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Normocytic Anemia

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41. Is hidradenitis suppurativa associated with anaemia?: a population-based and hospital-based cross-sectional study from Denmark. (Abstract)

normocytic anaemia and 40% microcytic anaemia, in concordance with anaemia of inflammation.In contrast to our hypothesis, this study showed that HS is not associated with anaemia. Thus, anaemia may not be the cause of the described fatigue in HS patients. Furthermore, the results indicate that if an HS patient does suffer from anaemia it is most likely to be normocytic or microcytic and thus compatible with anaemia seen in other chronic inflammatory disorders.© 2015 European Academy of Dermatology (...) Is hidradenitis suppurativa associated with anaemia?: a population-based and hospital-based cross-sectional study from Denmark. Chronic inflammatory diseases may be associated with anaemia of inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease associated with metabolic comorbidities, low quality of life and fatigue. Anaemia may cause fatigue, and it has been hypothesized that HS-related fatigue may be partly due to anaemia.Our objective was to investigate

2015 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

42. Anemia in prospective blood donors deferred by the copper sulphate technique of hemoglobin estimation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

were collected from the study subjects into EDTA anticoagulant tubes. The hemoglobin levels and red cell indices were measured using Sysmex hematology analyser. A thin blood film was prepared and stained using Leishman stain and then observed under the light microscope.The prevalence of anemia among the total deferred patients (538) was 17.1 %. Four different types of anemia were found among the subjects. These were normocytic normochromic (46.74 %), microcytic hypochromic (42.39 %) normocytic (...) Anemia in prospective blood donors deferred by the copper sulphate technique of hemoglobin estimation. Patients who require transfusion as part of their clinical management have the right to expect sufficient blood to be available to meet their needs and to receive the safest blood possible. Donor deferrals (disqualification) lead to loss of precious blood donors and blood units available for transfusion purposes. It is believed that a large majority of donor deferrals are due to temporal

2015 BMC Hematology

43. Hemoglobin, Anemia, and Cognitive Function: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hemoglobin, Anemia, and Cognitive Function: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Our objective was to characterize the relationship of low and high hemoglobin concentrations and normocytic, microcytic, and macrocytic anemia with cross-sectional cognition and change in cognition over a median of 6 years.Cross-sectional and prospective analyses of 13,133 participants (mean age 57 years, 56% women, 24% black, 10% anemia) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (baseline (...) 1990-1992) were carried out. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentrations lower than 13g/dl for men and lower than 12g/dl for women and was subclassified as normocytic (mean corpuscular volume [MCV] 80-100 fL), microcytic (MCV < 80 fL), and macrocytic (MCV > 100 fL). Cognition was assessed by delayed word recall test (DWRT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), word fluency test (WFT), and global Z-score at Visit 2 (1990-1992) and Visit 4 (1996-1998). Adjusted linear regression models

2015 Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

44. Anemia in elderly hospitalized patients: prevalence and clinical impact. (Abstract)

elderly patients admitted to the Internal Medicine Ward of Ca'Granda Policlinico Hospital along 6 months, and its relationship to comorbidities and to the length of hospitalization. Anemia was classified according to the WHO criteria. The majority of patients (48 %) had a mildmoderate, normocytic anemia; severe anemia was found in 8 out of 92 anemic patients. In a subgroup of patients erythropoietin was tested and resulted statistically higher if compared to non-anemic controls (p = 0.003 (...) Anemia in elderly hospitalized patients: prevalence and clinical impact. Anemia is a common finding in elderly individuals. Several studies have shown a strong relationship between anemia, morbidity and mortality, suggesting anemia as a significant independent predictor of adverse outcome in elderly hospitalized patients. The pathophisiology of anemia in the elderly is not yet completely understood. Several mechanisms are involved. We investigated the prevalence of anemia in a cohort of 193

2015 Internal and emergency medicine

45. Protease inhibitors-based therapy induces acquired spherocytic-like anaemia and ineffective erythropoiesis in chronic hepatitis C virus patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

spectrometry analysis, quantification of erythroid microparticles release. IL28B and ITPA polymorphisms were also evaluated.We found early acute normochromic normocytic haemolytic anaemia (4-8 weeks) followed by a late macrocytic hypo-regenerative anaemia with inappropriate low reticulocyte count (12-24 weeks). Studies on red cells revealed: (i) presence of spherocytes; (ii) increased osmotic fragility; (iii) abnormalities in red cell membrane protein composition; (iv) reduced membrane-cytoskeleton (...) Protease inhibitors-based therapy induces acquired spherocytic-like anaemia and ineffective erythropoiesis in chronic hepatitis C virus patients. The addition of protease inhibitors, boceprevir (BOC) or telaprevir (TRV), to peg-interferon and ribavirin (PR) increases the incidence of anaemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Although genetic variants in inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene have been linked to the haemolytic anaemia induced by PR, the mechanism sustaining

2015 Liver International

46. Erythroblast apoptosis and microenvironmental iron restriction trigger anemia in the VK*MYC model multiple myeloma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

using the Vk*MYC mouse, which spontaneously develops an indolent bone marrow localized disease with aging. Affected Vk*MYC mice develop a mild normochromic normocytic anemia. We excluded the possibility that anemia results from defective erythropoietin production, inflammation or increased hepcidin expression. Mature erythroid precursors are reduced in Vk*MYC bone marrow compared with wild-type. Malignant plasma cells express the apoptogenic receptor Fas ligand and, accordingly, active caspase 8 (...) Erythroblast apoptosis and microenvironmental iron restriction trigger anemia in the VK*MYC model multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is a malignant disorder characterized by bone marrow proliferation of plasma cells and by overproduction of monoclonal immunoglobulin detectable in the sera (M-spike). Anemia is a common complication of multiple myeloma, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. We aimed to identify the different determinants of anemia

2015 Haematologica

47. Markers of inflammation and activation of coagulation are associated with anaemia in antiretroviral-treated HIV disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

trial with haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements at entry were categorized by presence of anaemia (haemoglobin ≤14 g/dl in men and ≤12 g/dl in women) and, for those with anaemia, by type [microcytic (MCV < 80 fl), normocytic (80-100 fl), macrocytic (>100 fl)]. We analysed the association between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP) and coagulation (D-dimer) and haemoglobin, controlling for demographics (age, race and sex), BMI, HIV plasma RNA levels, CD4⁺ T-cell counts (nadir (...) and baseline), Karnofsky score, previous AIDS diagnosis, hepatitis B/C coinfection and use of zidovudine.Among 1410 participants, 313 (22.2%) had anaemia. Of these, 4.1, 27.2 and 68.7% had microcytic, normocytic and macrocytic anaemia, respectively. When compared with participants with normal haemoglobin values, those with anaemia were more likely to be older, black, male and on zidovudine. They also had lower baseline CD4⁺ T-cell counts and lower Karnofsky scores. Adjusted relative odds of anaemia per two

2014 AIDS

48. Prevalence and prognostic implications of anaemia and iron deficiency in Tanzanian patients with heart failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

outcome was anaemia and the secondary outcome was a composite of hospitalisation for HF or all-cause mortality.A total of 401 HF patients (median age 56 years, IQR 41-67 years; women 51%) were included. The prevalence of anaemia was 57%. The overall prevalence of ID was 49% distributed as 69% versus 21% in subjects with and without anaemia (p < 0.001). Normocytic anaemia was seen in 18% of the patients while none had macrocytic anaemia. The risk of having anaemia was positively associated (...) Prevalence and prognostic implications of anaemia and iron deficiency in Tanzanian patients with heart failure. To determine the prevalence, correlates and prognostic implications of anaemia and iron deficiency (ID) in patients with heart failure (HF) in Tanzania.This was a cross-sectional and prospective observational study conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients were ≥ 18 years of age, with HF defined according to the Framingham criteria. The primary

2014 Heart

49. Hepcidin-dependent and hepcidin-independent regulation of erythropoiesis in a mouse model of anemia of chronic inflammation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepcidin-dependent and hepcidin-independent regulation of erythropoiesis in a mouse model of anemia of chronic inflammation. Increased hepcidin antimicrobial peptide correlates with hypoferremia and anemia in various disease states, but its requirement for anemia of inflammation has not been adequately demonstrated. Anemia of inflammation is usually described as normocytic and normochromic, while diseases associated with over expression of hepcidin, alone, are often microcytic and hypochromic (...) . These differences in erythrocyte parameters suggest anemia in many inflammatory states may not be fully explained by hepcidin-mediated iron sequestration. We used turpentine-induced sterile abscesses to model chronic inflammation in mice with targeted disruption of Hepcidin 1 [Hepc1 (-/-)] or its positive regulator, Interleukin-6 [IL-6 (-/-)], to determine whether these genes are required for features characteristic of anemia of inflammation. Although hemoglobin levels did not decline in Hepc1 (-/-) mice

2014 American journal of hematology

50. Association of renal tubular damage with cardio-renal anemia syndrome in patients with heart failure. (Abstract)

with normocytic anemia, accompanying iron deficiency and inflammation. RTD added prognostic information to conventional CRAS, suggesting the importance of RTD in cardio-renal anemia interaction.Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) Association of renal tubular damage with cardio-renal anemia syndrome in patients with heart failure. Cardio-renal anemia syndrome (CRAS) has begun to gather attention as a vicious circle since chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and anemia are all able to be caused and exacerbated by each other. However, it remains unclear whether renal tubular damage (RTD), another type of kidney dysfunction, is associated with this vicious circle. The aim of the present study

2014 International journal of cardiology

51. Iron Deficiency Anemia (Diagnosis)

that is normocytic. The bone marrow is stimulated to increase production of hemoglobin, thereby depleting iron in body stores. Once they are depleted, hemoglobin synthesis is impaired and microcytic hypochromic erythrocytes are produced. Sequential changes in laboratory values following blood loss are depicted. A healthy human was bled 5 L in 500-mL increments over 45 days. A moderate anemia ensued, initially with normal cellular indices and serum iron. Subsequently, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increased (...) population of erythrocytes, normocytic cells produced before bleeding, and microcytic cells produced after bleeding. This is reflected in the red blood cell distribution width (RDW); thus, the earliest evidence of the development of an iron-deficient erythropoiesis is seen in the peripheral smear, in the form of increased RDW. Hemosiderinuria, hemoglobinuria, and pulmonary hemosiderosis Iron deficiency anemia can occur from loss of body iron in the urine. If a freshly obtained urine specimen appears

2014 eMedicine.com

52. Iron Deficiency Anemia (Overview)

that is normocytic. The bone marrow is stimulated to increase production of hemoglobin, thereby depleting iron in body stores. Once they are depleted, hemoglobin synthesis is impaired and microcytic hypochromic erythrocytes are produced. Sequential changes in laboratory values following blood loss are depicted. A healthy human was bled 5 L in 500-mL increments over 45 days. A moderate anemia ensued, initially with normal cellular indices and serum iron. Subsequently, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increased (...) population of erythrocytes, normocytic cells produced before bleeding, and microcytic cells produced after bleeding. This is reflected in the red blood cell distribution width (RDW); thus, the earliest evidence of the development of an iron-deficient erythropoiesis is seen in the peripheral smear, in the form of increased RDW. Hemosiderinuria, hemoglobinuria, and pulmonary hemosiderosis Iron deficiency anemia can occur from loss of body iron in the urine. If a freshly obtained urine specimen appears

2014 eMedicine.com

53. Aplastic Anemia (Overview)

: Sameer Bakhshi, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Aplastic Anemia Overview Practice Essentials Aplastic anemia is a syndrome of bone marrow failure characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia (see the image below). Although the anemia is often normocytic, mild macrocytosis can also be observed in association with stress erythropoiesis and elevated fetal hemoglobin levels. Low power, H and E showing a hypocellular bone marrow (...) -associated aplastic anemia presenting as a familial bone marrow failure syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 2009 Nov. 31(11):884-7. . Gonzalez-Casas R, Garcia-Buey L, Jones EA, Gisbert JP, Moreno-Otero R. Systematic review: hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia--a syndrome associated with abnormal immunological function. Aliment Pharmacol Ther . 2009 Sep 1. 30(5):436-43. . Miano M, Dufour C. The diagnosis and treatment of aplastic anemia: a review. Int J Hematol . 2015 Jun. 101 (6):527-35. . McCormack PL

2014 eMedicine.com

54. Aplastic Anemia (Diagnosis)

: Sameer Bakhshi, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Aplastic Anemia Overview Practice Essentials Aplastic anemia is a syndrome of bone marrow failure characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia (see the image below). Although the anemia is often normocytic, mild macrocytosis can also be observed in association with stress erythropoiesis and elevated fetal hemoglobin levels. Low power, H and E showing a hypocellular bone marrow (...) -associated aplastic anemia presenting as a familial bone marrow failure syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 2009 Nov. 31(11):884-7. . Gonzalez-Casas R, Garcia-Buey L, Jones EA, Gisbert JP, Moreno-Otero R. Systematic review: hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia--a syndrome associated with abnormal immunological function. Aliment Pharmacol Ther . 2009 Sep 1. 30(5):436-43. . Miano M, Dufour C. The diagnosis and treatment of aplastic anemia: a review. Int J Hematol . 2015 Jun. 101 (6):527-35. . McCormack PL

2014 eMedicine.com

55. Anemia of Prematurity (Diagnosis)

is observed 8-12 weeks after birth. Anemia of prematurity (AOP) is an exaggerated, pathologic response of the preterm infant to this transition. AOP is a normocytic, normochromic, hyporegenerative anemia characterized by a low serum EPO level, often despite a remarkably reduced hemoglobin concentration. Nutritional deficiencies of iron, vitamin E, vitamin B-12, and folate may exaggerate the degree of anemia, as may blood loss and/or a reduced red cell life span. AOP spontaneously resolves in many (...) Anemia of Prematurity (Diagnosis) Anemia of Prematurity: Background, Etiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTc4MjM4LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Anemia of Prematurity Updated: Jan 08

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

56. Anemia, Chronic (Diagnosis)

, , and lead poisoning. Anemia of chronic disease commonly is manifested by normocytic normochromic indices; however, microcytic hypochromic indices also can be associated with anemia of chronic disease. Macrocytic anemia Possible causes of macrocytic anemia include vitamin B-12 deficiency, folate deficiency, liver disease, and hypothyroidism. Normocytic anemia Normocytic anemia is further divided into 2 broad categories: anemia with primary bone marrow involvement and anemia secondary to underlying (...) Anemia, Chronic (Diagnosis) Chronic Anemia: Practice Essentials, Etiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNzgwMTc2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Chronic Anemia Updated: Sep 09, 2016 Author

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

57. Anemia, Acute (Diagnosis)

because of an expanded plasma volume. An acutely bleeding patient may have a normal initial hematocrit level; therefore, in this clinical setting, serial hematocrit levels must be measured. The studies listed below may or may not be useful, depending on the clinical presentation. Peripheral indices The most important index is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), on the basis of which anemias can be classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic: Microcytic anemias (usually defined as MCV < 80 fL (...) ) include anemias of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, and the hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemias). Normocytic anemias (MCV 80-100 fL) include anemias of acute blood loss, hemolysis, uremia, and cancer. Patients with early forms of microcytic anemia and multifactorial anemia may have normocytic MCVs. Macrocytic anemias (usually defined as MCV >100 fL) include anemias related to alcoholism, folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies (pernicious

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

58. Anemia of Prematurity (Overview)

is observed 8-12 weeks after birth. Anemia of prematurity (AOP) is an exaggerated, pathologic response of the preterm infant to this transition. AOP is a normocytic, normochromic, hyporegenerative anemia characterized by a low serum EPO level, often despite a remarkably reduced hemoglobin concentration. Nutritional deficiencies of iron, vitamin E, vitamin B-12, and folate may exaggerate the degree of anemia, as may blood loss and/or a reduced red cell life span. AOP spontaneously resolves in many (...) Anemia of Prematurity (Overview) Anemia of Prematurity: Background, Etiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTc4MjM4LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Anemia of Prematurity Updated: Jan 08

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

59. Anemia, Chronic (Overview)

, , and lead poisoning. Anemia of chronic disease commonly is manifested by normocytic normochromic indices; however, microcytic hypochromic indices also can be associated with anemia of chronic disease. Macrocytic anemia Possible causes of macrocytic anemia include vitamin B-12 deficiency, folate deficiency, liver disease, and hypothyroidism. Normocytic anemia Normocytic anemia is further divided into 2 broad categories: anemia with primary bone marrow involvement and anemia secondary to underlying (...) Anemia, Chronic (Overview) Chronic Anemia: Practice Essentials, Etiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNzgwMTc2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Chronic Anemia Updated: Sep 09, 2016 Author

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

60. Anemia, Acute (Overview)

because of an expanded plasma volume. An acutely bleeding patient may have a normal initial hematocrit level; therefore, in this clinical setting, serial hematocrit levels must be measured. The studies listed below may or may not be useful, depending on the clinical presentation. Peripheral indices The most important index is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), on the basis of which anemias can be classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic: Microcytic anemias (usually defined as MCV < 80 fL (...) ) include anemias of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, and the hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemias). Normocytic anemias (MCV 80-100 fL) include anemias of acute blood loss, hemolysis, uremia, and cancer. Patients with early forms of microcytic anemia and multifactorial anemia may have normocytic MCVs. Macrocytic anemias (usually defined as MCV >100 fL) include anemias related to alcoholism, folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies (pernicious

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

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