza A Virus H1N1 (A/FM/1/47) In Vivo Rapid replication of the influenza A virus and lung tissue damage caused by exaggerated pro-inflammatory host immune responses lead to numerous deaths. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents that have anti-influenza activities and attenuate excessive pro-inflammatory responses that are induced by an influenza virus infection are needed. Oligoribonucleotides-d-mannitol (...) (ORNs-d-M) complexes possess both antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. The current research was aimed at studying the ORNs-d-M effects on expression of innate immune genes in mice lungs during an influenza virus infection. Expression of genes was determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot assays. In the present studies, we found that the ORNs-d-M reduced the influenza-induced up-expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (tlr3, tlr7, tlr8), nuclear factor NF-kB (nfkbia, nfnb1), cytokines (ifnε

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2018 Pharmaceuticals

12. A Y161F Hemagglutinin Substitution Increases Thermostability and Improves Yields of 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Cells (PubMed)

importantly, vaccine seed viruses often do not grow efficiently in mammalian cell lines. Here we aimed to identify novel high-yield signatures for influenza viruses in continuous Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells. Using influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus as the testing platform and an integrating error-prone PCR-based mutagenesis strategy, we identified a Y161F mutation in hemagglutinin (HA) that not only enhanced the infectivity of the resultant virus by more than 300-fold but also increased its (...) A Y161F Hemagglutinin Substitution Increases Thermostability and Improves Yields of 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Cells Vaccination is the primary strategy for influenza prevention and control. However, egg-based vaccines, the predominant production platform, have several disadvantages, including the emergence of viral antigenic variants that can be induced during egg passage. These limitations have prompted the development of cell-based vaccines, which themselves are not without issue. Most

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2018 Journal of virology

13. Reassortant H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Bearing PB2 Gene From a 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Exhibits Increased Pathogenicity in Mice (PubMed)

Reassortant H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Bearing PB2 Gene From a 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Exhibits Increased Pathogenicity in Mice Reassortment is a key driving force of the evolution and host adaptation of the influenza virus. A(H1N1)pdm2009 (pdm09), a novel H1N1 influenza viral subtype, caused a pandemic in 2009. The strain was established in pig herds and cocirculated with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. The coexistence of pdm09 with H5N1 raises concerns that reassortment may cause (...) the development of novel viral strains with unpredictable virulence. Given that the viral polymerase subunit PB2 is a determinant of host range and pathogenicity, and that the substantial amino acid differences in PB2 between pdm09 and H5N1, including positions 590/591 and 271, which are shown to play key roles in enhanced polymerase activity in mammalian host cells, we generated a reassortant virus containing PB2 derived from a pdm09 (A/Liaoning/1/2009, LN/09) to investigate if pdm09-derived PB2 can function

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2018 Frontiers in microbiology

14. Inhibition of H1N1 influenza virus-induced apoptosis by functionalized selenium nanoparticles with amantadine through ROS-mediated AKT signaling pathways (PubMed)

Inhibition of H1N1 influenza virus-induced apoptosis by functionalized selenium nanoparticles with amantadine through ROS-mediated AKT signaling pathways As a therapeutic antiviral agent, the clinical application of amantadine (AM) is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. To overcome the drug-resistant viruses and meet the growing demand of clinical diagnosis, the use of biological nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in order to develop novel anti-influenza drugs. The antiviral (...) activity of selenium NPs with low toxicity and excellent activities has attracted increasing attention for biomedical intervention in recent years.In the present study, surface decoration of selenium NPs by AM (Se@AM) was designed to reverse drug resistance caused by influenza virus infection. Se@ AM with less toxicity remarkably inhibited the ability of H1N1 influenza to infect host cells through suppression of the neuraminidase activity. Moreover, Se@AM could prevent H1N1 from infecting Madin Darby

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2018 International journal of nanomedicine

15. Pandemic Paradox: Early Life H2N2 Pandemic Influenza Infection Enhanced Susceptibility to Death during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic (PubMed)

Pandemic Paradox: Early Life H2N2 Pandemic Influenza Infection Enhanced Susceptibility to Death during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Recent outbreaks of H5, H7, and H9 influenza A viruses in humans have served as a vivid reminder of the potentially devastating effects that a novel pandemic could exert on the modern world. Those who have survived infections with influenza viruses in the past have been protected from subsequent antigenically similar pandemics through adaptive immunity. For example (...) , during the 2009 H1N1 "swine flu" pandemic, those exposed to H1N1 viruses that circulated between 1918 and the 1940s were at a decreased risk for mortality as a result of their previous immunity. It is also generally thought that past exposures to antigenically dissimilar strains of influenza virus may also be beneficial due to cross-reactive cellular immunity. However, cohorts born during prior heterosubtypic pandemics have previously experienced elevated risk of death relative to surrounding cohorts

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2018 mBio

16. H1N1 influenza virus epitopes classified by monoclonal antibodies (PubMed)

H1N1 influenza virus epitopes classified by monoclonal antibodies Epitopes serve an important role in influenza infection. It may be useful to screen universal influenza virus vaccines, analyzing the epitopes of multiple subtypes of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. A total of 40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously obtained from flu virus HA antigens (development and characterization of 40 mAbs generated using H1N1 influenza virus split vaccines were previously published) were used to detect (...) epitopes distributed among different strains of influenza virus were identified, which included three from influenza A, four from 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza, and two from H1. The present study showed that considering a combination of the antigen-antibody reaction specificity, variation in the influenza virus HA protein and linear epitopes may present a useful approach for designing effective multi-epitope vaccines. Furthermore, the study aimed to clarify the cause and pathogenic mechanism

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2018 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

17. Clinical characteristics of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the 2013/2014 and 2015/2016 clade 6B/6B.1/6B.2-predominant outbreaks (PubMed)

Clinical characteristics of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the 2013/2014 and 2015/2016 clade 6B/6B.1/6B.2-predominant outbreaks A novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus emerged in 2009 globally, and it continues to circulate in humans. The National Influenza Surveillance Network in Taiwan identified five A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant seasons, representing the 2009/2010, 2010/2011, 2012/2013, 2013/2014, and 2015/2016 outbreaks from 2009 to 2016. Independently (...) , a retrospective cohort study (which enrolled 639 infected patients during the five seasons) was conducted at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital to explore the risk factors associated with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-related complications. A phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) sequences showed that the circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 virus belonged to clades 1, 2, and 8 in 2009/2010; clades 3, 4, 5, and 7 in 2010/2011; clades 7 and 6C in 2012/2013; clades 6B in 2013/2014; and 6B/6B.1/6B.2 in 2015/2016. Compared

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2018 Scientific reports

18. Restriction of H1N1 influenza virus infection by selenium nanoparticles loaded with ribavirin via resisting caspase-3 apoptotic pathway (PubMed)

Restriction of H1N1 influenza virus infection by selenium nanoparticles loaded with ribavirin via resisting caspase-3 apoptotic pathway Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) attract much attention in the biomedical field and are used as carriers of drugs in current research studies. In this study, SeNPs were decorated by RBV, and the novel nanoparticle system was well characterized. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells were infected with H1N1 influenza (...) . Immunohistochemical test revealed an identical result with the in vitro experiment that activations of caspase-3 and proteins on the apoptosis pathway were restrained by Se@RBV treatment.Taken together, this study elaborates that Se@RBV is a novel promising agent against H1N1 influenza virus infection.

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2018 International journal of nanomedicine

19. Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Impact on Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine Efficacy. (PubMed)

Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Impact on Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine Efficacy. In 2009, a novel influenza A (pH1N1) was identified, resulting in a pandemic with significant morbidity and mortality. A monovalent pH1N1 vaccine was separately produced in addition to the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. Formulation of the seasonal influenza vaccine (injectable trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine [TIV] vs. intranasal live, attenuated influenza vaccine [LAIV]) was postulated to have impacted (...) effectiveness between seasonal TIV and LAIV recipients.During the 2009-2010 pandemic, the pH1N1 vaccination was effective in reducing rates of ILI, influenza, and pneumonia in young healthy adults. Administration of the seasonal vaccine should continue without concern of potential interference with a novel pandemic vaccine, though more studies are needed to determine if this is applicable to other influenza seasons.

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2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

20. Hospitalised Malaysian children with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza: clinical characteristics, risk factors for severe disease and comparison with the 2002–2007 seasonal influenza (PubMed)

Hospitalised Malaysian children with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza: clinical characteristics, risk factors for severe disease and comparison with the 2002–2007 seasonal influenza The pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 resulted in extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the virus was a novel virus, there was limited data available on the clinical effects of the virus on children in Malaysia. Herein, we describe the clinical characteristics of children hospitalised (...) with H1N1 influenza in a tertiary care centre; we also attempted to identify the risk factors associated with disease severity.In this retrospective study, we compared the characteristics of the children who were admitted into the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, for H1N1 influenza during the pandemic with those who were admitted for seasonal influenza in 2002-2007.Among the 77 children (aged ≤ 12 years) admitted to the centre due to H1N1 influenza from 1 July 2009-30 June 2010, nearly 60

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2016 Singapore medical journal

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