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337 results for

Normocytic Anemia

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161. In vivo and in vitro toxicological evaluation of the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae). (Abstract)

<0.05) the relative weight of the liver, the spleen and kidney as compared to control group. Ageratum conyzoides increased also significantly (p<0.05) ALP, ALT, AST and blood glucose. Furthermore, an increase in the number of platelets associated with a normocytic and normochromic anaemia was observed. The cytotoxicity, determined by the MTT test and neutral red assay, has shown that the cytotoxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ageratum conyzoides and its total alkaloids was very close.Our results

2014 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

162. Epidemiology of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

] Relevant disease are defined as respiratory diseases (allergy, asthma, chronic respiratory failure), cardiovascular diseases (ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, hypertension), and other diseases (which could be related to COPD) (osteoporosis, skeletal muscle wasting, cachexia, diabetes mellitus, depression, normocytic, anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and lung cancer). COPD Treatment [ Time Frame: At the study visit (Day 1) ] COPD treatments are defined as inhaled therapies, oral therapies

2014 Clinical Trials

163. Study of the Efficacy and Safety of RsqVD Combination Therapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

or upper limit of normal Renal insufficiency defined as serum creatinine > 2mg/sL/177μmol/L Anaemia: Normochromic, normocytic with a haemoglobin value > 2g/dL below the lower limit of normal or a haemoglobin < 10g/dL Bone lesions (lytic lesions, severe osteopenia or pathologic fractures) as shown by CT scan and/or skeletal survey Patient has received no prior treatment with any systemic therapy for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Prior treatment of hypercalcaemia or spinal cord compression

2014 Clinical Trials

164. A Phase II Open-Label, Multiple-Dose, Single Agent Study to Evaluate the Overall Response Rate of Orally Administered Trametinib

to the underlying plasma cell proliferative disorder, specifically, one or more of the following: (i) Hypercalcemia: serum calcium >11.5 mg/100 mL (ii) Renal insufficiency: serum creatinine >2 mg/dL (iii) Anemia: normochromic, normocytic with a hemoglobin value >2 g/100 mL below the lower limit of normal or a hemoglobin value <10 g/100 mL (iv)Bone lesions: lytic lesions, severe osteopenia, or pathologic fracture. Have measurable disease defined by the following: (i) Serum M-protein ≥1g/dL or urine M-protein

2014 Clinical Trials

165. Systematic review: Sprue-like enteropathy associated with olmesartan. (Abstract)

of studies with adequate sample size, case series with less than 10 patients and case reports were also considered. Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers.A total of 11 publications met our pre-defined inclusion criteria, for an overall number of 54 patients (including our series). Almost all patients presented with diarrhoea and weight loss. Normocytic normochromic anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia were the commonest laboratory defects at presentation. Antibody testing for coeliac

2014 Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

166. Uremia (Diagnosis)

to be older (mean age 71.4 years) than were the nonanemic patients with diabetes (mean age 64.4 years) and that a greater percentage were female (52.4% vs 44.4% of the nonanemic patients). In addition, 39% of the anemic patients had renal dysfunction. [ ] Anemia associated with chronic kidney disease is characteristically normocytic, normochromic, and hypoproliferative. Anemia in chronic renal failure In the setting of CKD, anemia may be due to other clinical factors or diseases, such as iron deficiency (...) associated with renal failure can be observed when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 50 mL/min or when the serum creatinine level is greater than 2 mg/dL. Patients with diabetes may experience anemia with a GFR of less than 60 mL/min. In a study of 832 hospitalized patients with diabetes, Almoznino-Sarafian et al determined that 334 of the patients had anemia, a rate (40%) higher than that reported in ambulatory patient populations. The investigators found that the anemic patients tended

2014 eMedicine.com

167. Pure Red Cell Aplasia (Diagnosis)

Updated: May 03, 2017 Author: Paul Schick, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pure Red Cell Aplasia Overview Practice Essentials Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the formation of erythrocytes. [ , ] Erythroblasts are virtually absent in bone marrow; however, white blood cell and platelet production are normal. The anemia due to PRCA is usually normocytic but can be macrocytic. In 1922 (...) , Kaznelson recognized that this condition was a different entity from , which presents as pancytopenia. The characteristics of PRCA (see ) include the following: Severe anemia Reticulocyte count <1% The presence of less than 0.5% mature erythroblasts in the bone marrow Normocellular bone marrow in most cases The etiology of PRCA is heterogeneous. A congenital form of PRCA was initially described by Joseph in 1936 and by Diamond and Blackfan in 1938. Congenital PRCA is a lifelong disorder

2014 eMedicine.com

168. Hematologic Disease and Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

or normocytic anemia etiologies are as follows: Hemorrhagic anemia Early iron deficiency anemia Anemia of chronic disease Anemia associated with bone marrow suppression Anemia associated with chronic renal insufficiency Anemia associated with endocrine dysfunction Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Anemia associated with hypothyroidism or hypopituitarism Hereditary spherocytosis Hemolytic anemia associated with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria MCV greater than 100 fL or macrocytic anemia etiologies (...) Women: Implications for Preconception Care. Am J Preventive Medicine . 2010. 38 (4S):S459-67. Lee AI, Okam MM. Anemia in pregnancy. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am . 2011 Apr. 25(2):241-59, vii. . Koshy M, Burd L, Wallace D, et al. Prophylactic red-cell transfusions in pregnant patients with sickle cell disease. A randomized cooperative study. N Engl J Med . 1988 Dec 1. 319(22):1447-52. . Hendrickse JP, Watson-Williams EJ, Luzzatto L, Ajabor LN. Pregnancy in homozygous sickle-cell anaemia. J Obstet

2014 eMedicine.com

169. Hyperglucagonemia (Diagnosis)

, necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), and diabetes. [ , , , , , , ] The diabetes mellitus associated with glucagonoma syndrome tends to be mild and usually can be controlled with diet and/or oral hypoglycemic agents. Typically, the associated anemia is normochromic normocytic, although macrocytic anemia has been described in some patients. is thought to occur in as many as 30% of patients with glucagonoma syndrome. Diagnosis is aided by the typical skin appearance of patients with NME

2014 eMedicine.com

170. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis (Diagnosis)

Jaundice Small- or large-bowel obstruction Spinal cord compression Testing Laboratory studies and potential results for patients with suspected RPF include the following: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level: Elevated C-reactive protein level: Elevated Urea and creatinine levels: Elevated Complete blood count: Normocytic normochromic anemia Alkaline phosphatase levels (also reported as a marker [ ] ) Antinuclear antibody levels (present in 60% of cases) [ ] Urinalysis: Usually normal; rarely

2014 eMedicine.com

171. Myxedema Coma or Crisis (Diagnosis)

coagulopathy may occur. [ ] Hematologic Myxedema coma is associated with a higher risk of bleeding caused by coagulopathy related to an acquired von Willebrand syndrome (type 1) and decreases in factors V, VII, VIII, IX, and X. [ , ] Patients may also have microcytic anemia secondary to hemorrhage, or macrocytic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, or normocytic normochromic anemia, which may be secondary to decreased oxygen requirement and reduced erythropoietin. [ ] Previous Next: Epidemiology United

2014 eMedicine.com

172. Macrocytosis (Diagnosis)

. This deposition effectively increases the surface area of the erythrocyte. Hypothyroidism is a manifestation of hormone deficiency. More commonly, hypothyroid patients exhibit a normocytic anemia. Artifactual elevation of the MCV must be considered in certain patients, although this occurs less frequently with newer cell-counting machines. Hyperglycemia and cold agglutinins may cause artificially elevated MCVs. [ ] Previous References Moore CA, Adil A. Anemia, Macrocytic. 2017 Jun. . . Kaferle J, Strzoda CE (...) : Vincent E Herrin, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Macrocytosis Overview Practice Essentials Macrocytosis is a term used to describe erythrocytes that are larger than normal, typically reported as mean cell volume (MCV) greater than 100 fL. The amount of hemoglobin increases proportionately with the increase in cell size. Therefore, if the increase in MCV is not related to macrocytic anemia, the mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC

2014 eMedicine.com

173. Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency (Diagnosis)

of the mutated gene product. However, numerous other lab studies can be used in the diagnosis of these diseases. Lab findings in familial LCAT deficiency include the following: Complete blood count (CBC) - Normochromic normocytic anemia with anisopoikilocytosis, target cells, stomatocytes, and hematologic evidence of hemolysis may be present Urinalysis - Proteinuria is commonly detected during the second or third decade of life; less common findings include hyaline and granular casts and red blood cells (...) , and erythrocytes. Patients may present with HDL deficiency, corneal opacification, hemolytic anemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and proteinuria. Fish eye disease is characterized by partial reduction of LCAT and only manifests as progressive corneal opacification. Occurrence Familial LCAT deficiency and fish eye disease are rare. Out of 70 families screened worldwide, at least 60 patients with either familial LCAT deficiency or fish eye disease have been reported. [ ] Race- and age-related

2014 eMedicine.com

174. Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (Diagnosis)

a splenectomy and cholecystectomy. In patients who had a splenectomy without simultaneous cholecystectomy, 48% later required a cholecystectomy. [ ] (See the image below.) Peripheral blood smear in a child with splenectomy and pyruvate kinase deficiency. Signs and symptoms The following are evident in pyruvate kinase deficiency: Mild to severe normochromic and normocytic anemia Reticulocytosis Symmetrical growth delay Failure to thrive Cholecystolithiasis: Usually after the first decade of life but possibly (...) Reticulocyte count Serum bilirubin level study Peripheral blood film examination Normochromic, normocytic, or macrocytic anemia, together with reticulocytosis in the absence of blood loss, is suggestive of hemolysis. A negative Coombs test result helps to exclude immune hemolysis. The enzyme activity rate in most patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency is 5-25% of normal, with measurement of the intermediates (2,3-diphosphoglycerol and glucose-6-phosphate) proximal to the enzyme defect helping to confirm

2014 eMedicine.com

175. Pure Red Cell Aplasia (Overview)

: May 03, 2017 Author: Paul Schick, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pure Red Cell Aplasia Overview Practice Essentials Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the formation of erythrocytes. [ , ] Erythroblasts are virtually absent in bone marrow; however, white blood cell and platelet production are normal. The anemia due to PRCA is usually normocytic but can be macrocytic. In 1922, Kaznelson (...) recognized that this condition was a different entity from , which presents as pancytopenia. The characteristics of PRCA (see ) include the following: Severe anemia Reticulocyte count <1% The presence of less than 0.5% mature erythroblasts in the bone marrow Normocellular bone marrow in most cases The etiology of PRCA is heterogeneous. A congenital form of PRCA was initially described by Joseph in 1936 and by Diamond and Blackfan in 1938. Congenital PRCA is a lifelong disorder and is associated

2014 eMedicine.com

176. Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency (Overview)

of the mutated gene product. However, numerous other lab studies can be used in the diagnosis of these diseases. Lab findings in familial LCAT deficiency include the following: Complete blood count (CBC) - Normochromic normocytic anemia with anisopoikilocytosis, target cells, stomatocytes, and hematologic evidence of hemolysis may be present Urinalysis - Proteinuria is commonly detected during the second or third decade of life; less common findings include hyaline and granular casts and red blood cells (...) , and erythrocytes. Patients may present with HDL deficiency, corneal opacification, hemolytic anemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and proteinuria. Fish eye disease is characterized by partial reduction of LCAT and only manifests as progressive corneal opacification. Occurrence Familial LCAT deficiency and fish eye disease are rare. Out of 70 families screened worldwide, at least 60 patients with either familial LCAT deficiency or fish eye disease have been reported. [ ] Race- and age-related

2014 eMedicine.com

177. Hyperglucagonemia (Overview)

, necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), and diabetes. [ , , , , , , ] The diabetes mellitus associated with glucagonoma syndrome tends to be mild and usually can be controlled with diet and/or oral hypoglycemic agents. Typically, the associated anemia is normochromic normocytic, although macrocytic anemia has been described in some patients. is thought to occur in as many as 30% of patients with glucagonoma syndrome. Diagnosis is aided by the typical skin appearance of patients with NME

2014 eMedicine.com

178. Wegener Granulomatosis (Overview)

squamous cell carcinoma have been reported Additional findings Cardiac: Pericardial rub, myocardial infarction, or sudden death Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain may be present with splanchnic vasculitis See for more detail. Diagnosis Routine laboratory tests are nonspecific in GPA. Results may include the following: Abnormal kidney function tests and urinalysis in patients with renal involvement Rheumatoid factor is positive in a low titer in two thirds of patients CBC: Mild normochromic normocytic (...) anemia is present in 50% of patients; leukocytosis is common, with a neutrophil predominance Elevated inflammatory markers (ESR, CRP) Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) directed against PR3 is most specific for GPA Some patients with GPA express perinuclear-staining ANCA (p-ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO) Combining immunofluorescence and ELISA enhances the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnosis of an ANCA-associated

2014 eMedicine.com

179. Chronic Renal Failure (Overview)

normocytic anemia principally develops from decreased renal synthesis of erythropoietin, the hormone responsible for bone marrow stimulation for red blood cell (RBC) production. The anemia starts early in the course of the disease and becomes more severe as, with the shrinking availability of viable renal mass, the GFR progressively decreases. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Stauffer and Fan found that anemia was twice as prevalent in people with CKD (15.4 (...) < 30 mL/min/1.73 m²) that endocrine/metabolic derangements or disturbances in water or electrolyte balance become clinically manifest. Signs of metabolic acidosis in stage 5 CKD include the following: Loss of lean body mass Muscle weakness Signs of alterations in the way the kidneys are handling salt and water in stage 5 include the following: Peripheral edema Pulmonary edema Hypertension Anemia in CKD is associated with the following: Fatigue Reduced exercise capacity Impaired cognitive and immune

2014 eMedicine.com

180. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (Overview)

analysis Blood count and peripheral smear findings Total WBC count 20,000-60,000 cells/μL, with mildly increased basophils and eosinophils Mild to moderate anemia, usually normochromic and normocytic Platelet counts low, normal, or increased Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase stains very low to absent in most cells Leukoerythroblastosis, with circulating immature cells from the bone marrow Early myeloid cells (eg, myeloblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, nucleated red blood cells) Bone marrow findings Ph (...) and symptoms of progressive disease: Bleeding, petechiae, and ecchymoses during the acute phase Bone pain and fever in the blast phase Increasing anemia, thrombocytopenia, basophilia, and a rapidly enlarging spleen in blast crisis See for more detail. Diagnosis The diagnosis of CML is based on the following: Histopathologic findings in the peripheral blood Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in bone marrow cells The workup for CML consists of the following: CBC with differential Peripheral blood smear Bone marrow

2014 eMedicine.com

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