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Normocytic Anemia

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1. Normocytic Anemia

Normocytic Anemia Normocytic Anemia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Normocytic Anemia Normocytic Anemia Aka (...) : Normocytic Anemia , Anemia of Chronic Disease From Related Chapters II. Evaluation MCV High normal MCV: Evaluate as Serum (TSH) Low normal MCV: Evaluate as High causes Obtain labs Positive labs ( ) Membrane disorders Enzyme defects Negative labs Bleeding without Hypersplenism recovery Normal (suggests hypofunction) Medical disease Consider tests, s, TSH Consider Inflammation See Anemia of Chronic Disease causes below disorder III. Causes: Anemia of Chronic Disease Chronic Inflammation Infection (e.g

2018 FP Notebook

2. Assessment of anaemia

Assessment of anaemia Assessment of anaemia - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice   Search  Assessment of anaemia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Anaemia is defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) level <120 g/L (<12 g/dL) in females and <140 g/L (<14 g/dL) in males or, alternatively, as an Hb level <125g/L (<12.5 g/dL) in adults. Report of WHO/UNICEF/UNU consultation on indicators and strategies for iron deficiency and anemia programmes. In: WHO/UNICEF (...) . Anemia. In: Taylor RB, ed. Family medicine: principles and practice. 4th ed. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1994:997-1005. Anaemia can cause significant morbidity if left untreated, and is often the presenting sign of a more serious underlying condition. Thein M, Ershler WB, Artz AS, et al. Diminished quality of life and physical function in community-dwelling elderly with anemia. Medicine (Baltimore). 2009;88:107-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19282701?tool=bestpractice.com The rate at which

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Anaemia of chronic disease

infections, autoimmune disorders, after major trauma and surgery, and in critical illness. Physical examination findings are those of the underlying disorder. Therapeutic approach is primarily treatment of the underlying disorder, though treatment of the anaemia itself is sometimes appropriate. Definition Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) is a common syndrome in which the anaemia is due to an inflammation-mediated reduction in red blood cell (RBC) production and sometimes in RBC survival. Roy CN. Anemia (...) of inflammation. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010;2010:276-80. http://asheducationbook.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/2010/1/276 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21239806?tool=bestpractice.com Laboratory studies, which collectively identify the syndrome, typically show normocytic normochromic or microcytic hypochromic anaemia, relatively low absolute reticulocyte count, low serum iron, low total iron-binding capacity, low to normal percent transferrin saturation, and elevated ferritin

2018 BMJ Best Practice

4. Assessment of anaemia

Assessment of anaemia Assessment of anaemia - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice   Search  Assessment of anaemia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Anaemia is defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) level <120 g/L (<12 g/dL) in females and <140 g/L (<14 g/dL) in males or, alternatively, as an Hb level <125g/L (<12.5 g/dL) in adults. Report of WHO/UNICEF/UNU consultation on indicators and strategies for iron deficiency and anemia programmes. In: WHO/UNICEF (...) . Anemia. In: Taylor RB, ed. Family medicine: principles and practice. 4th ed. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1994:997-1005. Anaemia can cause significant morbidity if left untreated, and is often the presenting sign of a more serious underlying condition. Thein M, Ershler WB, Artz AS, et al. Diminished quality of life and physical function in community-dwelling elderly with anemia. Medicine (Baltimore). 2009;88:107-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19282701?tool=bestpractice.com The rate at which

2018 BMJ Best Practice

5. Under nutrition, maternal anemia and household food insecurity are risk factors of anemia among preschool aged children in Menz Gera Midir district, Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

% were microcytic hypochromic, normocytic normochromic and macrocytic anemias, respectively. Child age 6-11 months (COR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.2, 14.86), child age 12-23 months (COR: 5.8, 95% CI: 2.3, 14.7), wasting (COR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 9.8), stunting (COR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.92, 7.77), underweight (COR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.38), MUAC measurement below 13 cm (COR: 5.6, 95% CI: 2.83, 11.15), household headed by female (COR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.63), maternal anemia (COR: 4, 95% CI: 2.2, 7.23) and household (...) Under nutrition, maternal anemia and household food insecurity are risk factors of anemia among preschool aged children in Menz Gera Midir district, Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study. In Ethiopian, the prevalence of anemia among preschool aged children widely varied across regions. Since anemia adversely affects the cognitive and physical development of the children, it is important to determine its burden for implementing appropriate measurements. Therefore

2019 BMC Public Health

6. CRACKCAST E121 – Anemia, Polycythemia, and White Blood Cell Disorders

unexplained Hb <80 or hematocrit <30% Difficulty obtaining outpatient care when Hb significantly low or major comorbidity [4] Classify the anemias according to MCV Refer to box 112.5 for classification of anemias according to MCV Microcytic (low MCV, hypochromic) T halassemia A nemia of chronic disease I ron deficiency L ead poisoning S ideroblastic anemia Normocytic (normal MCV) Primary bone marrow problem: aplastic anemia, myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis, myelophthisic anemia Secondary (...) to underlying disease: hypothyroid, hypoadrenal, hypopituitary, uremia, chronic inflammation, liver disease Macrocytic (high MCV) Vit B12 deficiency / Folate deficiency Liver disease Hypothyroidism [5] What is the differential diagnosis of normocytic anemia? See above [6] What are the 3 different types of thalassemia? Homozygous beta-chain thalassemia (Thalassemia major) Mediterranean, severe anemia, most common single gene disoder Heterozygous beta-chain thalassemia (Thalassemia minor) Mild anemia, mostly

2017 CandiEM

7. Normocytic Anemia

Normocytic Anemia Normocytic Anemia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Normocytic Anemia Normocytic Anemia Aka (...) : Normocytic Anemia , Anemia of Chronic Disease From Related Chapters II. Evaluation MCV High normal MCV: Evaluate as Serum (TSH) Low normal MCV: Evaluate as High causes Obtain labs Positive labs ( ) Membrane disorders Enzyme defects Negative labs Bleeding without Hypersplenism recovery Normal (suggests hypofunction) Medical disease Consider tests, s, TSH Consider Inflammation See Anemia of Chronic Disease causes below disorder III. Causes: Anemia of Chronic Disease Chronic Inflammation Infection (e.g

2015 FP Notebook

8. Anaemia - iron deficiency

should not be used for men and postmenopausal women. As these are more at risk of occult gastrointestinal bleeding and malignancy and should be investigated accordingly. For information on how to manage people with confirmed iron deficiency, see the section on . It is less clear in which groups of people vitamin B12 and folate levels should also be checked, and when this should be done. Consider this particularly if the person is anaemic and: The anaemia is normocytic with a low or normal ferritin (...) that in general, treatment should be considered when serum ferritin levels fall below 30 micrograms/L, as this indicates early iron depletion [ ]. Microcytic anaemia Although iron deficiency is the most common cause of microcytic anemia, up to 40 percent of people with iron deficiency anemia will have normocytic erythrocytes [ ]. Diagnostic trial of oral iron A therapeutic trial of oral iron for 3 weeks is less invasive than other tests and may aid diagnosis, but this depends on compliance [ ]. In pregnant

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

9. Classification of Anemias

-normal TIBC & transferrin saturation, only ~25% microcytic , Hemoglobinopathy, Lead Overload , Thalassemia normal TIBC, normal to ? serum iron & transferrin saturation major high RDW & minor normal RDW ; Sideroblastic anemia ? RDW MCV 80-100 fL Normocytic anemia Consider loss of blood, Reticulocyte count Blood loss, Hemolysis ? No blood loss ? Treat cause GI or menstrual bleed (Use of ASA/NSAIDs, warfarin etc.), high reticulocyte Anemia of chronic dx normal- ? RDW, low serum iron, low-normal TIBC (...) : Landmark Outcome Trials – Summary (www.RxFiles.ca) 1 Anemia Guidelines for Family Medicine; Anemia Review Panel, 2008 Edition. 2 White CT, Barrett BJ, Madore F, Moist LM, Klarenbach SW, Foley RN, Culleton BF, et al. Canadian Society of Nephrology. Clinical practice guidelines for evaluation of anemia. Kidney Int Suppl. 2008 Aug;(110):S4-6. 3 Charytan C, Qunibi W, Bailie GR, Venofer Clinical Studies G. Comparison of intravenous iron sucrose to oral iron in the treatment of anemic patients with chronic

2014 RxFiles

10. Unexplained Anemia in the Elderly. (Abstract)

Unexplained Anemia in the Elderly. The prevalence of anemia increases with advancing age, and despite thorough investigation, approximately one-third will be classified as "unexplained." Unexplained anemia (UA) is typically hypoproliferative, normocytic, and with low reticulocyte count. Serum erythropoietin levels are lower than expected for degree of anemia. Chronic inflammation, low testosterone levels, malnutrition, and possibly nascent myelodysplasia are variably contributing factors

2019 Clinics in geriatric medicine

11. Loss of complement regulatory proteins on red blood cells in mild malarial anaemia and in Plasmodium falciparum induced blood-stage infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

infection. However, little is known about loss of CRPs on RBCs during mild malarial anaemia and in low-density infection.The expression of CRP CR1, CD55, CD59, and the phagocytic regulator CD47, on uninfected normocytes and reticulocytes were assessed in individuals from two study populations: (1) P. falciparum and P. vivax-infected patients from a low transmission setting in Sabah, Malaysia; and, (2) malaria-naïve volunteers undergoing P. falciparum induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM). For clinical (...) infections, individuals were categorized into anaemia severity categories based on haemoglobin levels. For IBSM, associations between CRPs and haemoglobin level were investigated.CRP expression on RBC was lower in Malaysian individuals with P. falciparum and P. vivax mild malarial anaemia compared to healthy controls. CRP expression was also reduced on RBCs from volunteers during IBSM. Reduction occurred on normocytes and reticulocytes. However, there was no significant association between reduced CRPs

2019 Malaria journal

12. Clinical and pathological factors of renal anaemia in patients with IgA nephropathy in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

factors of anaemia associated with IgA nephropathy.The incidence of renal anaemia was 28.5% (132/462 patients) in our study (21.3% in males and 38.9% in females). The anaemia type was primarily normocytic and normochromic. The rate of anaemia in patients with eGFR values of 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 was higher than that in patients with an eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (42.9% vs 17.8%, p<0.001). Notably, in the group with eGFR values <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, the anaemia rate was 100%. Logistic regression analysis (...) Clinical and pathological factors of renal anaemia in patients with IgA nephropathy in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study. Few studies with large sample populations concerning renal anaemia and IgA nephropathy have been reported worldwide. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the clinical and pathological characteristics and influencing factors associated with renal anaemia in patients with IgA nephropathy, which is the most common aetiology of chronic kidney disease.A

2019 BMJ open

13. Prevalence of anemia among adults at Hawassa University referral hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

population.Four hundred anemic patients who are men and non-pregnant women above 15 years of age were selected from patients visiting the laboratory for Complete Blood Count (CBC) investigation. The type and severity of anemia were assessed based on red cell indices and haemoglobin levels respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Chi square was used at 95% confidence interval, considering P < 0.05 statistically significant for association among categorical variables.The overall prevalence (...) of anemia in the study was 13%. Majority of cases had mild anemia 58.5%, while 19.0%, and 22.5% of the patients had moderate and severe anemia respectively. Overall, the prevalence of mild anemia increases with age, while the prevalence of moderate and severe anemia decreases as age increases. In the present study, the most common anemia was normocytic, which mostly occur in the elderly (61-85) years of age.The CBC parameters help to diagnose and classify anemia in to major components, which might help

2019 BMC Hematology

14. Association of active Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia in elderly males. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for anemia of the H. pylori positive group was 2.53 (P = .033). No correlation between H. pylori infection and serum iron and ferritin levels was found. The mean corpuscular volume of the H. pylori positive and negative group was 91.17 ± 3.94 fl and 91.17 ± 4.09 fl (mean ± SD), respectively (P = .986). The CRP level in the H. pylori positive group was higher than that in the H. pylori negative group (Median: 0.17 mg/dL vs. 0.10 mg/dL, P < .001).H. pylori infection seems to be associated with normocytic (...) Association of active Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia in elderly males. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection increases with age. However, the relationship between H. pylori infection and anemia in the elderly population remains to be identified. The aim of this study is to explore whether H. pylori infection is associated with anemia in a male elderly cohort.A cross-sectional study was designed using data collected from asymptomatic male senior citizens (≥ 65

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

15. Anemia and Adverse Outcomes in a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Population with a High Burden of Comorbidities. An Analysis from SPIROMICS. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and possible interactions related to cardiac and metabolic comorbidities.A total of 1,789 individuals with COPD from SPIROMICS had data on hemoglobin, and of these 7.5% (n = 135) were found to have normocytic anemia. Anemic participants were older with worse airflow obstruction, a higher proportion of them were African Americans, and they had a higher burden of cardiac and metabolic comorbidities. Anemia was strongly associated with 6-minute walk distance (β, -61.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], -85.11 (...) with outcomes in a large, well-characterized COPD cohort, and attempts to understand the contribution of anemia to outcomes and phenotypes in individuals with other comorbidities.Participants with COPD from SPIROMICS (the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study) were analyzed in adjusted models to determine the associations of normocytic anemia with clinical outcomes, computed tomographic measures, and biomarkers. Analysis was additionally performed to understand the independence

2018 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

16. Anaemia among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD): a multicentred cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in Peninsular Malaysia. Their sociodemographic, clinical and biomedical profiles were collected through interviews, examination of medical records and blood testing.The prevalence of anaemia was 31.7% (256/808). The anaemia was mainly mild (61.5%) and normocytic normochromic (58.7%). About 88.7% of the patients with anaemia were not known to have anaemia prior to the study. Among 36 patients with documented history of anaemia, 80.6% were still anaemic, and only a half received iron therapy. Multivariate (...) Anaemia among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD): a multicentred cross-sectional study. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at primary care settings and its associated factors.This cross-sectional study involved 808 adult patients with T2DM and CKD who were recruited via systematic sampling from 20 public primary care clinics

2018 BMJ open

17. Prevalence of preoperative anemia, abnormal mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width among surgical patients in Singapore, and their influence on one year mortality. Full Text available with Trip Pro

achieved 1 year follow-up. Anemia prevalence was 27.8%-mild anemia 15.3%, moderate anemia 12.0% and severe anemia 0.5%. One-year mortality was 3.5%. Anemia increased with age in males, while in females, anemia was more prevalent between 18-49 years and > = 70 years. Most anemics were normocytic. Normocytosis and macrocytosis increased with age, while microcytosis decreased with age. Older age, male gender, higher ASA-PS score, anemia (mild- aHR 1.98; moderate/severe aHR 2.86), macrocytosis (aHR 1.47 (...) Prevalence of preoperative anemia, abnormal mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width among surgical patients in Singapore, and their influence on one year mortality. Preoperative anemia and high red cell distribution width (RDW) are associated with higher perioperative mortality. Conditions with high RDW levels can be categorized by mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The relationship between RDW, anemia and MCV may explain causality between high RDW levels and outcomes. We aim

2017 PLoS ONE

18. Prevalence of anemia before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV infected patients at Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and CD4+ T cell counts were found to be associated with the prevalence of anemia before ART initiation. Among the total number of anemic cases, normocytic normochromic anemia was present in 71% of the cases before ART and in 58.6% of the cases after ART. The prevalence of macrocytic normochromic anemia before and after ART initiation was 4.7 and 27.6% respectively.It is evident from this study that there is a remarkable reduction in the prevalence of anemia after ART initiation. However, a significant (...) proportion of HIV patients remained anemic after 6 months of ART initiation suggesting the need for routine screening and proper treatment of anemia to mitigate its adverse effects.

2018 BMC Hematology

19. Macrocytic anemia is associated with the severity of liver impairment in patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

evidently higher MELD scores (10.8 ± 6.6) than those with normocytic anemia (8.0 ± 5.5) or microcytic anemia (6.3 ± 5.1). The association remained robust after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, drinking, and total cholesterol (β = 1.94, CI: 0.81-3.07, P < 0.001).Macrocytic anemia was found to be associated with the severity of liver impairment and might be a predictor for short-term mortality in patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. (...) Macrocytic anemia is associated with the severity of liver impairment in patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Macrocytic anemia is common in liver disease. However, its role in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated cirrhosis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between macrocytic anemia and the severity of liver impairment in patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis

2018 BMC Gastroenterology

20. Anemia in elderly residents of a long-term care institution Full Text available with Trip Pro

men (54%).Anemia in the elderly is a clinical condition associated with increased morbimortality. However, the disorder remains underdiagnosed, resulting in higher risks for older adults. The present study found 76 patients with anemia among the 183 residents at the long-term care institution. The patient profile of this population with anemia is non-smokers, male, aged between 70 and 79 years, with normochromic/normocytic anemia and taking multiple medications. (...) Anemia in elderly residents of a long-term care institution The Brazilian elderly population is growing exponentially, making prevention and treatment of chronic diseases a priority in this age group. Anemia in older adults is underdiagnosed, undervalued and associated with high morbimortality.To assess the prevalence of anemia in the elderly residents of a long-term care institution and to correlate this with individual patient history, the use of polypharmacy and mortality.A retrospective

2018 Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy

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