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Norepinephrine

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10501. Comparative cardiac effects of terlipressin, vasopressin, and norepinephrine on an isolated perfused rabbit heart. (Abstract)

Comparative cardiac effects of terlipressin, vasopressin, and norepinephrine on an isolated perfused rabbit heart. Terlipressin, a synthetic analog of arginine-vasopressin (AVP), has been proposed as an effective vasopressive therapy in catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock. Although beneficial effects of terlipressin on systemic arterial pressure have been clearly demonstrated, its intrinsic effects on coronary circulation and myocardial performances remain unknown.The authors compared (...) the coronary and myocardial effects of terlipressin (1-100 nM, n = 10), AVP (10-1000 pM, n = 10), and norepinephrine (1-100 nM, n = 10) on an erythrocyte-perfused isolated rabbit heart. The cardiac effects of terlipressin were also assessed in erythrocyte-perfused hearts in which the myocardial oxygen delivery was maintained constant and buffer-perfused hearts. Finally, the cardiac effects of terlipressin and AVP were studied in hearts pretreated by [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)]AVP (0.1 microM), a selective V1a

2005 Anesthesiology

10502. Oscillometric brachial mean artery pressures are higher than intra-radial mean artery pressures in intensive care unit patients receiving norepinephrine. (Abstract)

Oscillometric brachial mean artery pressures are higher than intra-radial mean artery pressures in intensive care unit patients receiving norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is frequently used in intensive care unit (ICU) patients to raise and maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure (MAP). Conflict arises as to which MAP should guide vasopressor dose, as oscillometric MAP in the brachial artery often diverges from intra-radial MAP. We wanted to estimate the magnitude of this difference in ICU (...) patients receiving norepinephrine, and to see whether the patient age, norepinephrine dose, age of radial catheter, ventilation treatment or severity of illness influenced the difference.Prospective observational study comparing oscillometric MAP and intra-radial MAP performed in a central hospital-based surgical ICU during the period from February 2002 through to October 2003. Sixty-eight consecutive patients who received a norepinephrine infusion to maintain MAP above 70 mmHg were included. The mean

2006 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

10503. Barakol suppresses norepinephrine-induced inhibition of spontaneous longitudinal smooth muscle contractions in isolated rat small intestine. (Abstract)

Barakol suppresses norepinephrine-induced inhibition of spontaneous longitudinal smooth muscle contractions in isolated rat small intestine. The present study aimed to investigate the purgative effects of barakol, the purified extract of Cassia siamea Lam., on the longitudinal smooth muscle contractions of the rat ileum. The extract increased the force of spontaneous muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50=0.3 mM). Saxitoxin (0.3 microM) abolished the stimulatory effects (...) of barakol, a result indicating a neural mechanism of action. In addition, atropine (10 microM) but not propanolol (10 microM) or phentolamine (10 microM), partially inhibited barakol-induced smooth muscle contractions suggesting that cholinergic nerves were involved. The motor effects of barakol were further examined in muscle strips treated with catecholamines to suppress spontaneous contractile activity and decrease muscle tone. Norepinephrine or dopamine (10 microM) decreased the amplitude

2005 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

10504. Dopamine or norepinephrine infusion during thoracic epidural anesthesia? Differences in hemodynamic effects and plasma catecholamine levels. (Abstract)

Dopamine or norepinephrine infusion during thoracic epidural anesthesia? Differences in hemodynamic effects and plasma catecholamine levels. During thoracic epidural anesthesia, an intravenous dopamine infusion augments the systemic pressure response and modifies plasma catecholamine levels. If such an altered response occurs when norepinephrine is infused is not clear. Therefore, dopamine and norepinephrine induced circulatory and catecholamine responses were studied before and during thoracic (...) epidural anesthesia.Nine chloralose-anesthetized dogs were equipped with thoracic epidural catheters. Dopamine (5, 10, and 20 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), and norepinephrine (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) were infused before and during epidural anesthesia, while cardiovascular performance and plasma catecholamine changes were studied.Thoracic epidural anesthesia decreased arterial pressure, and cardiac contractility. The systemic pressure response induced by dopamine was augmented during

2005 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

10505. Pulmonary vasodilator effects of norepinephrine during the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension in neonatal lambs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pulmonary vasodilator effects of norepinephrine during the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension in neonatal lambs. This experimental study was performed to determine the effects of norepinephrine on: (i) the pulmonary vascular tone during the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the fetus and (ii) the circulatory adaptation at birth after chronic intrauterine PH.Chronically instrumented fetal lambs were randomized into two groups: (i) a group with PH obtained by antenatal (...) partial ligation of the ductus arteriosus (DA) (n=9) and (ii) a control group without DA ligation (n=6). Pulmonary vascular responses to norepinephrine (1.5 microg min(-1)) were measured in utero 7 days after surgery. At day 8 post-surgery, after delivery, animals were ventilated for 3 h with oxygen 100%. The group with PH was randomly assigned to receive norepinephrine or saline.Mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were higher in the PH group (P<0.01

2004 British Journal of Anaesthesia

10506. Regional and temporal changes in cardiovascular responses to norepinephrine and vasopressin during continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide in conscious rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regional and temporal changes in cardiovascular responses to norepinephrine and vasopressin during continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide in conscious rats. Reduced pressor responsiveness to norepinephrine (NE) in sepsis is well documented but the associated regional haemodynamic changes are less well characterized, and there are varying reports of changes in haemodynamic responses to arginine vasopressin (AVP). We compared changes in regional haemodynamic responsiveness to AVP and NE during

2004 British Journal of Anaesthesia

10507. Norepinephrine kinetics and dynamics in septic shock and trauma patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine kinetics and dynamics in septic shock and trauma patients. There is considerable variability in the inter-patient response to norepinephrine. Pharmacokinetic studies of dopamine infusion in volunteers and in patients have also shown large variability. The purpose of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of norepinephrine in septic shock and trauma patients.After Ethical Committee approval and written informed family consent, 12 patients with septic shock and 11 trauma (...) patients requiring norepinephrine infusion were studied. Norepinephrine dose was increased in three successive steps of 0.1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) at 15-min intervals (20% maximum allowed increase in arterial pressure). Arterial blood was sampled before and at 0.5, 13, and 15 min after each infusion rate change and 30 s, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 min after return to baseline dosing. Norepinephrine was assayed by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics were modelled using NONMEM (one-compartment model). The effects of group

2005 British Journal of Anaesthesia

10508. Increased spillover of norepinephrine to the portal vein during CO-pneumoperitoneum in pigs. (Abstract)

Increased spillover of norepinephrine to the portal vein during CO-pneumoperitoneum in pigs. Elevated intra abdominal pressure (IAP) during CO2-insufflation has been associated with increased catecholamine concentrations in plasma. We have previously indicated that this may be due to a regional increased spillover from the abdominal region. In this experimental study we investigated catecholamine spillover from the drainage area of the portal vein during CO2-pneumoperitoneum.Eight pigs under (...) technique. Estimated spillover was calculated by the veno-arterial difference multiplied by flow.We found a significant increase in estimated spillover of norepinephrine from the drainage area of the portal vein from 10 (-1.2, 78) ng x min(-1) to 27 (1.8, 475) ng x min(-1)[median (range)] (P = 0.05), but no change in estimated spillover of norepinephrine from the drainage area of the femoral vein. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine increased in central venous and arterial blood

2004 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

10509. Local administration of norepinephrine in the stump evokes dose-dependent pain in amputees. (Abstract)

Local administration of norepinephrine in the stump evokes dose-dependent pain in amputees. More than 50% of amputees report experiencing significant stump or phantom pain. Stump pain is often attributed to the formation of a neuroma at the amputation site. Experimental evidence shows that catecholamines and alpha-adrenoceptors play a role in the mechanisms of pain associated with neuromas. We investigated whether administration of physiological doses of norepinephrine (NE) in the distal stump

2006 Clinical Journal of Pain

10510. Cardiac and renal effects of levosimendan, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine in lipopolysaccharide-treated rabbits. (Abstract)

Cardiac and renal effects of levosimendan, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine in lipopolysaccharide-treated rabbits. Because sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction related to sepsis is at least partially related to a decrease in cardiac myofilament response to calcium, the use of the new myofilament-calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, has been proposed. In addition, arginine vasopressin is increasingly proposed as a vasopressor in septic patients, although data on its effects on cardiac (...) function are still scarce. The aim of the current study was to assess, invasively and noninvasively, whether levosimendan, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine, either alone or combined, may modify sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction and renal hemodynamics.Thirty-six hours after lipopolysaccharide or saline administration, rabbits were studied either after slight sedation for echocardiography or after general anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital for the following measurements: aortic flow

2005 Anesthesiology

10511. Changes in cardiovascular parameters and plasma norepinephrine level in rats after chronic constriction injury on the sciatic nerve. (Abstract)

Changes in cardiovascular parameters and plasma norepinephrine level in rats after chronic constriction injury on the sciatic nerve. To evaluate whether neuropathic pain affects autonomic nervous activities, we investigated daily change in cardiovascular parameters and plasma norepinephrine (NE) in free-moving rats after chronic constriction injury (CCI) on the sciatic nerve. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and the power spectrum of pulse interval variability were analyzed. Daily

2007 Pain

10512. Neurotensin-produced antinociception in the rostral ventromedial medulla is partially mediated by spinal cord norepinephrine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neurotensin-produced antinociception in the rostral ventromedial medulla is partially mediated by spinal cord norepinephrine. Microinjection of neurotensin (NT) into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) produces dose-dependent antinociception. Here we show that antinociception produced by intra-RVM microinjection of neurotensin (NT) or the selective NT receptor subtype 1 (NTR1) agonist PD149163 can be partially blocked by intrathecal (i.t.) yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (...) in the RVM produces antinociception through spinal release of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin, and that activation of NTR2 in the RVM produces antinociception mediated by spinal release of NE.

2007 Pain

10513. Alpha1- and beta1-adrenoceptor signaling fully compensates for beta3-adrenoceptor deficiency in brown adipocyte norepinephrine-stimulated glucose uptake. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alpha1- and beta1-adrenoceptor signaling fully compensates for beta3-adrenoceptor deficiency in brown adipocyte norepinephrine-stimulated glucose uptake. To assess the relative roles and potential contribution of adrenergic receptor subtypes other than the beta3-adrenergic receptor in norepinephrine-mediated glucose uptake in brown adipocytes, we have here analyzed adrenergic activation of glucose uptake in primary cultures of brown adipocytes from wild-type and beta3-adrenergic receptor (...) . As expected, the beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists BRL-37344 and CL-316 243 did not induce 2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake in beta3-KO brown adipocytes. Surprisingly, the endogenous adrenergic neurotransmitter norepinephrine induced the same concentration-dependent 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in wild-type and beta3-KO brown adipocytes. This study demonstrates that beta1-adrenergic receptors, and to a smaller degree alpha1-adrenergic receptors, functionally compensate for the lack of beta3-adrenergic receptors

2005 Endocrinology

10514. The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with decreased insulin secretion, delayed ghrelin suppression, and increased cardiovascular responsiveness to norepinephrine during oral glucose tolerance test. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with decreased insulin secretion, delayed ghrelin suppression, and increased cardiovascular responsiveness to norepinephrine during oral glucose tolerance test. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a role in angiogenesis, cardiovascular regulation, and hormone secretion. The leucine7 to proline7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with vascular diseases and has an impact on hormone levels in healthy subjects.The current study investigated (...) , norepinephrine (NE), and insulin concentrations and insulin to glucose ratios. The suppression of ghrelin concentrations after glucose ingestion was delayed in these subjects. They also had increased heart rate variability indices and baroreflex sensitivity. However, they displayed significant negative association of NE concentration with variability of low-frequency R-R-intervals and with baroreflex sensitivity.The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is related to decreased level of basal sympathetic activity

2005 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

10515. Norepinephrine induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in rat pinealocytes: distinct roles of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in rat pinealocytes: distinct roles of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which norepinephrine (NE) regulates MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression in rat pinealocytes. Stimulation with NE (a mixed alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist) caused a rapid increase in MKP-1 mRNA and protein that peaked around 1 h post stimulation, and the response was sustained

2004 Endocrinology

10516. Alleviation of thermoregulatory dysfunction with the new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desvenlafaxine succinate in ovariectomized rodent models. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alleviation of thermoregulatory dysfunction with the new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desvenlafaxine succinate in ovariectomized rodent models. Hot flushes and night sweats, referred to as vasomotor symptoms (VMS), are presumed to be a result of declining hormone levels and are the principal menopausal symptoms for which women seek medical treatment. To date, estrogens and/or some progestins are the most effective therapeutics for alleviating VMS; however, these therapies may (...) increases in serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a key region of the brain involved in temperature regulation. These preclinical studies provide evidence that DVS directly impacts thermoregulatory dysfunction in OVX rats and may have utility in alleviating VMS associated with menopause.

2007 Endocrinology

10517. Norepinephrine increases glucose transport in brown adipocytes via beta3-adrenoceptors through a cAMP, PKA, and PI3-kinase-dependent pathway stimulating conventional and novel PKCs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine increases glucose transport in brown adipocytes via beta3-adrenoceptors through a cAMP, PKA, and PI3-kinase-dependent pathway stimulating conventional and novel PKCs. To identify the signaling pathways that mediate the adrenergic stimulation of glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue, we used mouse brown adipocytes in culture. The endogenous adrenergic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) induced 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake 3-fold in a concentration-dependent manner (pEC50

2004 Endocrinology

10518. Spironolactone preserves cardiac norepinephrine reuptake in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spironolactone preserves cardiac norepinephrine reuptake in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. An impairment of cardiac norepinephrine (NE) reuptake via the neuronal NE transporter (NET) enhances the effects of increased cardiac NE release in heart failure patients. Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone and endothelins promote sympathetic overstimulation of failing hearts. Salt-sensitive Dahl rats (DS) fed a high-salt diet developed arterial hypertension and diastolic heart failure as well

2006 Endocrinology

10519. Human skeletal muscle lipolysis is more responsive to epinephrine than to norepinephrine stimulation in vivo. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human skeletal muscle lipolysis is more responsive to epinephrine than to norepinephrine stimulation in vivo. Triglyceride (TG) deposits in skeletal muscle (SM) are an important energy reservoir, and increased im TG content is associated with muscle insulin resistance.The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of endogenous catecholamines on TG lipolysis in human SM in vivo. Adipose tissue (AT) was studied for comparison.Glycerol levels (index of lipolysis) were measured using (...) microdialysis in the gastrocnemius muscle and abdominal sc adipose tissue during a hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemic clamp (n = 13) and in response to in situ perfusion of epinephrine and norepinephrine (10(-10) to 10(-5) m) (n = 12). Local tissue blood flow was monitored with the ethanol perfusion technique.This was an experimental study.The study population consisted of healthy subjects.Plasma epinephrine increased 10-fold and plasma norepinephrine 2-fold in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia

2006 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

10520. Endothelin-1 inhibits the neuronal norepinephrine transporter in hearts of male rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Endothelin-1 inhibits the neuronal norepinephrine transporter in hearts of male rats. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) potentiates norepinephrine (NE)-induced contractile responses. An impairment of cardiac NE re-uptake by the neuronal NE transporter (NET) contributes to an increased NE net release in failing hearts. We hypothesized that both phenomena are caused by ET-1-mediated inhibition of NET.[3H]-NE-uptake, electrical field stimulation-evoked NE overflow and left ventricular contractility (LV-dp/dt

2005 Cardiovascular Research

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