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Norepinephrine

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10621. Local administration of norepinephrine in the stump evokes dose-dependent pain in amputees. (Abstract)

Local administration of norepinephrine in the stump evokes dose-dependent pain in amputees. More than 50% of amputees report experiencing significant stump or phantom pain. Stump pain is often attributed to the formation of a neuroma at the amputation site. Experimental evidence shows that catecholamines and alpha-adrenoceptors play a role in the mechanisms of pain associated with neuromas. We investigated whether administration of physiological doses of norepinephrine (NE) in the distal stump

2006 Clinical Journal of Pain

10622. Cardiac and renal effects of levosimendan, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine in lipopolysaccharide-treated rabbits. (Abstract)

Cardiac and renal effects of levosimendan, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine in lipopolysaccharide-treated rabbits. Because sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction related to sepsis is at least partially related to a decrease in cardiac myofilament response to calcium, the use of the new myofilament-calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, has been proposed. In addition, arginine vasopressin is increasingly proposed as a vasopressor in septic patients, although data on its effects on cardiac (...) function are still scarce. The aim of the current study was to assess, invasively and noninvasively, whether levosimendan, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine, either alone or combined, may modify sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction and renal hemodynamics.Thirty-six hours after lipopolysaccharide or saline administration, rabbits were studied either after slight sedation for echocardiography or after general anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital for the following measurements: aortic flow

2005 Anesthesiology

10623. Changes in cardiovascular parameters and plasma norepinephrine level in rats after chronic constriction injury on the sciatic nerve. (Abstract)

Changes in cardiovascular parameters and plasma norepinephrine level in rats after chronic constriction injury on the sciatic nerve. To evaluate whether neuropathic pain affects autonomic nervous activities, we investigated daily change in cardiovascular parameters and plasma norepinephrine (NE) in free-moving rats after chronic constriction injury (CCI) on the sciatic nerve. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and the power spectrum of pulse interval variability were analyzed. Daily

2007 Pain

10624. Neurotensin-produced antinociception in the rostral ventromedial medulla is partially mediated by spinal cord norepinephrine. (Full text)

Neurotensin-produced antinociception in the rostral ventromedial medulla is partially mediated by spinal cord norepinephrine. Microinjection of neurotensin (NT) into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) produces dose-dependent antinociception. Here we show that antinociception produced by intra-RVM microinjection of neurotensin (NT) or the selective NT receptor subtype 1 (NTR1) agonist PD149163 can be partially blocked by intrathecal (i.t.) yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (...) in the RVM produces antinociception through spinal release of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin, and that activation of NTR2 in the RVM produces antinociception mediated by spinal release of NE.

2007 Pain PubMed abstract

10625. Alpha1- and beta1-adrenoceptor signaling fully compensates for beta3-adrenoceptor deficiency in brown adipocyte norepinephrine-stimulated glucose uptake. (Full text)

Alpha1- and beta1-adrenoceptor signaling fully compensates for beta3-adrenoceptor deficiency in brown adipocyte norepinephrine-stimulated glucose uptake. To assess the relative roles and potential contribution of adrenergic receptor subtypes other than the beta3-adrenergic receptor in norepinephrine-mediated glucose uptake in brown adipocytes, we have here analyzed adrenergic activation of glucose uptake in primary cultures of brown adipocytes from wild-type and beta3-adrenergic receptor (...) . As expected, the beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists BRL-37344 and CL-316 243 did not induce 2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in beta3-KO brown adipocytes. Surprisingly, the endogenous adrenergic neurotransmitter norepinephrine induced the same concentration-dependent 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in wild-type and beta3-KO brown adipocytes. This study demonstrates that beta1-adrenergic receptors, and to a smaller degree alpha1-adrenergic receptors, functionally compensate for the lack of beta3-adrenergic receptors

2005 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

10626. The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with decreased insulin secretion, delayed ghrelin suppression, and increased cardiovascular responsiveness to norepinephrine during oral glucose tolerance test. (Full text)

The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with decreased insulin secretion, delayed ghrelin suppression, and increased cardiovascular responsiveness to norepinephrine during oral glucose tolerance test. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a role in angiogenesis, cardiovascular regulation, and hormone secretion. The leucine7 to proline7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with vascular diseases and has an impact on hormone levels in healthy subjects.The current study investigated (...) , norepinephrine (NE), and insulin concentrations and insulin to glucose ratios. The suppression of ghrelin concentrations after glucose ingestion was delayed in these subjects. They also had increased heart rate variability indices and baroreflex sensitivity. However, they displayed significant negative association of NE concentration with variability of low-frequency R-R-intervals and with baroreflex sensitivity.The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is related to decreased level of basal sympathetic activity

2005 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism PubMed abstract

10627. Norepinephrine induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in rat pinealocytes: distinct roles of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. (Full text)

Norepinephrine induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in rat pinealocytes: distinct roles of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which norepinephrine (NE) regulates MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression in rat pinealocytes. Stimulation with NE (a mixed alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist) caused a rapid increase in MKP-1 mRNA and protein that peaked around 1 h post stimulation, and the response was sustained

2004 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

10628. Alleviation of thermoregulatory dysfunction with the new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desvenlafaxine succinate in ovariectomized rodent models. (Full text)

Alleviation of thermoregulatory dysfunction with the new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desvenlafaxine succinate in ovariectomized rodent models. Hot flushes and night sweats, referred to as vasomotor symptoms (VMS), are presumed to be a result of declining hormone levels and are the principal menopausal symptoms for which women seek medical treatment. To date, estrogens and/or some progestins are the most effective therapeutics for alleviating VMS; however, these therapies may (...) increases in serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a key region of the brain involved in temperature regulation. These preclinical studies provide evidence that DVS directly impacts thermoregulatory dysfunction in OVX rats and may have utility in alleviating VMS associated with menopause.

2007 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

10629. Norepinephrine increases glucose transport in brown adipocytes via beta3-adrenoceptors through a cAMP, PKA, and PI3-kinase-dependent pathway stimulating conventional and novel PKCs. (Full text)

Norepinephrine increases glucose transport in brown adipocytes via beta3-adrenoceptors through a cAMP, PKA, and PI3-kinase-dependent pathway stimulating conventional and novel PKCs. To identify the signaling pathways that mediate the adrenergic stimulation of glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue, we used mouse brown adipocytes in culture. The endogenous adrenergic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) induced 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake 3-fold in a concentration-dependent manner (pEC50

2004 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

10630. Spironolactone preserves cardiac norepinephrine reuptake in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. (Full text)

Spironolactone preserves cardiac norepinephrine reuptake in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. An impairment of cardiac norepinephrine (NE) reuptake via the neuronal NE transporter (NET) enhances the effects of increased cardiac NE release in heart failure patients. Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone and endothelins promote sympathetic overstimulation of failing hearts. Salt-sensitive Dahl rats (DS) fed a high-salt diet developed arterial hypertension and diastolic heart failure as well

2006 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

10631. Human skeletal muscle lipolysis is more responsive to epinephrine than to norepinephrine stimulation in vivo. (Full text)

Human skeletal muscle lipolysis is more responsive to epinephrine than to norepinephrine stimulation in vivo. Triglyceride (TG) deposits in skeletal muscle (SM) are an important energy reservoir, and increased im TG content is associated with muscle insulin resistance.The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of endogenous catecholamines on TG lipolysis in human SM in vivo. Adipose tissue (AT) was studied for comparison.Glycerol levels (index of lipolysis) were measured using (...) microdialysis in the gastrocnemius muscle and abdominal sc adipose tissue during a hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemic clamp (n = 13) and in response to in situ perfusion of epinephrine and norepinephrine (10(-10) to 10(-5) m) (n = 12). Local tissue blood flow was monitored with the ethanol perfusion technique.This was an experimental study.The study population consisted of healthy subjects.Plasma epinephrine increased 10-fold and plasma norepinephrine 2-fold in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia

2006 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism PubMed abstract

10632. Endothelin-1 inhibits the neuronal norepinephrine transporter in hearts of male rats. (Full text)

Endothelin-1 inhibits the neuronal norepinephrine transporter in hearts of male rats. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) potentiates norepinephrine (NE)-induced contractile responses. An impairment of cardiac NE re-uptake by the neuronal NE transporter (NET) contributes to an increased NE net release in failing hearts. We hypothesized that both phenomena are caused by ET-1-mediated inhibition of NET.[3H]-NE-uptake, electrical field stimulation-evoked NE overflow and left ventricular contractility (LV-dp/dt

2005 Cardiovascular Research PubMed abstract

10633. Extraneuronal enzymatic degradation of myocardial interstitial norepinephrine in the ischemic region. (Full text)

Extraneuronal enzymatic degradation of myocardial interstitial norepinephrine in the ischemic region. Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is believed to exert degradative action at high norepinephrine (NE) levels. Although COMT exists in cardiac tissues, the contribution of cardiac COMT activity to regional NE kinetics, particularly in ischemia-induced NE accumulation, remains unclear. We investigated the role of cardiac COMT in NE kinetics in the ischemic region.We implanted a microdialysis

2004 Cardiovascular Research PubMed abstract

10634. Cardiac overexpression of the norepinephrine transporter uptake-1 results in marked improvement of heart failure. (Full text)

Cardiac overexpression of the norepinephrine transporter uptake-1 results in marked improvement of heart failure. A hyperadrenergic state is one of the key features of human and experimental heart failure. Decreased densities and activities of the presynaptic neuronal norepinephrine (NE) transporter uptake-1 occur both in patients and animal models. It is currently unclear to what extent the reduction of uptake-1 contributes to the deterioration of heart failure. Therefore, we investigated

2005 Circulation Research PubMed abstract

10635. Angiotensin II and norepinephrine release: interaction and effects on the heart. (Abstract)

Angiotensin II and norepinephrine release: interaction and effects on the heart. Angiotensin (Ang) II may enhance the influence of the sympathetic nervous system at various levels by facilitating norepinephrine (NE) release. We investigated whether such an interaction is evident in the human heart and whether it has an impact on left ventricular (LV) structure.Ang I and Ang II concentrations were determined in arterial and coronary sinus (CS) plasma samples in a group of normotensive (n = 10 (...) divided into two groups with either high or low CS Ang II concentration, cardiac NE spillover and LVMI did not differ between the two groups.These findings suggest a growth-promoting effect of increased cardiac sympathetic tone on cardiomyocytes in hypertensive patients, but do not support the notion of a significant role of Ang II for norepinephrine release and LV hypertrophy in the hypertensive human heart.

2005 Journal of Hypertension

10636. Cardiac uptake-1 inhibition by high circulating norepinephrine levels in patients with pheochromocytoma. (Full text)

Cardiac uptake-1 inhibition by high circulating norepinephrine levels in patients with pheochromocytoma. Neuronal reuptake (uptake-1) constitutes the main route of inactivation of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the heart and therefore contributes importantly to cardiac sympathetic neuroeffector function. In laboratory animals and in vitro preparations, half saturation of the transporter occurs at norepinephrine concentrations of 0.1 to 1 micromol/L. This study addressed (...) whether endogenous norepinephrine can attain high enough plasma concentrations in humans to inhibit cardiac uptake-1. Patients with increased plasma norepinephrine levels due to pheochromocytoma were assessed by 6-[18F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomography. Above an antecubital venous plasma concentration of 3 nmol/L (approximately 500 pg/mL), left ventricular myocardial 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity varied inversely with the logarithm of the plasma norepinephrine concentration (r

2004 Hypertension PubMed abstract

10637. Sympathetic augmentation in hypertension: role of nerve firing, norepinephrine reuptake, and Angiotensin neuromodulation. (Full text)

Sympathetic augmentation in hypertension: role of nerve firing, norepinephrine reuptake, and Angiotensin neuromodulation. There is growing evidence that essential hypertension is commonly neurogenic and is initiated and sustained by sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Potential mechanisms include increased central sympathetic outflow, altered norepinephrine (NE) neuronal reuptake, diminished arterial baroreflex dampening of sympathetic nerve traffic, and sympathetic neuromodulation

2004 Hypertension PubMed abstract

10638. Injection of nerve growth factor into stellate ganglia improves norepinephrine reuptake into failing hearts. (Full text)

Injection of nerve growth factor into stellate ganglia improves norepinephrine reuptake into failing hearts. An impairment of cardiac norepinephrine reuptake through the neuronal norepinephrine transporter promotes depletion of cardiac norepinephrine stores and local cardiac sympathetic activation in heart failure. Nerve growth factor regulates differentiation and survival of adult sympathetic cells and is decreased in failing hearts. We hypothesized that injection of nerve growth factor (...) into stellate ganglia normalizes cardiac norepinephrine homeostasis in experimental heart failure. Rats with transverse aortic constriction characterized by heart failure, depleted cardiac norepinephrine stores, and impaired cardiac norepinephrine reuptake were used as an experimental model. Nerve growth factor (20 microg) or saline was directly injected into left stellate ganglia 4 weeks after transverse aortic constriction. Thirty-two hours after injection, determinants of cardiac norepinephrine

2006 Hypertension PubMed abstract

10639. Magnesium inhibits norepinephrine release by blocking N-type calcium channels at peripheral sympathetic nerve endings. (Full text)

Magnesium inhibits norepinephrine release by blocking N-type calcium channels at peripheral sympathetic nerve endings. Although Mg2+ contributes to blood pressure regulation partly in terms of vasodilator action, its sympatholytic effect may also play an important role to control blood pressure. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effect of Mg2+ on sympathetic tone and blood pressure. We studied its actions on the blood pressure response to hydralazine, a direct vasodilator (...) +/-6 mm Hg, P<0.01) in response to spinal electrical stimulation. In the perfused mesenteric arteries system, norepinephrine release was significantly attenuated (51+/-2%, P<0.01) by high Mg2+ concentration solution (4.8 mmol/L) compared with normal Mg2+ solution (1.2 mmol/L). When we applied the perforated whole-cell patch clamp method to nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells, Mg2+ blocked voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The majority of the voltage-gated Ca2

2004 Hypertension PubMed abstract

10640. Norepinephrine-induced changes in cardiac transforming growth factor-beta isoform expression pattern of female and male rats. (Full text)

Norepinephrine-induced changes in cardiac transforming growth factor-beta isoform expression pattern of female and male rats. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a ubiquitous growth-regulating protein with an essential role in tissue repair and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). To better understand the role of different isoforms of TGF-beta in the cardiac remodeling process induced by norepinephrine (NE), the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 was studied

2004 Hypertension PubMed abstract

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