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Normocytic Anemia

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41. Anemia, Acute (Overview)

because of an expanded plasma volume. An acutely bleeding patient may have a normal initial hematocrit level; therefore, in this clinical setting, serial hematocrit levels must be measured. The studies listed below may or may not be useful, depending on the clinical presentation. Peripheral indices The most important index is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), on the basis of which anemias can be classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic: Microcytic anemias (usually defined as MCV < 80 fL (...) ) include anemias of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, and the hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemias). Normocytic anemias (MCV 80-100 fL) include anemias of acute blood loss, hemolysis, uremia, and cancer. Patients with early forms of microcytic anemia and multifactorial anemia may have normocytic MCVs. Macrocytic anemias (usually defined as MCV >100 fL) include anemias related to alcoholism, folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies (pernicious

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

42. Anemia, Chronic (Overview)

, , and lead poisoning. Anemia of chronic disease commonly is manifested by normocytic normochromic indices; however, microcytic hypochromic indices also can be associated with anemia of chronic disease. Macrocytic anemia Possible causes of macrocytic anemia include vitamin B-12 deficiency, folate deficiency, liver disease, and hypothyroidism. Normocytic anemia Normocytic anemia is further divided into 2 broad categories: anemia with primary bone marrow involvement and anemia secondary to underlying (...) Anemia, Chronic (Overview) Chronic Anemia: Practice Essentials, Etiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNzgwMTc2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Chronic Anemia Updated: Sep 09, 2016 Author

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

43. Anemia, Acute (Follow-up)

because of an expanded plasma volume. An acutely bleeding patient may have a normal initial hematocrit level; therefore, in this clinical setting, serial hematocrit levels must be measured. The studies listed below may or may not be useful, depending on the clinical presentation. Peripheral indices The most important index is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), on the basis of which anemias can be classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic: Microcytic anemias (usually defined as MCV < 80 fL (...) ) include anemias of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, and the hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemias). Normocytic anemias (MCV 80-100 fL) include anemias of acute blood loss, hemolysis, uremia, and cancer. Patients with early forms of microcytic anemia and multifactorial anemia may have normocytic MCVs. Macrocytic anemias (usually defined as MCV >100 fL) include anemias related to alcoholism, folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies (pernicious

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

44. Iron Deficiency Anemia (Diagnosis)

that is normocytic. The bone marrow is stimulated to increase production of hemoglobin, thereby depleting iron in body stores. Once they are depleted, hemoglobin synthesis is impaired and microcytic hypochromic erythrocytes are produced. Sequential changes in laboratory values following blood loss are depicted. A healthy human was bled 5 L in 500-mL increments over 45 days. A moderate anemia ensued, initially with normal cellular indices and serum iron. Subsequently, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increased (...) population of erythrocytes, normocytic cells produced before bleeding, and microcytic cells produced after bleeding. This is reflected in the red blood cell distribution width (RDW); thus, the earliest evidence of the development of an iron-deficient erythropoiesis is seen in the peripheral smear, in the form of increased RDW. Hemosiderinuria, hemoglobinuria, and pulmonary hemosiderosis Iron deficiency anemia can occur from loss of body iron in the urine. If a freshly obtained urine specimen appears

2014 eMedicine.com

45. Anemia, Acute (Treatment)

because of an expanded plasma volume. An acutely bleeding patient may have a normal initial hematocrit level; therefore, in this clinical setting, serial hematocrit levels must be measured. The studies listed below may or may not be useful, depending on the clinical presentation. Peripheral indices The most important index is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), on the basis of which anemias can be classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic: Microcytic anemias (usually defined as MCV < 80 fL (...) ) include anemias of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, and the hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemias). Normocytic anemias (MCV 80-100 fL) include anemias of acute blood loss, hemolysis, uremia, and cancer. Patients with early forms of microcytic anemia and multifactorial anemia may have normocytic MCVs. Macrocytic anemias (usually defined as MCV >100 fL) include anemias related to alcoholism, folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies (pernicious

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

46. Anemia of Prematurity (Diagnosis)

is observed 8-12 weeks after birth. Anemia of prematurity (AOP) is an exaggerated, pathologic response of the preterm infant to this transition. AOP is a normocytic, normochromic, hyporegenerative anemia characterized by a low serum EPO level, often despite a remarkably reduced hemoglobin concentration. Nutritional deficiencies of iron, vitamin E, vitamin B-12, and folate may exaggerate the degree of anemia, as may blood loss and/or a reduced red cell life span. AOP spontaneously resolves in many (...) Anemia of Prematurity (Diagnosis) Anemia of Prematurity: Background, Etiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTc4MjM4LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Anemia of Prematurity Updated: Jan 08

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

47. Anemia, Acute (Diagnosis)

because of an expanded plasma volume. An acutely bleeding patient may have a normal initial hematocrit level; therefore, in this clinical setting, serial hematocrit levels must be measured. The studies listed below may or may not be useful, depending on the clinical presentation. Peripheral indices The most important index is the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), on the basis of which anemias can be classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic: Microcytic anemias (usually defined as MCV < 80 fL (...) ) include anemias of chronic disease, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, and the hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemias). Normocytic anemias (MCV 80-100 fL) include anemias of acute blood loss, hemolysis, uremia, and cancer. Patients with early forms of microcytic anemia and multifactorial anemia may have normocytic MCVs. Macrocytic anemias (usually defined as MCV >100 fL) include anemias related to alcoholism, folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies (pernicious

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

48. Anemia, Chronic (Diagnosis)

, , and lead poisoning. Anemia of chronic disease commonly is manifested by normocytic normochromic indices; however, microcytic hypochromic indices also can be associated with anemia of chronic disease. Macrocytic anemia Possible causes of macrocytic anemia include vitamin B-12 deficiency, folate deficiency, liver disease, and hypothyroidism. Normocytic anemia Normocytic anemia is further divided into 2 broad categories: anemia with primary bone marrow involvement and anemia secondary to underlying (...) Anemia, Chronic (Diagnosis) Chronic Anemia: Practice Essentials, Etiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNzgwMTc2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Chronic Anemia Updated: Sep 09, 2016 Author

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

49. Anemia of Inflammation: Investigation on Impaired Iron Regulation in Acutely Ill Patients and Their Clinical Outcome

by Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico. Recruitment status was: Recruiting First Posted : May 2, 2012 Last Update Posted : May 2, 2012 Sponsor: Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Collaborator: University of Milano Bicocca Information provided by: Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Anemia of inflammation (AI), a normochromic, normocytic anemia, associated with abnormal iron utilization (...) Anemia of Inflammation: Investigation on Impaired Iron Regulation in Acutely Ill Patients and Their Clinical Outcome Anemia of Inflammation: Investigation on Impaired Iron Regulation in Acutely Ill Patients and Their Clinical Outcome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number

2012 Clinical Trials

50. Iron Deficiency Anemia

condition history or (e.g. ) Colon cancer Medication usage predisposing to ing s s V. Associated Conditions ralized in children VI. Labs (CBC) See See (MCV) ral See MCV cutoff varies by age and per reference MCV usually <75 in Iron Deficiency Anemia MCV >95 fl virtually excludes Iron Deficiency ( >97%) (MCV 80 to 100 fl) Normocytic early in course of Normocytic erythrocytes are found in 40% of Iron Deficiency patients (MCV <80 fl) Microcytosis follows drop of 2 g/dl (RDW) Precedes change in to ratio See (...) Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron Deficiency Anemia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron Deficiency

2015 FP Notebook

51. Donor deferral due to anemia: A tertiary care center-based study (PubMed)

to anemia. Prevalence of anemia in prospective blood donors was 1.8%. It was significantly higher in female donors compared with male donors (34.2% vs 1.2%). The most common type of anemia was normocytic normochromic. (...) Donor deferral due to anemia: A tertiary care center-based study The minimum hemoglobin cutoff for blood donation in India is 12.5 gm% for both male and female donors and the minimum donation interval is 3 months. Donation of one unit of blood results in decrease in hemoglobin by 1 gm% and loss of 200-250 mg of iron. Donor deferral due to anemia is one of the major reasons of temporary rejection of blood donors. In the absence of further workup or advise, it results in loss of valuable donor

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2011 Asian journal of transfusion science

52. mTOR inhibition and erythropoiesis: microcytosis or anemia? (PubMed)

mTOR inhibition and erythropoiesis: microcytosis or anemia? Anaemia and microcytosis are common post kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition in the development of anaemia and microcytosis in healthy animals and in human erythroid cultures in vitro.Rats with normal kidney function were treated with sirolimus (n = 7) or vehicle (n = 8) for 15 weeks. Hemograms were determined thereafter. In the sirolimus (...) ± 9.9 BFU-E-derived colonies P = 0.03), regardless if the cultures were derived from recipients with normocytic or with microcytic erythrocytes. The presence of tacrolimus in the culture medium had no influence on the number and size of colonies.mTOR inhibition induces microcytosis and polyglobulia, but not anaemia in healthy rats. This might be caused by growth inhibition of erythroid precursor cells.

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2011 Transplantation

53. Megaloblastic anemia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition without folic acid or vitamin B12 supplementation. (PubMed)

Megaloblastic anemia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition without folic acid or vitamin B12 supplementation. Pancytopenia developed in four patients receiving postoperatively total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Symptoms and signs were related mainly to underlying bowel disease. Hematologic abnormalities, first noted from 4 to 7 weeks following institution of TPN, consisted of normocytic anemia (mean decrease in hemoglobin value, 2.2 g/dL), occasional macrocytes being noted, leukopenia

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1977 Canadian Medical Association Journal

54. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a negro family (PubMed)

Hereditary sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a negro family Detailed clinical and genetic studies have been performed in a Negro family, which segregated for sex-linked sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-DP) deficiency. This is the first such pedigree reported. Males affected with sideroblastic anemia had growth retardation, hypochromic microcytic anemia, elevated serum iron, decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (...) including normocytic and microcytic cells. The bone marrow studies in the female (mother) showed ringed marrow sideroblasts. Studies of G-6-PD involved the methemoglobin elution test for G-6-PD activity of individual erythrocytes, quantitative G-6-PD assay, and electrophoresis. In the pedigree, linkage information was obtained from a doubly heterozygous woman, four of her sons, and five of her daughters. Three sons were doubly affected, and one was normal. One daughter appeared to be a recombinant

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1968 Journal of Clinical Investigation

55. Myelodysplasia and Iron-Transport Deficiency Anemia

to a study published online Feb Video Bone Marrow Biopsy SOCIAL MEDIA Add to Any Platform Loading , MD, PhD, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Click here for Patient Education NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Anemia in myelodysplastic syndrome In , anemia is commonly prominent. The anemia is usually normocytic or macrocytic with a dimorphic (large and small) population of circulating cells. (See also .) Bone marrow examination shows decreased erythroid activity, megaloblastoid (...) Myelodysplasia and Iron-Transport Deficiency Anemia Myelodysplasia and Iron-Transport Deficiency Anemia - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

56. Myelophthisic Anemia

receptors are integral proteins embedded in a platelet membrane. When ADP binds, it causes a conformational change in the fibrinogen receptor, which allows fibrinogen to bind to the receptors... SOCIAL MEDIA Add to Any Platform Loading , MD, PhD, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Click here for Patient Education NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Myelophthisic anemia is a normocytic-normochromic anemia that occurs when normal marrow space is infiltrated and replaced by nonhematopoietic (...) with myelofibrosis due to malignant tumors. Diagnosis CBC, RBC indices, reticulocyte count, and peripheral smear Bone marrow examination Myelophthisic anemia is suspected in patients with normocytic anemia, particularly when splenomegaly or a potential underlying cancer is present. If it is suspected, a should be done, because a leukoerythroblastic pattern (immature myeloid cells and nucleated RBCs, such as normoblasts in the smear) suggests myelophthisic anemia. Extramedullary hematopoiesis or disruption

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

57. Anemia of Chronic Disease

condition, such as infection, autoimmune disease, kidney disease, or cancer. It is characterized by a microcytic or normocytic anemia and low reticulocyte count. Values for serum iron transferrin are typically low to normal, while ferritin can be normal or elevated. Treatment is to reverse the underlying disorder and in some cases, to give erythropoietin. (See also .) Worldwide, anemia of chronic disease is the 2nd most common anemia. Early on, the RBCs are normocytic; with time they become microcytic (...) of chronic disease are usually those of the underlying disorder (infection, inflammation, or cancer). Anemia of chronic disease should be suspected in patients with microcytic or normocytic anemia who also have chronic illness, infection, inflammation, or cancer. If anemia of chronic disease is suspected, serum iron, transferrin, reticulocyte count and serum ferritin are measured. Hb usually is > 8 g/dL unless an additional mechanism contributes to anemia, such as concomitant iron deficiency (see table

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

58. Sideroblastic Anemias

may be large, producing normocytic or macrocytic indices; if so, variation in RBC size (dimorphism) usually produces a high RBC distribution width (RDW). Congenital sideroblastic anemia The most common congenital sideroblastic anemia is an form caused by heterozygous germline mutations in ALAS2 , a gene involved in heme biosynthesis. Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) is an essential cofactor for the enzyme produced by ALAS2 , thus patients may respond to pyridoxine supplementation. Numerous other X-linked (...) Sideroblastic Anemias Sideroblastic Anemias - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Multiple Myeloma

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

59. Iron Deficiency Anemia

, for alpha-thalassemia) may help distinguish these entities. Table Differential Diagnosis of Microcytic Anemia Due to Decreased RBC Production Diagnostic Criteria Iron Deficiency Iron-Transport Deficiency Sideroblastic Iron Utilization Chronic disease/inflammation Peripheral smear Microcytosis (M) vs hypochromia (H) M > H M > H M > H, may be normocytic Frequently normocytic Polychromatophilic targeted cells Absent Absent Present Absent Stippled RBCs Absent Absent Present Absent RBCs RBC distribution (...) Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron Deficiency Anemia - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Multiple

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

60. Etiology of Anemia

destruction) Table Classification of Anemia by Cause Mechanism Examples Blood loss Acute Childbirth Injuries Surgery Chronic Cancer or polyps in GI tract Kidney tumors Ulcers in the stomach or small intestine Deficient erythropoiesis* Microcytic Iron-transport deficiency (iron refractory iron deficiency anemia [IRIDA]) Iron utilization defect (inherited ) Normochromic-normocytic Anemia of chronic inflammation, infection, or cancer Kidney disease Endocrine failure (thyroid, pituitary) Malnutrition (...) Etiology of Anemia Etiology of Anemia - Hematology and Oncology - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Multiple Myeloma Patients

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

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