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Normocytic Anemia

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61. Anemia, Acute (Follow-up)

because of an expanded plasma volume. An acutely bleeding patient may have a normal initial hematocrit level; therefore, in this clinical setting, serial hematocrit levels must be measured. The studies listed below may or may not be useful, depending on the clinical presentation. Peripheral indices The most important index is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), on the basis of which anemias can be classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic: Microcytic anemias (usually defined as MCV < 80 fL (...) ) include anemias of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, and the hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemias). Normocytic anemias (MCV 80-100 fL) include anemias of acute blood loss, hemolysis, uremia, and cancer. Patients with early forms of microcytic anemia and multifactorial anemia may have normocytic MCVs. Macrocytic anemias (usually defined as MCV >100 fL) include anemias related to alcoholism, folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies (pernicious

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

62. Anemia, Acute (Treatment)

because of an expanded plasma volume. An acutely bleeding patient may have a normal initial hematocrit level; therefore, in this clinical setting, serial hematocrit levels must be measured. The studies listed below may or may not be useful, depending on the clinical presentation. Peripheral indices The most important index is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), on the basis of which anemias can be classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic: Microcytic anemias (usually defined as MCV < 80 fL (...) ) include anemias of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, and the hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemias). Normocytic anemias (MCV 80-100 fL) include anemias of acute blood loss, hemolysis, uremia, and cancer. Patients with early forms of microcytic anemia and multifactorial anemia may have normocytic MCVs. Macrocytic anemias (usually defined as MCV >100 fL) include anemias related to alcoholism, folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies (pernicious

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

63. Iron Deficiency Anemia

condition history or (e.g. ) Colon cancer Medication usage predisposing to ing s s V. Associated Conditions ralized in children VI. Labs (CBC) See See (MCV) ral See MCV cutoff varies by age and per reference MCV usually <75 in Iron Deficiency Anemia MCV >95 fl virtually excludes Iron Deficiency ( >97%) (MCV 80 to 100 fl) Normocytic early in course of Normocytic erythrocytes are found in 40% of Iron Deficiency patients (MCV <80 fl) Microcytosis follows drop of 2 g/dl (RDW) Precedes change in to ratio See (...) DEFICIENCY , ANAEMIA IRON DEFICIENCY , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Anemias, Iron-Deficiency , IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA , Iron Deficiency Anemias , Iron-Deficiency Anemia , Iron-Deficiency Anemias , Iron deficiency anemia, unspecified , Iron def anaemia syndrome , Iron def anemia syndrome , Iron deficiency anaemia NOS , Iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified , Iron def anemia , Unspec iron deficiency anaemia , Unspec iron deficiency anemia , Unspecified iron deficiency anaemia , Unspecified iron deficiency

2015 FP Notebook

64. Anemia of Inflammation: Investigation on Impaired Iron Regulation in Acutely Ill Patients and Their Clinical Outcome

by Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico. Recruitment status was: Recruiting First Posted : May 2, 2012 Last Update Posted : May 2, 2012 Sponsor: Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Collaborator: University of Milano Bicocca Information provided by: Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Anemia of inflammation (AI), a normochromic, normocytic anemia, associated with abnormal iron utilization (...) Anemia of Inflammation: Investigation on Impaired Iron Regulation in Acutely Ill Patients and Their Clinical Outcome Anemia of Inflammation: Investigation on Impaired Iron Regulation in Acutely Ill Patients and Their Clinical Outcome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number

2012 Clinical Trials

65. Long-term mortality risks associated with mild anaemia in older persons: the Busselton Health Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-term mortality risks associated with mild anaemia in older persons: the Busselton Health Study. up to 25% of older people in the USA and other Western countries are anaemic by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term relationships of haemoglobin concentration with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a community-based sample of Australian adults surveyed in 1978.a community survey of 2,194 adults aged 40+ years in Busselton (...) , Western Australia in 1978 with mortality follow-up to 2001. Cox regression models were used to investigate the relationships of haemoglobin as a continuous measure and anaemia by WHO criteria (women <12 g/dl (7.5 mmol/l); men <13 g/dl (8.1 mmol/l)) with all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality.anaemia was predominantly mild (>10 g/dl) and normocytic. There was an increased risk of death from all causes and from cancer for men with low haemoglobin. Cancers were predominantly of the prostate

2012 Age and ageing

66. Megaloblastic anemia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition without folic acid or vitamin B12 supplementation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Megaloblastic anemia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition without folic acid or vitamin B12 supplementation. Pancytopenia developed in four patients receiving postoperatively total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Symptoms and signs were related mainly to underlying bowel disease. Hematologic abnormalities, first noted from 4 to 7 weeks following institution of TPN, consisted of normocytic anemia (mean decrease in hemoglobin value, 2.2 g/dL), occasional macrocytes being noted, leukopenia

1977 Canadian Medical Association Journal

67. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a negro family Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hereditary sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a negro family Detailed clinical and genetic studies have been performed in a Negro family, which segregated for sex-linked sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-DP) deficiency. This is the first such pedigree reported. Males affected with sideroblastic anemia had growth retardation, hypochromic microcytic anemia, elevated serum iron, decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (...) including normocytic and microcytic cells. The bone marrow studies in the female (mother) showed ringed marrow sideroblasts. Studies of G-6-PD involved the methemoglobin elution test for G-6-PD activity of individual erythrocytes, quantitative G-6-PD assay, and electrophoresis. In the pedigree, linkage information was obtained from a doubly heterozygous woman, four of her sons, and five of her daughters. Three sons were doubly affected, and one was normal. One daughter appeared to be a recombinant

1968 Journal of Clinical Investigation

68. Perinatal Anemia

of anemia in the neonatal period. Normal physiologic processes often cause normocytic-normochromic anemia in term and preterm infants. Physiologic anemias do not generally require extensive evaluation or treatment. In term infants, the increase in oxygenation that occurs with normal breathing after birth causes an abrupt rise in tissue oxygen level, resulting in negative feedback on erythropoietin production and erythropoiesis. This reduction in erythropoiesis, as well as the shorter life span (...) is characterized by lack of RBC precursors in bone marrow, macrocytic RBCs, lack of reticulocytes in peripheral blood, and lack of involvement of other blood cell lineages. It is often (though not always) part of a syndrome of congenital anomalies including microcephaly, cleft palate, eye anomalies, thumb deformities, and webbed neck. Up to 25% of affected infants are anemic at birth, and low birth weight occurs in about 10%. It is thought to be caused by defective stem cell differentiation. Fanconi anemia

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

69. Iron Deficiency Anemia

, for alpha-thalassemia) may help distinguish these entities. Table Differential Diagnosis of Microcytic Anemia Due to Decreased RBC Production Diagnostic Criteria Iron Deficiency Iron-Transport Deficiency Sideroblastic Iron Utilization Chronic disease/inflammation Peripheral smear Microcytosis (M) vs hypochromia (H) M > H M > H M > H, may be normocytic Frequently normocytic Polychromatophilic targeted cells Absent Absent Present Absent Stippled RBCs Absent Absent Present Absent RBCs RBC distribution (...) Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron Deficiency Anemia - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Multiple

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

70. Evaluation of Anemia

or chemotherapeutic drugs such as hydroxyurea and antifolate agents) and in alcoholism because of abnormalities of the cell membrane. Acute bleeding may briefly produce macrocytic indices because of the release of large young reticulocytes. Normocytic indices occur in anemias resulting from deficient erythropoietin (EPO) or inadequate response to it (hypoproliferative anemias). Hemorrhage, before iron deficiency develops, usually results in normocytic and normochromic anemia unless the number of large (...) Evaluation of Anemia Evaluation of Anemia - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Multiple Myeloma

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

71. Myelodysplasia and Iron-Transport Deficiency Anemia

to a study published online Feb Video Bone Marrow Biopsy SOCIAL MEDIA Add to Any Platform Loading , MD, PhD, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Click here for Patient Education NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Anemia in myelodysplastic syndrome In , anemia is commonly prominent. The anemia is usually normocytic or macrocytic with a dimorphic (large and small) population of circulating cells. (See also .) Bone marrow examination shows decreased erythroid activity, megaloblastoid (...) Myelodysplasia and Iron-Transport Deficiency Anemia Myelodysplasia and Iron-Transport Deficiency Anemia - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

72. Myelophthisic Anemia

receptors are integral proteins embedded in a platelet membrane. When ADP binds, it causes a conformational change in the fibrinogen receptor, which allows fibrinogen to bind to the receptors... SOCIAL MEDIA Add to Any Platform Loading , MD, PhD, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Click here for Patient Education NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Myelophthisic anemia is a normocytic-normochromic anemia that occurs when normal marrow space is infiltrated and replaced by nonhematopoietic (...) with myelofibrosis due to malignant tumors. Diagnosis CBC, RBC indices, reticulocyte count, and peripheral smear Bone marrow examination Myelophthisic anemia is suspected in patients with normocytic anemia, particularly when splenomegaly or a potential underlying cancer is present. If it is suspected, a should be done, because a leukoerythroblastic pattern (immature myeloid cells and nucleated RBCs, such as normoblasts in the smear) suggests myelophthisic anemia. Extramedullary hematopoiesis or disruption

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

73. Anemia of Chronic Disease

condition, such as infection, autoimmune disease, kidney disease, or cancer. It is characterized by a microcytic or normocytic anemia and low reticulocyte count. Values for serum iron transferrin are typically low to normal, while ferritin can be normal or elevated. Treatment is to reverse the underlying disorder and in some cases, to give erythropoietin. (See also .) Worldwide, anemia of chronic disease is the 2nd most common anemia. Early on, the RBCs are normocytic; with time they become microcytic (...) of chronic disease are usually those of the underlying disorder (infection, inflammation, or cancer). Anemia of chronic disease should be suspected in patients with microcytic or normocytic anemia who also have chronic illness, infection, inflammation, or cancer. If anemia of chronic disease is suspected, serum iron, transferrin, reticulocyte count and serum ferritin are measured. Hb usually is > 8 g/dL unless an additional mechanism contributes to anemia, such as concomitant iron deficiency (see table

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

74. Hypoproliferative Anemias

to it; it tends to be normocytic and normochromic. Treatment includes measures to correct the underlying disorder and supplementation with EPO and sometimes iron. (See also .) Anemia in chronic renal disease is multifactorial. The most common mechanism is Hypoproliferation due to decreased EPO production Other factors include Uremia (in which mild hemolysis is common due to an increase in RBC deformity) Blood loss due to dysfunctional platelets, dialysis, and/or angiodysplasia Secondary hyperparathyroidism (...) is based on demonstration of renal insufficiency, normocytic anemia, and peripheral reticulocytopenia. Bone marrow may show erythroid hypoplasia. RBC fragmentation on the , particularly if there is thrombocytopenia, suggests simultaneous traumatic hemolysis. Treatment Treatment of underlying renal disease Sometimes, erythropoietin plus iron supplements Treatment of anemia of renal disease is directed at Improving renal function Increasing RBC production If renal function returns to normal, anemia

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

75. Sideroblastic Anemias

may be large, producing normocytic or macrocytic indices; if so, variation in RBC size (dimorphism) usually produces a high RBC distribution width (RDW). Congenital sideroblastic anemia The most common congenital sideroblastic anemia is an form caused by heterozygous germline mutations in ALAS2 , a gene involved in heme biosynthesis. Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) is an essential cofactor for the enzyme produced by ALAS2 , thus patients may respond to pyridoxine supplementation. Numerous other X-linked (...) Sideroblastic Anemias Sideroblastic Anemias - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Multiple Myeloma

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

76. Etiology of Anemia

destruction) Table Classification of Anemia by Cause Mechanism Examples Blood loss Acute Childbirth Injuries Surgery Chronic Cancer or polyps in GI tract Kidney tumors Ulcers in the stomach or small intestine Deficient erythropoiesis* Microcytic Iron-transport deficiency (iron refractory iron deficiency anemia [IRIDA]) Iron utilization defect (inherited ) Normochromic-normocytic Anemia of chronic inflammation, infection, or cancer Kidney disease Endocrine failure (thyroid, pituitary) Malnutrition (...) Etiology of Anemia Etiology of Anemia - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Multiple Myeloma Patients

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

77. Donor deferral due to anemia: A tertiary care center-based study Full Text available with Trip Pro

to anemia. Prevalence of anemia in prospective blood donors was 1.8%. It was significantly higher in female donors compared with male donors (34.2% vs 1.2%). The most common type of anemia was normocytic normochromic. (...) Donor deferral due to anemia: A tertiary care center-based study The minimum hemoglobin cutoff for blood donation in India is 12.5 gm% for both male and female donors and the minimum donation interval is 3 months. Donation of one unit of blood results in decrease in hemoglobin by 1 gm% and loss of 200-250 mg of iron. Donor deferral due to anemia is one of the major reasons of temporary rejection of blood donors. In the absence of further workup or advise, it results in loss of valuable donor

2011 Asian journal of transfusion science

78. Severe megaloblastic anaemia in an infant Full Text available with Trip Pro

of age was also noticed. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe normocytic normochromic anaemia and cobalamin deficit. A diagnosis of α-thalassemia trait was also made. Maternal investigation showed autoimmune pernicious anaemia. This case shows the severity of vitamin B(12) deficiency and the importance of adopting adequate and precocious measures in order to prevent potentially irreversible neurologic damage. (...) Severe megaloblastic anaemia in an infant Vitamin B(12) or cobalamin deficiency, a rare clinical entity in pediatric age, is found most exclusively in breastfed infants, whose mothers are strictly vegetarian non-supplemented or with pernicious anaemia. In this article, the authors describe a 10-month-old infant admitted for vomiting, refusal to eat and prostration. The infant was exclusively breastfed and difficulties in introduction of new foods were reported. Failure to thrive since 5 months

2011 BMJ case reports

79. mTOR inhibition and erythropoiesis: microcytosis or anemia? Full Text available with Trip Pro

mTOR inhibition and erythropoiesis: microcytosis or anemia? Anaemia and microcytosis are common post kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition in the development of anaemia and microcytosis in healthy animals and in human erythroid cultures in vitro.Rats with normal kidney function were treated with sirolimus (n = 7) or vehicle (n = 8) for 15 weeks. Hemograms were determined thereafter. In the sirolimus (...) ± 9.9 BFU-E-derived colonies P = 0.03), regardless if the cultures were derived from recipients with normocytic or with microcytic erythrocytes. The presence of tacrolimus in the culture medium had no influence on the number and size of colonies.mTOR inhibition induces microcytosis and polyglobulia, but not anaemia in healthy rats. This might be caused by growth inhibition of erythroid precursor cells.

2011 Transplantation

80. Iron Deficiency – Diagnosis and Management

for IDA: microcytic anemia, hypochromia, and decreased ferritin. IDA may be normocytic if anemia is mild or in early iron deficiency. Identification of Patients at Risk for Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia Screening of the general population for iron deficiency is not recommended. Use a case-finding approach to identify patients at risk of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (Table 1). Common risk profiles, by age, include: Infants and toddlers Adolescents and adults: endurance (...) . It may take up to 6 months to replenish iron stores. Hemoglobin will correct within 2 to 4 months if appropriate iron dosages are taken as prescribed and underlying cause of iron deficiency is corrected. Continue iron therapy an additional 4 to 6 months (adults) after correction of anemia to replenish the iron stores. Ferritin should be re-checked 3-6 months after normalization of hemoglobin in anemic patients, or after initiation of iron supplementation in non-anemic patients. Target normal ferritin

2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

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