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Norepinephrine

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10541. The involvement of norepinephrine, neuropeptide Y, and nitric oxide in the cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating in humans Full Text available with Trip Pro

The involvement of norepinephrine, neuropeptide Y, and nitric oxide in the cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating in humans Presynaptic blockade of cutaneous vasoconstrictor nerves (VCN) abolishes the axon reflex (AR) during slow local heating (SLH) and reduces the vasodilator response. In a two-part study, forearm sites were instrumented with microdialysis fibers, local heaters, and laser-Doppler flow probes. Sites were locally heated from 33 to 40 degrees C over 70 min. In part 1, we (...) tested whether this effect of VCN acted via nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In five subjects, treatments were as follows: 1) untreated; 2) bretylium, preventing neurotransmitter release; 3) N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to inhibit NOS; and 4) combined bretylium + L-NAME. At treated sites, the AR was absent, and there was an attenuation of the ultimate vasodilation (P < 0.05), which was not different among those sites (P > 0.05). In part 2, we tested whether norepinephrine

2008 Journal of Applied Physiology

10542. Nitric oxide inhibits cutaneous vasoconstriction to exogenous norepinephrine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nitric oxide inhibits cutaneous vasoconstriction to exogenous norepinephrine Previously, we found that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness evoked by whole body cooling, as well as an orthostatic stress in the heat-stressed human (Shibasaki M, Durand S, Davis SL, Cui J, Low DA, Keller DM, Crandall CG. J Physiol 585: 627-634, 2007). However, it remains unknown whether this response occurs via NO acting through presynaptic or postsynaptic mechanisms. The aim (...) concentrations of norepinephrine (1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-2) M) were administrated through both microdialysis probes, while the aforementioned vasodilator agents continued to be perfused. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated by dividing skin blood flow by mean arterial blood pressure. The administration of norepinephrine decreased cutaneous vascular conductance at both sites. However, the dose of norepinephrine at the onset of vasoconstriction (-5.9 +/- 1.3 vs. -7.2 +/- 0.7 log M norepinephrine, P

2008 Journal of Applied Physiology

10543. Norepinephrine is co-released with serotonin in mouse taste buds Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine is co-released with serotonin in mouse taste buds ATP and serotonin (5-HT) are neurotransmitters secreted from taste bud receptor (type II) and presynaptic (type III) cells, respectively. Norepinephrine (NE) has also been proposed to be a neurotransmitter or paracrine hormone in taste buds. Yet, to date, the specific stimulus for NE release in taste buds is not well understood, and the identity of the taste cells that secrete NE is not known. Chinese hamster ovary cells were

2008 The Journal of Neuroscience

10544. A Review of the Neuropharmacology of Bupropion, a Dual Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Review of the Neuropharmacology of Bupropion, a Dual Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor BACKGROUND: The neurochemical and biological effects of antidepressant medications have become better defined over the last decade. When the anti-depressant bupropion was introduced in the United States in 1989, the specific pharmacologic basis of its clinical effects was uncertain. Research conducted over the past decade has significantly advanced the understanding of the neuropharmacology (...) : The preclinical and clinical data show that bupropion acts via dual inhibition of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake and is devoid of clinically significant serotonergic effects or direct effects on postsynaptic receptors. Dual norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibition is associated with a unique clinical profile. Bupropion has demonstrated efficacy comparable to that of other antidepressants. However, because bupropion is a selective norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor with no serotonergic

2004 Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

10545. Impact of substance P receptor antagonism on the serotonin and norepinephrine systems: relevance to the antidepressant/anxiolytic response Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of substance P receptor antagonism on the serotonin and norepinephrine systems: relevance to the antidepressant/anxiolytic response Substance P (neurokinin-1 [NK1]) receptor antagonists appear to be effective antidepressant and anxiolytic agents, as indicated in 3 double-blind clinical trials. In laboratory animals, they promptly attenuate the responsiveness of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and norepinephrine (NE) neurons to agonists of their cell-body autoreceptors

2004 Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience

10546. Treatment of depression and menopause-related symptoms with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine. (Abstract)

Treatment of depression and menopause-related symptoms with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine. Postmenopausal women with depression frequently have co-occurring symptoms of hot flashes (vasomotor symptoms), sleep disturbance, anxiety, and pain. Treatment strategies that target all of these symptoms together have not been investigated to date.Study participants were postmenopausal women, 40 to 60 years old, with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria) and vasomotor

2007 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

10547. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dopamine and norepinephrine in critically ill head-injured patients. (Abstract)

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dopamine and norepinephrine in critically ill head-injured patients. To explore the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dopamine and norepinephrine.Prospective, controlled, trial.Neurosciences critical care unit.Eight patients with a head injury, requiring dopamine or norepinephrine infusions to support cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP).Patients received in randomised order, either dopamine or norepinephrine to achieve and maintain a CPP of 70 mmHg (...) , and then, following a 30-min period of stable haemodynamics, a CPP of 90 mmHg. Data were then acquired using the second agent. Haemodynamic measurements were made during each period and a blood sample was obtained at the end of each study period for analysis of plasma catecholamine concentrationsPlasma levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were significantly related to infusion rates but did not have a simple linear relationship to haemodynamic parameters. However, there was a significant quadratic relationship

2004 Intensive Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10548. Combining norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibition mechanisms for treatment of depression: a double-blind, randomized study. (Abstract)

Combining norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibition mechanisms for treatment of depression: a double-blind, randomized study. Although several antidepressants are now available, all have limited efficacy and a delayed onset of action. The current study was undertaken as a proof of the concept that combining norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibition would be more effective and act more rapidly than either drug alone.Inpatients with nonpsychotic unipolar major depression

2004 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10549. Effect of norepinephrine on cefpirome tissue concentrations in healthy subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of norepinephrine on cefpirome tissue concentrations in healthy subjects. To test whether norepinephrine (NOR) affects tissue microcirculation and impairs plasma-to-tissue equilibration of antimicrobial agents.Eight healthy male volunteers were enrolled to an analyst-blinded, randomized, two-period two-sequence crossover study. A single intravenous dose of 2 g of cefpirome was administered simultaneously with starting a continuous infusion of NOR (0.16 microg/kg per min) or placebo (PL

2004 The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10550. Terlipressin for norepinephrine-resistant septic shock. (Abstract)

Terlipressin for norepinephrine-resistant septic shock. Norepinephrine-resistant hypotension when associated with septic shock has a high rate of mortality, which might possibly be reduced by infusion of low-dose vasopressin. However, rebound hypotension often arises after treatment is stopped, and the drug usually has to be administered for several days. We report use of terlipressin, a long-acting vasopressin analogue, in eight patients with septic shock who did not respond to corticosteroids (...) and methylene blue. A significant rise in blood pressure that lasted for at least 5 h was seen in all patients after a single bolus, allowing reduction or cessation of norepinephrine administration in seven patients. We were able to discharge four patients from intensive care subsequently. Terlipressin seems to be an effective rescue therapy, which is able to restore blood pressure in patients with catecholamine-resistant septic shock, without obvious complication.

2002 Lancet

10551. A randomized clinical trial of high-dose epinephrine and norepinephrine vs standard-dose epinephrine in prehospital cardiac arrest. (Abstract)

A randomized clinical trial of high-dose epinephrine and norepinephrine vs standard-dose epinephrine in prehospital cardiac arrest. To determine the relative efficacy of high- vs standard-dose catecholamines in initial treatment of prehospital cardiac arrest.Randomized, prospective, double-blind clinical trial.Prehospital emergency medical system of a major US city.All adults in nontraumatic cardiac arrest, treated by paramedics, who would receive epinephrine according to American Heart (...) Association advanced cardiac life support guidelines.High-dose epinephrine (HDE, 15 mg), high-dose norepinephrine bitartrate (NE, 11 mg), or standard-dose epinephrine (SDE, 1 mg) was blindly substituted for advanced cardiac life support doses of epinephrine.Restoration of spontaneous circulation in the field, admission to hospital, hospital discharge, and Cerebral Performance Category score.Of 2694 patients with cardiac arrests during the study period, resuscitation was attempted on 1062 patients

1992 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

10552. The contrasting effects of dopamine and norepinephrine on systemic and splanchnic oxygen utilization in hyperdynamic sepsis. (Abstract)

The contrasting effects of dopamine and norepinephrine on systemic and splanchnic oxygen utilization in hyperdynamic sepsis. To compare the effects of dopamine and norepinephrine on systemic and splanchnic oxygen utilization in patients with hyperdynamic sepsis.A randomized short-term, interventional study.An intensive care unit of a university hospital.Twenty septic patients with a cardiac index greater than 3.2 L-min-1.m-2 and either a mean arterial pressure (MAP) less than 60 mm Hg (...) or a systemic vascular resistance index less than 1200 dyne.s.cm-5.m-2.Patients were randomized to receive an infusion of either dopamine or norepinephrine titrated to increase the MAP to greater than 75 mm Hg. The hemodynamic profile, oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption (determined by indirect calorimetry), and gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) (determined by gastric tonometry) were determined at baseline and after 3 hours of achieving the target MAP.Dopamine increased the MAP largely by increasing the cardiac

1994 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10553. The 24 h urinary cortisol/cortisone ratio and epinephrine/norepinephrine ratio for monitoring training in young female tennis players. (Abstract)

The 24 h urinary cortisol/cortisone ratio and epinephrine/norepinephrine ratio for monitoring training in young female tennis players. The effect of training variations on the 24 h urinary cortisol/cortisone (C/Cn) ratio and the epinephrine/norepinephrine (E/NE) ratio in relation with mood (evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale: BRUMS) and performance was investigated in seven trained young female tennis players (12.8 +/- 1.7 years). Like the proposed model in adults, the monitoring of hormonal

2006 International Journal of Sports Medicine

10554. Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on hemodynamics, oxidative metabolism, and organ energetics in endotoxemic rats. (Abstract)

Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on hemodynamics, oxidative metabolism, and organ energetics in endotoxemic rats. To determine whether epinephrine increases lactate concentration in sepsis through hypoxia or through a particular thermogenic or metabolic pathway.Prospective, controlled experimental study in rats.Experimental laboratory in a university teaching hospital.Three groups of anesthetized, mechanically ventilated male Wistar rats received an intravenous infusion of 15 mg/kg (...) Escherichia coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Rats were treated after 90 min by epinephrine ( n=14), norepinephrine ( n=14), or hydroxyethyl starch ( n=14). Three groups of six rats served as time-matched control groups and received saline, epinephrine, or norepinephrine from 90 to 180 degrees min. Mean arterial pressure, aortic, renal, mesenteric and femoral blood flow, arterial blood gases, lactate, pyruvate, and nitrate were measured at baseline and 90 and 180 min after endotoxin challenge. At the end

2003 Intensive Care Medicine

10555. Lifetime burden of mood swings and activation of brain norepinephrine turnover in patients with treatment-refractory depressive illness. (Abstract)

Lifetime burden of mood swings and activation of brain norepinephrine turnover in patients with treatment-refractory depressive illness. We tested if duration and intensity of episodes in treatment-resistant affectively ill patients were related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites.In retrospective life charts were recorded every previous episode of 37 patients with severe treatment-refractory affective disorders. 'Accumulated burden of mood swings' (ABMS, sum (...) . Thus, a specific involvement of norepinephrine in the long-term burden of affective illness is a likely reality.

2003 Journal of Affective Disorders

10556. Combined infusion of epinephrine and norepinephrine during moderate exercise reproduces the glucoregulatory response of intense exercise. (Abstract)

Combined infusion of epinephrine and norepinephrine during moderate exercise reproduces the glucoregulatory response of intense exercise. Intense exercise (IE) (>80% O(2max)) causes a seven- to eightfold increase in glucose production (R(a)) and a fourfold increase in glucose uptake (R(d)), resulting in hyperglycemia, whereas moderate exercise (ME) causes both to double. If norepinephrine (NE) plus epinephrine (Epi) infusion during ME produces the plasma levels and R(a) of IE, this would prove

2003 Diabetes

10557. Norepinephrine for hypotensive vasodilatation after cardiac surgery: impact on renal function. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine for hypotensive vasodilatation after cardiac surgery: impact on renal function. Norepinephrine use in patients after cardiac surgery is controversial because of the fear that norepinephrine might decrease kidney function through regional vasoconstriction. Accordingly, we studied the renal effects of norepinephrine use for hypotensive vasodilatation after cardiac surgery.Retrospective controlled study in the cardiothoracic ICU of tertiary hospital. PATIENTS. 100 cardiac surgery (...) patients with post-operative hypotensive vasodilatation and 100 control cardiac surgery patients.Treatment of hypotension (MAP<70 mmHg) with continuous norepinephrine infusion.We collected data on demographic and surgical characteristics, haemodynamics, serum creatinine and mortality. Just after surgery the norepinephrine group had a significantly higher mean central venous pressure, lower mean arterial pressure, and lower systemic vascular resistance index with a similarly elevated mean cardiac index

2003 Intensive Care Medicine

10558. Norepinephrine and vital organ blood flow during experimental hyperdynamic sepsis. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine and vital organ blood flow during experimental hyperdynamic sepsis. To study the effect of norepinephrine (NE) infusion on cerebral, coronary, renal and mesenteric blood flow during sepsis.Randomised placebo-controlled animal trial in the animal laboratory of university physiology institute.Seven merino cross-ewes.Chronic implantation of flow probes (aorta, renal, mesenteric and coronary artery and sagittal sinus). Induction of sepsis by intravenous bolus of E. coli (3 x 10(9

2003 Intensive Care Medicine

10559. Effects of early and late intravenous norepinephrine infusion on cerebral perfusion, microcirculation, brain-tissue oxygenation, and edema formation in brain-injured rats. (Abstract)

Effects of early and late intravenous norepinephrine infusion on cerebral perfusion, microcirculation, brain-tissue oxygenation, and edema formation in brain-injured rats. Reduction of cerebral perfusion during the early phase after traumatic brain injury is followed by a later phase of normal to increased perfusion. Thus, pharmacologically elevating mean arterial blood pressure with the aim of improving cerebral perfusion may exert different time-dependent effects on cortical perfusion (...) , microcirculation, tissue oxygenation and brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury.Randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Experimental laboratory at a university hospital.A total of 37 male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a focal cortical contusion.At 4 or 24 hrs after focal traumatic brain injury, mean arterial blood pressure was increased to 120 mm Hg for 90 mins by infusing norepinephrine. In rats receiving physiologic saline, mean arterial blood pressure remained unchanged. In the first series

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10560. High-dose vasopressin is not superior to norepinephrine in septic shock. (Abstract)

High-dose vasopressin is not superior to norepinephrine in septic shock. We examined the effects of arginine vasopressin, when substituted for norepinephrine as a vasopressor in septic shock, on global and hepatosplanchnic hemodynamic and oxygen transport variables.Experimental study.Intensive care unit.Twelve septic shock patients.Norepinephrine was replaced by vasopressin in a dose sufficient to keep mean arterial blood pressure constant. Blood flow, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption (...) of the hepatosplanchnic region (calculated by a hepatic venous catheter technique using the Fick principle during continuous infusion of indocyanine green), global hemodynamics (by thermodilution), and gastric regional PCO2 gap (by air tonometry) were calculated during infusion of norepinephrine (mean, 0.56 microg.kg-1.min-1; range, 0.18-1.1 microg.kg-1.min-1) and again 2 hrs after replacement by vasopressin (mean, 0.47 IU/min; range, 0.06-1.8 IU/min).Cardiac index decreased significantly from 3.8 +/- 1.3 to 3.0

2003 Critical Care Medicine

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