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Norepinephrine

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10481. Calmodulin mediates norepinephrine-induced receptor-operated calcium entry in preglomerular resistance arteries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Calmodulin mediates norepinephrine-induced receptor-operated calcium entry in preglomerular resistance arteries. Although L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels play a major role in mediating vascular smooth muscle cell contraction in the renal vasculature, non-L-type calcium entry mechanisms represent a significant component of vasoactive agonist-induced calcium entry in these cells as well. To investigate the role of these non-voltage-dependent calcium entry pathways in the regulation (...) of renal microvascular reactivity, we have characterized the function of store- and receptor-operated channels (SOCs and ROCs) in renal cortical interlobular arteries (ILAs) of rats. Using fura 2-loaded, microdissected ILAs, we find that the L-type channel antagonist nifedipine blocks less than half the rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) elicited by norepinephrine. SOCs were activated in these vessels using the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) inhibitors

2005 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

10482. Effects of chloride channel blockers on rat renal vascular responses to angiotensin II and norepinephrine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of chloride channel blockers on rat renal vascular responses to angiotensin II and norepinephrine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels in the renal vasoconstriction elicited by angiotensin II (ANG II) and norepinephrine (NE). Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured in vivo using electromagnetic flowmetry. Ratiometric photometry of fura 2 fluorescence was used to estimate intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in isolated

2004 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

10483. Impaired autofeedback regulation of hypothalamic norepinephrine release in experimental uremia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired autofeedback regulation of hypothalamic norepinephrine release in experimental uremia. Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with multiple hypothalamic dysfunctions, including reduced secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Because GnRH release is tightly controlled by sympathetic neuronal input, a possible alteration of local noradrenergic neurotransmission in experimental CRF was evaluated. Basal, stimulated, and autoinhibited norepinephrine (NE) release was assessed

2005 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

10484. Effect of tyrosine kinase blockade on norepinephrine-induced cytosolic calcium response in rat afferent arterioles. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of tyrosine kinase blockade on norepinephrine-induced cytosolic calcium response in rat afferent arterioles. We used genistein (Gen) and tyrphostin 23 (Tyr-23) to evaluate the importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in norepinephrine (NE)-induced changes in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat afferent arterioles. [Ca(2+)](i) was measured in microdissected arterioles using ratiometric photometry of fura 2 fluorescence. The control [Ca(2+)](i) response to NE (1

2004 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

10485. Femoral artery constriction by norepinephrine is enhanced by methylprednisolone in a rat model. (Abstract)

Femoral artery constriction by norepinephrine is enhanced by methylprednisolone in a rat model. Corticosteroids are associated with femoral head osteonecrosis and arterial hypertension. The patho-mechanism of femoral head osteonecrosis is often attributed to ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate if corticosteroids directly constrict the femoral artery or if they have a permissive effect on norepinephrine and endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction.Femoral artery segments were (...) harvested from twenty Wistar rats and mounted as ring preparations on a small-vessel myograph for the purpose of making isometric force measurements. For the norepinephrine study, twenty femoral artery segments from ten rats were stimulated cumulatively with norepinephrine before and after incubation with methylprednisolone (5 mug/mL). For the endothelin-1 study, forty femoral artery segments from ten rats were used. The four artery segments from each animal were randomized by pairs to either

2006 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

10486. Feasibility and safety of norepinephrine-induced arterial hypertension in acute ischemic stroke. (Abstract)

Feasibility and safety of norepinephrine-induced arterial hypertension in acute ischemic stroke. The feasibility and safety of induced arterial hypertension (10 to 20% of the initial value) in the acute phase of ischemic stroke were retrospectively evaluated in 34 patients treated with norepinephrine (NE) for a median of 26 hours. Maximal variability of systolic blood pressure during NE application was within 15% of the target values. Cardiac arrhythmia occurred in one patient

2004 Neurology

10487. Improved motor skill acquisition after selective stimulation of central norepinephrine. (Abstract)

Improved motor skill acquisition after selective stimulation of central norepinephrine. It has been proposed that the beneficial effects of training on motor function can be enhanced by stimulation of alpha-adrenergic mechanisms. Consistent with this view, a single oral dose of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine was found to enhance motor skill acquisition (rapid elbow flexion) and corticomotor excitability tested with transcranial magnetic stimulation in the absence

2004 Neurology

10488. Decision making, the P3, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Decision making, the P3, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. Psychologists and neuroscientists have had a long-standing interest in the P3, a prominent component of the event-related brain potential. This review aims to integrate knowledge regarding the neural basis of the P3 and to elucidate its functional role in information processing. The authors review evidence suggesting that the P3 reflects phasic activity of the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system

2005 Psychological Bulletin

10489. Transcardiac increase in norepinephrine and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure. (Abstract)

Transcardiac increase in norepinephrine and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure. No previous study has compared the transcardiac gradient of norepinephrine (NE) and the prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).To evaluate the prognostic role of the transcardiac gradient of NE in patients with CHF.We measured haemodynamic parameters and plasma levels of NE, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) in the aortic root (AO) and coronary sinus (CS

2008 European Journal of Heart Failure

10490. Multiple sampling improves norepinephrine reproducibility in essential hypertension: a comparison with the microneurographic technique. (Abstract)

Multiple sampling improves norepinephrine reproducibility in essential hypertension: a comparison with the microneurographic technique. Plasma norepinephrine displays a limited ability to reflect the enhanced sympathetic drive characterizing essential hypertension. Among the factors responsible, an important one is the reduced reproducibility of the norepinephrine approach. The present study aimed to determine whether increasing the number of blood samples on which norepinephrine assay is based (...) improves norepinephrine reproducibility. This was done by taking muscle sympathetic nerve traffic recording as 'gold standard', which is characterized by an elevated short- and long-term reproducibility.In 14 untreated mild-to-moderate essential hypertensive patients, we evaluated, in two experimental sessions spaced each other by a 10-14-day interval, blood pressure (Finapres), heart rate (ECG), plasma norepinephrine (HPLC) and muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (microneurography, peroneal nerve

2008 Journal of Hypertension

10491. Selective COX-2 inhibition directly increases human vascular reactivity to norepinephrine during acute inflammation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selective COX-2 inhibition directly increases human vascular reactivity to norepinephrine during acute inflammation. The use of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors has been reported to be associated with detrimental vascular events. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of COX-2 activity in the control of human vascular tone under inflammatory conditions.Using organ bath experiments, the contraction induced by norepinephrine (NE), U46619, acetylcholine, and KCl was performed on isolated

2008 Cardiovascular Research

10492. Association of Changes in Norepinephrine and Serotonin Transporter Expression with the Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Antidepressant Drugs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of Changes in Norepinephrine and Serotonin Transporter Expression with the Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Antidepressant Drugs. Previous work has shown that repeated desipramine treatment causes downregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and persistent antidepressant-like effects on behavior, ie effects observed 2 days after discontinuation of drug treatment when acute effects are minimized. The present study examined whether this mechanism generalizes to other

2008 Neuropsychopharmacology

10493. Desipramine Modulation of alpha-, gamma-Synuclein, and the Norepinephrine Transporter in an Animal Model of Depression. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Desipramine Modulation of alpha-, gamma-Synuclein, and the Norepinephrine Transporter in an Animal Model of Depression. The mechanisms underlying depression remain elusive. We previously determined that alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) modulates the activity and trafficking of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in a manner that is dependent on its interactions with microtubules (MTs). Here we sought to determine if alpha-Syn, or the other synuclein family members, beta-synuclein (beta-Syn

2008 Neuropsychopharmacology

10494. Isoflurane prevents nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release from the mouse spinal cord at low clinical concentrations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isoflurane prevents nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release from the mouse spinal cord at low clinical concentrations. Volatile anesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at subanesthetic concentrations. In both animal and human studies, similar concentrations of volatile anesthetics have been associated with increased sensitivity to pain. Nicotinic analgesia is thought to involve the enhanced release of norepinephrine. These studies are intended as a "proof of concept (...) " that alteration of the nicotinic facilitation of norepinephrine release is a potential mechanism for isoflurane-induced pronociception.We conducted our study using a murine lumbar spinal cord slice model. We evoked norepinephrine release with nicotine in the presence and absence of isoflurane. To identify the type of nicotinic receptor involved, we studied the effect of receptor and subtype-specific ligands and genetically engineered mice, which lacked the gene expression for the nicotinic beta2 subunit

2008 Anesthesia and Analgesia

10495. Hemodynamic and metabolic efficacy of dopamine versus norepinephrine in a brain-dead swine model. (Abstract)

Hemodynamic and metabolic efficacy of dopamine versus norepinephrine in a brain-dead swine model. We tested the hypothesis that hepatosplanchnic and systemic hemodynamics are improved with equi-effective doses of dopamine (DA) versus norepinephrine (NE) in a brain-dead swine model. Pigs (n = 18) were anesthetized and ventilated. Brain death was induced by epidural balloon inflation, hypoventilation, and hypoxia. After 30 minutes, mechanical ventilation was restored without anesthesia. During 60

2008 Liver Transplantation

10496. Sustained Administration of Pramipexole Modifies the Spontaneous Firing of Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin Neurons in the Rat Brain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sustained Administration of Pramipexole Modifies the Spontaneous Firing of Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin Neurons in the Rat Brain. Pramipexole (PPX) is a D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of depression. Serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) systems are known to be involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Due to reciprocal interactions between these neuronal systems, drugs selectively targeting one

2008 Neuropsychopharmacology

10497. Comparison of heart failure in children with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis and cats with norepinephrine cardiotoxicity. (Abstract)

Comparison of heart failure in children with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis and cats with norepinephrine cardiotoxicity. The mechanism of heart failure in patients with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis (brain stem encephalitis) remains unknown. Our previous reports hypothesized that a catecholamine storm induced by rhombencephalitis may account for the heart failure. The aim of this study was to develop a novel feline model of norepinephrine cardiotoxicity and compare the resulting heart (...) failure to that in children with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis. Nine of 75 children (12%) with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis (5 boys and 4 girls; age, 4-28 months; median age, 16 months) were complicated with left ventricular hypokinesia (ejection fraction, 31 +/- 9%). Six cats (weight, 3.03 +/- 0.64 kg) were administered intravenous norepinephrine 30 microg/kg/min for 3 hours. Echocardiography assessed the left ventricular diameter and function before and after the administration

2006 Pediatric Cardiology

10498. Pulmonary Circulatory Effects of Norepinephrine in Newborn Infants with Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension. (Abstract)

Pulmonary Circulatory Effects of Norepinephrine in Newborn Infants with Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension. To evaluate the respiratory and the pulmonary circulatory effects of norepinephrine in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN)-induced cardiac dysfunction.Inclusion criteria were: 1) Newborn infants >35 weeks gestational age; 2) PPHN treated with inhaled nitric oxide; and 3) symptoms of circulatory failure despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Lung function (...) and pulmonary hemodynamic variables assessed with Doppler echocardiography were recorded prospectively before and after starting norepinephrine.Eighteen newborns were included (gestational age: 37 +/- 3 weeks; birth weight: 2800 +/- 700 g). After starting norepinephrine, systemic pressure and left ventricular output increased respectively from 33 +/- 4 mm Hg to 49 +/- 4 mm Hg and from 172 +/- 79 mL/kg/min to 209+/-90 mL/kg/min (P < .05). Although the mechanical ventilatory variables have not been changed

2008 Journal of Pediatrics

10499. Actions of norepinephrine and isoflurane on inhibitory synaptic transmission in adult rat spinal cord substantia gelatinosa neurons. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Actions of norepinephrine and isoflurane on inhibitory synaptic transmission in adult rat spinal cord substantia gelatinosa neurons. Volatile inhaled anesthetics and nitrous oxide (N2O) are often used together in clinical practice to produce analgesia. Because the analgesic effect of N2O is, at least in part, mediated by norepinephrine (NE) release in the spinal cord, we examined the interaction between isoflurane (ISO) and NE in the adult rat spinal cord with respect to central nociceptive

2006 Anesthesia and Analgesia

10500. Effect of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine on exocytotic norepinephrine release from rat atria. (Abstract)

Effect of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine on exocytotic norepinephrine release from rat atria. The cardiotoxic mechanism of local anesthetics may include interruption of cardiac sympathetic reflexes. The authors undertook this investigation to determine if clinically relevant concentrations of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine interfere with exocytotic norepinephrine release from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings.Rat atria were prepared for measurements of twitch contractile force and [H (...) ]-norepinephrine release. After nerve endings were loaded with [H]-norepinephrine, the tissue was electrically stimulated in 5-min episodes during 10 10-min sampling periods. After each period, a sample of bath fluid was analyzed for radioactivity and [H]-norepinephrine release was expressed as a fraction of tissue counts. Atria were exposed to buffer alone during sampling periods 1 and 2 (S1 and S2). Control atria received saline (100 microl each, n = 6 atria) in S3-S10. Experimental groups (n = 6 per group

2005 Anesthesiology

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