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Norepinephrine

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10581. Norepinephrine-evoked pain in fibromyalgia. A randomized pilot study [ISRCTN70707830]. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine-evoked pain in fibromyalgia. A randomized pilot study [ISRCTN70707830]. Fibromyalgia syndrome displays sympathetically maintained pain features such as frequent post-traumatic onset and stimuli-independent pain accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias. Heart rate variability studies showed that fibromyalgia patients have changes consistent with ongoing sympathetic hyperactivity. Norepinephrine-evoked pain test is used to assess sympathetically maintained pain syndromes. Our (...) objective was to define if fibromyalgia patients have norepinephrine-evoked pain.Prospective double blind controlled study.Twenty FM patients, and two age/sex matched control groups; 20 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 20 healthy controls. Ten micrograms of norepinephrine diluted in 0.1 ml of saline solution were injected in a forearm. The contrasting substance, 0.1 ml of saline solution alone, was injected in the opposite forearm. Maximum local pain elicited during the 5 minutes post-injection

2002 BMC musculoskeletal disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10582. The effects of candesartan on vascular responses to angiotensin II and norepinephrine in normal volunteers. (Abstract)

The effects of candesartan on vascular responses to angiotensin II and norepinephrine in normal volunteers. The effects of chronic administration of candesartan, 16 mg once-daily, to normal volunteers on cardiovascular responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and norepinephrine (NE) were examined. Fifteen healthy, non-smoking volunteers participated in a randomised, double-blind crossover study of two weeks of candesartan therapy, compared with two weeks of placebo. Blood pressure (BP) responses

2001 Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10583. Effects of sustained-release moxonidine, an imidazoline agonist, on plasma norepinephrine in patients with chronic heart failure. (Abstract)

Effects of sustained-release moxonidine, an imidazoline agonist, on plasma norepinephrine in patients with chronic heart failure. In chronic heart failure, sympathetic activation is increased. Moxonidine acts on central nervous system receptors to decrease sympathetic activation. We investigated the dose-response relationship of a new sustained-release (SR) preparation of moxonidine and the plasma concentration of norepinephrine in patients with chronic heart failure.A total of 268 patients (...) with chronic heart failure in NYHA functional class II to IV on optimal standard therapy were randomized to placebo or 1 of 5 doses of moxonidine SR: 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5 mg BID. After a dose-titration phase (7 weeks), patients were followed up for another 12 weeks at their maximally tolerated dose. Blood samples for plasma norepinephrine were collected at baseline and weekly during the initial 7 weeks, at week 19, and at the end of the study. At baseline and 7 and 19 weeks, sampling was also done 4

2002 Circulation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10584. Effects of epinephrine compared with the combination of dobutamine and norepinephrine on gastric perfusion in septic shock. (Abstract)

Effects of epinephrine compared with the combination of dobutamine and norepinephrine on gastric perfusion in septic shock. In septic shock, the alteration of the gut barrier contributes to the development of multiple organ failure. The aim of the study was to compare epinephrine with the combination of dobutamine and norepinephrine on gastric perfusion in patients with septic shock.In a prospective randomized study on 2 parallel groups, systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics (arterial and Swan (...) -Ganz catheters), gastric mucosal blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry technique), hepatic function (indocyanine green clearance), and blood gases were evaluated just before catecholamine infusion and when mean arterial pressure reached 70 to 80 mm Hg. Epinephrine or norepinephrine were titrated (from 0.1 microg/kg per minute, with 0.2 microg/kg per minute increases every 5 minutes). Dobutamine was continuously infused at 5 microg/kg per minute.Twenty-two patients were included (11 in each group

2002 Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10585. Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on hemodynamics, oxidative metabolism, and organ energetics in endotoxemic rats. (Abstract)

Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on hemodynamics, oxidative metabolism, and organ energetics in endotoxemic rats. To determine whether epinephrine increases lactate concentration in sepsis through hypoxia or through a particular thermogenic or metabolic pathway.Prospective, controlled experimental study in rats.Experimental laboratory in a university teaching hospital.Three groups of anesthetized, mechanically ventilated male Wistar rats received an intravenous infusion of 15 mg/kg (...) Escherichia coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Rats were treated after 90 min by epinephrine ( n=14), norepinephrine ( n=14), or hydroxyethyl starch ( n=14). Three groups of six rats served as time-matched control groups and received saline, epinephrine, or norepinephrine from 90 to 180 degrees min. Mean arterial pressure, aortic, renal, mesenteric and femoral blood flow, arterial blood gases, lactate, pyruvate, and nitrate were measured at baseline and 90 and 180 min after endotoxin challenge. At the end

2003 Intensive Care Medicine

10586. Lifetime burden of mood swings and activation of brain norepinephrine turnover in patients with treatment-refractory depressive illness. (Abstract)

Lifetime burden of mood swings and activation of brain norepinephrine turnover in patients with treatment-refractory depressive illness. We tested if duration and intensity of episodes in treatment-resistant affectively ill patients were related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites.In retrospective life charts were recorded every previous episode of 37 patients with severe treatment-refractory affective disorders. 'Accumulated burden of mood swings' (ABMS, sum (...) . Thus, a specific involvement of norepinephrine in the long-term burden of affective illness is a likely reality.

2003 Journal of Affective Disorders

10587. Combined infusion of epinephrine and norepinephrine during moderate exercise reproduces the glucoregulatory response of intense exercise. (Abstract)

Combined infusion of epinephrine and norepinephrine during moderate exercise reproduces the glucoregulatory response of intense exercise. Intense exercise (IE) (>80% O(2max)) causes a seven- to eightfold increase in glucose production (R(a)) and a fourfold increase in glucose uptake (R(d)), resulting in hyperglycemia, whereas moderate exercise (ME) causes both to double. If norepinephrine (NE) plus epinephrine (Epi) infusion during ME produces the plasma levels and R(a) of IE, this would prove

2003 Diabetes

10588. Norepinephrine for hypotensive vasodilatation after cardiac surgery: impact on renal function. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine for hypotensive vasodilatation after cardiac surgery: impact on renal function. Norepinephrine use in patients after cardiac surgery is controversial because of the fear that norepinephrine might decrease kidney function through regional vasoconstriction. Accordingly, we studied the renal effects of norepinephrine use for hypotensive vasodilatation after cardiac surgery.Retrospective controlled study in the cardiothoracic ICU of tertiary hospital. PATIENTS. 100 cardiac surgery (...) patients with post-operative hypotensive vasodilatation and 100 control cardiac surgery patients.Treatment of hypotension (MAP<70 mmHg) with continuous norepinephrine infusion.We collected data on demographic and surgical characteristics, haemodynamics, serum creatinine and mortality. Just after surgery the norepinephrine group had a significantly higher mean central venous pressure, lower mean arterial pressure, and lower systemic vascular resistance index with a similarly elevated mean cardiac index

2003 Intensive Care Medicine

10589. Norepinephrine and vital organ blood flow during experimental hyperdynamic sepsis. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine and vital organ blood flow during experimental hyperdynamic sepsis. To study the effect of norepinephrine (NE) infusion on cerebral, coronary, renal and mesenteric blood flow during sepsis.Randomised placebo-controlled animal trial in the animal laboratory of university physiology institute.Seven merino cross-ewes.Chronic implantation of flow probes (aorta, renal, mesenteric and coronary artery and sagittal sinus). Induction of sepsis by intravenous bolus of E. coli (3 x 10(9

2003 Intensive Care Medicine

10590. Effects of early and late intravenous norepinephrine infusion on cerebral perfusion, microcirculation, brain-tissue oxygenation, and edema formation in brain-injured rats. (Abstract)

Effects of early and late intravenous norepinephrine infusion on cerebral perfusion, microcirculation, brain-tissue oxygenation, and edema formation in brain-injured rats. Reduction of cerebral perfusion during the early phase after traumatic brain injury is followed by a later phase of normal to increased perfusion. Thus, pharmacologically elevating mean arterial blood pressure with the aim of improving cerebral perfusion may exert different time-dependent effects on cortical perfusion (...) , microcirculation, tissue oxygenation and brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury.Randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Experimental laboratory at a university hospital.A total of 37 male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a focal cortical contusion.At 4 or 24 hrs after focal traumatic brain injury, mean arterial blood pressure was increased to 120 mm Hg for 90 mins by infusing norepinephrine. In rats receiving physiologic saline, mean arterial blood pressure remained unchanged. In the first series

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10591. High-dose vasopressin is not superior to norepinephrine in septic shock. (Abstract)

High-dose vasopressin is not superior to norepinephrine in septic shock. We examined the effects of arginine vasopressin, when substituted for norepinephrine as a vasopressor in septic shock, on global and hepatosplanchnic hemodynamic and oxygen transport variables.Experimental study.Intensive care unit.Twelve septic shock patients.Norepinephrine was replaced by vasopressin in a dose sufficient to keep mean arterial blood pressure constant. Blood flow, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption (...) of the hepatosplanchnic region (calculated by a hepatic venous catheter technique using the Fick principle during continuous infusion of indocyanine green), global hemodynamics (by thermodilution), and gastric regional PCO2 gap (by air tonometry) were calculated during infusion of norepinephrine (mean, 0.56 microg.kg-1.min-1; range, 0.18-1.1 microg.kg-1.min-1) and again 2 hrs after replacement by vasopressin (mean, 0.47 IU/min; range, 0.06-1.8 IU/min).Cardiac index decreased significantly from 3.8 +/- 1.3 to 3.0

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10592. Intrarenal blood flow distribution in hyperdynamic septic shock: Effect of norepinephrine. (Abstract)

Intrarenal blood flow distribution in hyperdynamic septic shock: Effect of norepinephrine. To measure changes in medullary and cortical renal blood flow during experimental hyperdynamic sepsis and the effect of subsequent norepinephrine infusion on such flows. DESIGN Experimental animal study.Animal laboratory of university-affiliated physiology institute. SUBJECTS Eighteen anesthetized merino sheep.A transit-time flow probe was placed around the left renal artery. Laser Doppler flow probes (...) were inserted in the left renal medulla and cortex by micromanipulation to measure changes in regional intrarenal blood flow.Systemic pressures, cardiac output, renal, and intrarenal blood flows were measured continuously. A bolus of Escherichia coli (7.5 x 10(9) colony forming units) was given intravenously to induce hyperdynamic sepsis. After the onset of hyperdynamic sepsis, all animals were randomly allocated to either norepinephrine (0.4 microg.kg-1.min-1 for 30 mins) or observation for 30

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10593. Norepinephrine inhibits the pelvic pressure increase in response to flow perfusion. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine inhibits the pelvic pressure increase in response to flow perfusion. We evaluated the effects of norepinephrine on transport pressures in the normal upper urinary tract of the pig during increasing perfusion rates.Anesthetized Danish landrace Yorkshire pigs weighing 38 to 40 kg were studied. Transparenchymally 2, 6Fr catheters were introduced into the left renal pelvis for pressure measurements and perfusion, respectively. An ultrasonic flow probe was inserted around the left (...) renal artery to record blood flow. A 10Fr catheter was placed transurethrally for bladder drainage and the bladder was maintained empty during the entire study. In the 5 group 1 pigs the pelvic pressure increase was examined at increasing perfusion rates of the renal pelvis (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 ml per minute) in response to endoluminal administration of increasing concentrations of norepinephrine (0, 5, 50 and 100 microg/ml) in saline. In the 5 group 2 pigs the pressure flow study was also done 4

2003 Journal of Urology

10594. Norepinephrine activates P44 and P42 MAPK in human prostate stromal and smooth muscle cells but not in epithelial cells. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine activates P44 and P42 MAPK in human prostate stromal and smooth muscle cells but not in epithelial cells. In vascular smooth muscle cells, alpha1-adrenergic stimulation increases DNA synthesis and cell proliferation via activation of p44/42 (ERK1/2) MAPK. We examined whether norepinephrine (NE) activates MAPK and stimulates the proliferation of prostatic epithelial and non-epithelial cells.Human prostatic epithelial cells, stromal cells, and smooth muscle cells were purchased

2003 Prostate

10595. Androgen-induced norepinephrine release mediating guinea pig seminal vesicle smooth muscle proliferation: potential role of pre-synaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors. (Abstract)

Androgen-induced norepinephrine release mediating guinea pig seminal vesicle smooth muscle proliferation: potential role of pre-synaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that androgen-induced basal norepinephrine (NE) release is responsible for the onset of proliferation in seminal vesicle smooth muscle (SVM) cells during early puberty. With subsequent sexual maturation, SVM was irreversibly differentiated to an androgen-resistant-amitotic state

2003 Prostate

10596. Prolonged activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons by morphine withdrawal following clonidine: participation of imidazoline and norepinephrine receptors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prolonged activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons by morphine withdrawal following clonidine: participation of imidazoline and norepinephrine receptors. The alpha2 adrenoceptor (alpha2R) agonist clonidine is used as a treatment for heroin addiction. Substantial evidence indicates that dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems have key roles in opiate dependence and withdrawal but the possible interactions between these two pathways remain unclear. The objective of this study was to establish

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology

10597. Investigation of epistasis between the serotonin transporter and norepinephrine transporter genes in anorexia nervosa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Investigation of epistasis between the serotonin transporter and norepinephrine transporter genes in anorexia nervosa. Weight-restored patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) respond favorably to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, which justifies association studies of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, alias SERT) and AN. Case-control studies suggest that the least transcriptionally active allele of the SERT gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has an increased frequency (...) BMI. We then performed the first reported investigation of epistasis between the SERT gene and norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2, alias NET) in AN, as an earlier study suggested that atypical AN responds to the dual serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine. We observed no epistasis between the 5-HTTLPR and a polymorphism within the NET gene promoter polymorphic region (NETpPR) (chi(2)=0.48, df=1, p=0.490). Although 5-HTTLPR modulates serotonin reuptake by the serotonin

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology

10598. Group II mGlu receptor activation suppresses norepinephrine release in the ventral hippocampus and locomotor responses to acute ketamine challenge. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Group II mGlu receptor activation suppresses norepinephrine release in the ventral hippocampus and locomotor responses to acute ketamine challenge. Group II mGlu receptor agonists (eg LY379268 and LY354740) have been shown to reverse many of the behavioral responses to PCP as well as glutamate release elicited by PCP and ketamine. In the present set of experiments, we used in vivo microdialysis to show that, in addition to reversing PCP- and ketamine-evoked glutamate release, group II mGlu (...) receptor stimulation also prevents ketamine-evoked norepinephrine (NE) release. Pretreating animals with the mixed 2/3 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist LY379268 (0.3-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited ketamine (25 mg/kg)-evoked NE release in the ventral hippocampus (VHipp). Ketamine hyperactivity was also reduced in a similar dose range. Following our initial observation on NE release, we conducted a series of microinjection experiments to reveal that the inhibitory effects

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology

10599. Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The selective norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitor atomoxetine (formerly called tomoxetine or LY139603) has been shown to alleviate symptoms in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We investigated the mechanism of action of atomoxetine in ADHD by evaluating the interaction of atomoxetine

2002 Neuropsychopharmacology

10600. Norepinephrine but not serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance theta and gamma activity of the septo-hippocampal system. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine but not serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance theta and gamma activity of the septo-hippocampal system. Current neurobiological concepts attribute a central role of the hippocampal formation in cognitive and affective processes. Recent studies indicate that the hippocampus is affected in human depression, and antidepressant drugs induce hippocampal adaptive changes that are thought to be associated with their therapeutic action. In the present study, we investigated the action (...) of various antidepressant drugs on the activity of the septo-hippocampal system, its oscillatory activity in particular. The acute effects of the norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitors reboxetine and desipramine, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine were evaluated. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBv), with simultaneous hippocampal EEG recordings of anesthetized rats. Systemic administration of reboxetine

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology

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