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Norepinephrine

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10541. Ejection fraction, peak exercise oxygen consumption, cardiothoracic ratio, ventricular arrhythmias, and plasma norepinephrine as determinants of prognosis in heart failure. The V-HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group. (Abstract)

Ejection fraction, peak exercise oxygen consumption, cardiothoracic ratio, ventricular arrhythmias, and plasma norepinephrine as determinants of prognosis in heart failure. The V-HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group. Recognition of the complex pathophysiology of heart failure and its high mortality has emphasized the need for prognostic markers that can be used in clinical assessment as well as in the design of mortality trials. Data from the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Vasodilator (...) -ray, ventricular arrhythmias assessed in a core laboratory by short-term Holter monitoring, plasma norepinephrine and plasma renin activity measured in a core laboratory only in V-HeFT II, and a variety of diagnostic and demographic data. The variables related only weakly to each other. EF, VO2, and CTR were powerful independent predictors of all-cause mortality in both studies. Ventricular arrhythmia was a significant independent predictor in V-HeFT II but not in V-HeFT I. Plasma norepinephrine

1993 Circulation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10542. Norepinephrine or dopamine for the treatment of hyperdynamic septic shock? (Abstract)

Norepinephrine or dopamine for the treatment of hyperdynamic septic shock? To compare the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to reverse hemodynamic and metabolic abnormalities of human hyperdynamic septic shock.Prospective, double-blind, randomized trial.An ICU in a university hospital.Adult patients with hyperdynamic septic shock after fluid resuscitation.Patients were assigned to receive either dopamine (2.5 to 25 micrograms/kg/min) or norepinephrine (0.5 to 5.0 micrograms/kg/min (...) percent) were successfully treated, as compared with 15 of 16 patients (93 percent) by norepinephrine at a dose of 1.5 +/- 1.2 micrograms/kg/min (p < 0.001). Ten of 11 patients who did not respond to dopamine and remained hypotensive and oliguric were successfully treated with the addition of norepinephrine.At the doses tested, norepinephrine was found, in the present study, to be more effective and reliable than dopamine to reverse the abnormalities of hyperdynamic septic shock. In the great majority

1993 Chest Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10543. Effect of digitalis on norepinephrine kinetics in congestive heart failure. (Abstract)

Effect of digitalis on norepinephrine kinetics in congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that digitalis glycosides would reduce sympathetic activity as reflected by forearm venous norepinephrine kinetics in patients with congestive heart failure.Digitalis glycosides have been reported to decrease sympathetic nervous system activity with baroreceptor sensitization in experimental animals. Such effects could be of therapeutic importance in congestive heart (...) failure.Double-blind randomized assessment was made of the effects of low dose intravenous deslanoside (Cedilanid-D, 0.002 mg/kg body weight) and vehicle on heart rate, arterial pressure, forearm blood flow, plasma norepinephrine, norepinephrine clearance and norepinephrine spillover in nine patients with stable congestive heart failure, New York Heart Association functional class II or III. Open label assessment of the responses to 0.6 mg of deslanoside was made in an overlapping group of seven patients

1992 Journal of the American College of Cardiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10544. Effects of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine infusions on oxygen consumption in volunteers. (Abstract)

Effects of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine infusions on oxygen consumption in volunteers. To determine the relationships between plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine and oxygen consumption (VO2) during infusion of these catecholamines.Prospective, randomized variable dose, pharmacologic study in which a noncumulative infusion-rate design was used.Laboratory of the Department of Anesthesiology at a University Hospital.Twenty-one normal volunteers.After (...) a control period of 20 mins, norepinephrine (three infusion rates; 0.06 to 0.2 microgram/kg/min; n = 7), epinephrine (four infusion rates; 0.02 to 0.2 microgram/kg/min; n = 7), or dopamine (three infusion rates; 3 to 12 micrograms/kg/min; n = 7) was administered to normal volunteers (n = 21) for the purpose of constructing plasma concentration/VO2 response curves.Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, and VO2 were measured

1993 Critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10545. Psychological, cardiovascular, and endocrine changes during 6 hours of continuous infusion of epinephrine or norepinephrine in healthy volunteers. (Abstract)

Psychological, cardiovascular, and endocrine changes during 6 hours of continuous infusion of epinephrine or norepinephrine in healthy volunteers. Psychological, cardiovascular, endocrine, and metabolic reactions to a sustained infusion of epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) were studied in 10 healthy male volunteers in a placebo-controlled randomized design. The subjects participated each in three sessions during which they received 6-hr infusion of either E (82 pmol/kg/min), NE (178 pmol (...) increases in heart rate, plasma insulin, and glucose levels, and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and diastolic pressure (DAP). NE infusion caused a 5-fold arterial plasma norepinephrine increase and induced a significant decrease in heart rate and increases in MAP, DAP, and glucose levels. The effects were present shortly after initiation of the infusions, remained fairly constant during the 6-hr infusion period and disappeared within 1 hr after the infusions had been stopped. Changes

1993 Psychosomatic Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10546. Functional interrelationship of serotonin and norepinephrine: cortisol response to MCPP and DMI in patients with panic disorder, patients with depression, and normal control subjects. (Abstract)

Functional interrelationship of serotonin and norepinephrine: cortisol response to MCPP and DMI in patients with panic disorder, patients with depression, and normal control subjects. The relationship between norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) functioning was explored in a neuroendocrine challenge paradigm. Ten normal control subjects, 17 patients with major depression, and 22 patients with panic disorder volunteered to participate in this study. Each subject received

1992 Psychiatry research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10547. Effects of sodium salts on plasma renin activity and norepinephrine response to orthostasis in salt-sensitive normotensive subjects. (Abstract)

Effects of sodium salts on plasma renin activity and norepinephrine response to orthostasis in salt-sensitive normotensive subjects. The blood pressure-raising effect of sodium chloride in salt-sensitive individuals depends on the administration of both sodium and chloride. While sodium chloride is well known to suppress the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and the sympathetic nervous system, the effects of nonchloride sodium salts on the response of these systems to physiological (...) or sodium citrate, or a placebo, was added for 1 week each. We found that sodium chloride raised blood pressure in the salt-sensitive subjects (P < .005), while sodium citrate did not. Both salts, however, led to a similar suppression of the plasma levels of renin activity, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and norepinephrine (P < .01). Both sodium salts attenuated the renin response to orthostasis in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant individuals (P < .01), but the orthostasis-induced rise in renin activity

1993 American journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10548. Risperidone-induced increase of plasma norepinephrine is not correlated with symptom improvement in chronic schizophrenia. (Abstract)

Risperidone-induced increase of plasma norepinephrine is not correlated with symptom improvement in chronic schizophrenia. Previous studies have shown an increase in plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE) after clozapine treatment of schizophrenia. This effect has been suggested to relate to improvement in symptoms.To test whether other novel antipsychotic drugs have such an effect, the present experiment examined schizophrenic symptoms and plasma levels of NE before and after 5 weeks

1999 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10549. Dissociation of vascular tolerance and plasma norepinephrine adjustment during long-term nitrate therapy in human coronary arteries. (Abstract)

Dissociation of vascular tolerance and plasma norepinephrine adjustment during long-term nitrate therapy in human coronary arteries. We examined whether changes in plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration contribute to the development of nitrate tolerance in human coronary arteries.Patients with stable angina were randomized to receiving nitrate (isosorbide dinitrate: ISDN or nitroglycerin: TNG) infusion for 30 minutes (group A), 48 hours (group B), or 78 hours (group C). Coronary diameters

1999 Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10550. Increased norepinephrine levels during catheterization in patients with spinal cord injury. (Abstract)

Increased norepinephrine levels during catheterization in patients with spinal cord injury. The hypothesis for this study was that catecholamine levels increase during urinary catheterization in human patients with spinal cord injury. Catecholamine levels, blood pressure, and pulse were measured prospectively in 40 subjects at baseline and during urinary catheterization. Results showed a significant increase in norepinephrine levels from baseline 245 +/- 240 pg (standard deviation (SD)) to 314 (...) t test). In conclusion, norepinephrine levels increased during catheterization in patients with spinal cord injury. Knowledge of catecholamine levels in this process may assist in determining both pathophysiology and potential pharmacologic treatment options in future studies.

1999 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10551. Pharmacokinetics and safety of duloxetine, a dual-serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. (Abstract)

Pharmacokinetics and safety of duloxetine, a dual-serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The pharmacokinetics and safety of duloxetine were evaluated in a single-blind, placebo-controlled, escalating multiple-dose study in 12 healthy male subjects. In the treatment group (n = 8), duloxetine was administered orally at a starting dose of 20 mg twice daily (bid) and escalated at weekly intervals to 30 mg bid, then to 40 mg bid. The observed plasma concentration-time data at all three

2000 Journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10552. Comparison of systemic and regional effects of dobutamine and dopexamine in norepinephrine-treated septic shock. (Abstract)

Comparison of systemic and regional effects of dobutamine and dopexamine in norepinephrine-treated septic shock. To compare the effects of dobutamine and dopexamine on systemic hemodynamics, lactate metabolism, renal function and the intramucosal-arterial PCO(2) gap in norepinephrine-treated septic shock.A prospective, interventional, randomized clinical trial.Adult medical/surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital.After volume resuscitation, 24 patients were treated (...) with norepinephrine alone titrated to obtain a mean arterial pressure of 75 mmHg and a cardiac index greater than 3. 5 l/min(-1). m(-2).Patients were randomized to receive an infusion of dobutamine (n = 12) (5 microg/kg per min) or dopexamine (n = 12) (1 microg/kg per min).Baseline measurements included: hemodynamic parameters, renal parameters (diuresis, creatinine clearance and urinary sodium excretion), gastric mucosal-arterial PCO(2) gap, arterial and mixed venous gases and arterial lactate and pyruvate

1999 Intensive Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10553. The effects of moxonidine, a novel imidazoline, on plasma norepinephrine in patients with congestive heart failure. Moxonidine Investigators. (Abstract)

The effects of moxonidine, a novel imidazoline, on plasma norepinephrine in patients with congestive heart failure. Moxonidine Investigators. To evaluate the dose response relationship of moxonidine on plasma concentration of norepinephrine during acute and chronic administration in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).Sympathetic activation is increased in heart failure. Moxonidine is an imidazoline ligand acting on the central nervous system (CNS) receptors to decrease sympathetic (...) blood samples were drawn.There was a significant dose-related decrease of systolic blood pressure across all three study days. Heart rate decreased significantly on study day 3 in a dose-related manner. The acute 2 h decrease in plasma norepinephrine in response to all three doses of moxonidine was significantly different compared with placebo after four and 12 weeks. There was a significant linear relation between dose and plasma norepinephrine after four and 12 weeks in both 2 h peak and the time

2000 Journal of the American College of Cardiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10554. Toward a neuropsychological theory of antidepressant drug action: increase in positive emotional bias after potentiation of norepinephrine activity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Toward a neuropsychological theory of antidepressant drug action: increase in positive emotional bias after potentiation of norepinephrine activity. Antidepressants that increase serotonin or norepinephrine in the brain are effective in treating depression, but there is no neuropsychological account of how these changes relieve depressive states. Cognitive theories suggest that biases in information processing lead depressed patients to make unrealistically negative judgments about themselves

2003 American Journal of Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10555. Effects of enalaprilat on venoconstriction to norepinephrine: role of prostaglandins. (Abstract)

Effects of enalaprilat on venoconstriction to norepinephrine: role of prostaglandins. Most patients with cardiovascular disease continue to receive both aspirin and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. This is despite the fact that ACE inhibition also inhibits the enzyme kininase II and leads to accumulation of bradykinin which increases prostaglandins. We hypothesized that in normal veins, vasodilator prostaglandins contribute significantly to ACE inhibitor dilation (...) of norepinephrine-induced venoconstriction, and this would be blocked by cyclooxygenase inhibition.The study was performed using the in vivo dorsal hand vein technique for measuring vascular responses directly. Venoconstriction to norepinephrine infusions (0.5-1024 ng/min) was assessed in eight normal subjects (46+/-5 years, mean+/-S.E.M.) during coinfusion of saline in one hand (control) and enalaprilat (1000 microg/min) in the contralateral hand. On a second morning (7+/-1 days apart, mean+/-S.E.M., random

2003 Cardiovascular research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10556. Experimental hyperkalaemia in rabbits: effects of salbutamol and norepinephrine treatments on blood biochemistry and electrocardiography. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Experimental hyperkalaemia in rabbits: effects of salbutamol and norepinephrine treatments on blood biochemistry and electrocardiography. The effects of salbutamol and norepinephrine on the electrocardiogram (ECG), serum potassium level and enzyme activities were studied in rabbits with hyperkalaemia; norepinephrine and salbutamol may be therapeutically useful. For induction of hyperkalaemia, 300 mM KCl solution was used and then isotonic saline solution containing 6 microg salbutamol and 3.9 (...) microg norepinephrine per ml were administered. Norepinephrine and salbutamol decreased the serum potassium from 7.36 +/- 0.26 and 7.21 +/- 0.31 mmol/L to 5.62 +/- 0.27 and 4.35 +/- 0.33 mmol/L, respectively, and caused the ECG changes (flatness of P wave, widening of QRS complex and bradycardia) to return to the control conditions (time 0). Norepinephrine, but not salbutamol, decreased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH

2003 Acta veterinaria Hungarica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10557. Terlipressin versus norepinephrine to correct refractory arterial hypotension after general anesthesia in patients chronically treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. (Abstract)

Terlipressin versus norepinephrine to correct refractory arterial hypotension after general anesthesia in patients chronically treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. Terlipressin, a precursor that is metabolized to lysine-vasopressin, has been proposed as a drug for treatment of intraoperative arterial hypotension refractory to ephedrine in patients who have received long-term treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. The authors compared the effectiveness of terlipressin (...) and norepinephrine to correct hypotension in these patients.Among 42 patients scheduled for elective carotid endarterectomy, 20 had arterial hypotension following general anesthesia that was refractory to ephedrine. These patients were the basis of the study. After randomization, they received either 1 mg intravenous terlipressin (n = 10) or norepinephrine infusion (n = 10). Beat-by-beat recordings of systolic arterial blood pressure and heart rate were stored on a computer. The intraoperative maximum

2003 Anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10558. Effects of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine on the splanchnic circulation in septic shock: which is best? (Abstract)

Effects of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine on the splanchnic circulation in septic shock: which is best? To assess the effects of different doses of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine on the splanchnic circulation in patients with septic shock.Prospective, randomized, open-label study.A 31-bed, medicosurgical intensive care unit of a university hospital.Convenience sample of 20 patients with septic shock, separated into two groups according to whether (moderate shock group, n (...) = 10) or not (severe shock, n = 10) dopamine alone was able maintain mean arterial pressure >65 mm Hg.Dopamine was progressively withdrawn and replaced successively by norepinephrine and then epinephrine (the order of the two agents was randomly determined) to maintain mean arterial pressure constant (moderate shock) or to increase mean arterial pressure above 65 mm Hg (severe shock).Systemic circulation (pulmonary artery catheter) and splanchnic circulation (indocyanine green dilution and hepatic

2003 Critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10559. Selective impairment in sympathetic vasomotor control with norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selective impairment in sympathetic vasomotor control with norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition increases the responsiveness to vasoactive medications and attenuates the response to sympathetic stimuli. The phenomenon may be a result of impaired regulation of sympathetic vasomotor tone.We studied the effects of the selective NET blocker reboxetine and placebo on baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) and sympathetic traffic in a randomized, double

2003 Circulation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10560. Duloxetine increases serotonin and norepinephrine availability in healthy subjects: a double-blind, controlled study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Duloxetine increases serotonin and norepinephrine availability in healthy subjects: a double-blind, controlled study. Evidence suggests that compounds that increase the synaptic availability of more than one neurotransmitter have greater efficacy in the treatment of depression than single-acting drugs. Preclinical studies indicate that duloxetine acts to inhibit serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) transporters. The ability of duloxetine to alter 5-HT and NE reuptake was tested in 12

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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