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Norepinephrine

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10461. There and back again: a tale of norepinephrine and drug addiction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

There and back again: a tale of norepinephrine and drug addiction. Fueled by anatomical, electrophysiological, and pharmacological analyses of endogenous brain reward systems, norepinephrine (NE) was identified as a key mediator of both natural and drug-induced reward in the late 1960s and early 1970s. However, reward experiments from the mid-1970s that could distinguish between the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems resulted in the prevailing view that dopamine (DA) was the primary 'reward

2007 Neuropsychopharmacology

10462. Inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake produces additive effects on energy balance in lean and obese mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake produces additive effects on energy balance in lean and obese mice. Although originally developed as an antidepressant, long-term bupropion (BUP) treatment was recently shown to cause 5-8% weight loss over placebo in clinical trials with obese adults. BUP's antidepressant properties probably stem from its ability to increase extracellular brain dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels by inhibiting their reuptake, although the mechanism

2007 Neuropsychopharmacology

10463. Effect of antidepressant drugs in mice lacking the norepinephrine transporter. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of antidepressant drugs in mice lacking the norepinephrine transporter. One of the main theories concerning the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs (ADs) is based on the notion that the neurochemical background of depression involves an impairment of central noradrenergic transmission with a concomitant decrease of the norepinephrine (NE) in the synaptic gap. Many ADs increase synaptic NE availability by inhibition of the reuptake of NE. Using mice lacking NE transporter (NET

2006 Neuropsychopharmacology

10464. The effects of chronic norepinephrine transporter inactivation on seizure susceptibility in mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effects of chronic norepinephrine transporter inactivation on seizure susceptibility in mice. Epilepsy and depression are comorbid disorders, but the mechanisms underlying their relationship have not been identified. Traditionally, many antidepressants have been thought to increase seizure incidence, although this remains controversial, and it is unclear which medications should be used to treat individuals suffering from both epilepsy and depression. Since the neurotransmitter (...) norepinephrine (NE) has both antidepressant and anticonvulsant properties, we speculated that NE transporter (NET) inhibitor antidepressants might be therapeutic candidates for comorbid individuals. To test this idea, we assessed the effects of chronic administration (via osmotic minipump) of the selective NET inhibitor reboxetine on flurothyl-induced seizures in mice. We found that reboxetine had both proconvulsant and anticonvulsant properties; it lowered both seizure threshold and maximal seizure severity

2006 Neuropsychopharmacology

10465. Sexually dimorphic responses of the brain norepinephrine system to stress and corticotropin-releasing factor. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sexually dimorphic responses of the brain norepinephrine system to stress and corticotropin-releasing factor. Stress-related psychiatric disorders are more prevalent in females than males, and this has been attributed to differences in stress sensitivity. As activation of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system is an important component of the stress response, this study compared LC responses to stress in female and male rats under different hormonal conditions in the halothane

2006 Neuropsychopharmacology

10466. Norepinephrine transporter blockade can normalize the prepulse inhibition deficits found in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine transporter blockade can normalize the prepulse inhibition deficits found in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice display deficits in sensorimotor gating that are manifested by reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex. Since PPI deficits may model some of the cognitive dysfunctions identified in certain neuropsychiatric patients, we have studied the effects of transporter blockers on PPI in wild-type and DAT KO (...) mice. Treatments with High dose psychostimulants that block DAT as well as the norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT) transporters (60 mg/kg cocaine or methylphenidate) significantly impaired PPI in wild-type mice. By contrast, these treatments significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in untreated DAT KO mice. In studies with more selective transport inhibitors, the selective NET inhibitor nisoxetine (10 or 30 mg/kg) also significantly reversed PPI deficits in DAT KO mice. By contrast

2006 Neuropsychopharmacology

10467. Monoamine oxidase A activity and norepinephrine level in hippocampus determine hyperwheel running in SPORTS rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Monoamine oxidase A activity and norepinephrine level in hippocampus determine hyperwheel running in SPORTS rats. An understanding of neurological mechanisms for wheel running by rodents, especially with high exercise activity, would be applicable to a strategy for promotion of exercise motivation in humans. One of several brain regions that are candidates for the regulation of physical exercise is the hippocampus. Here we examined the running activity of Spontaneously-Running-Tokushima-Shikoku (...) (SPORTS) rat, a new animal model for high levels of wheel-running activity, and its relation with the hippocampal norepinephrine (NE) system including the levels of NE, adrenergic receptors, and degradation enzymes for monoamines. In the hippocampus of SPORTS rats, the level of NE in extracellular fluid was augmented, whereas the level in the homogenate of the whole tissue was decreased even for sedentary conditions. Elevated extracellular NE caused downregulation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors

2006 Neuropsychopharmacology

10468. Association of norepinephrine transporter gene with methylphenidate response. (Abstract)

Association of norepinephrine transporter gene with methylphenidate response. This study aimed to explore the association between alleles of the norepinephrine transporter gene and the methylphenidate response.Chinese Han youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder recruited in the Outpatient Department of the Institute of Mental Health from 2001 to 2004 were treated with methylphenidate in doses of 0.45 to 0.60 mg/kg per day. Behavior changes were measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (...) when optimal doses were reached. The single-nucleotide polymorphic allele of norepinephrine transporter gene G1287A was used as the genetic marker, and the genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.A significant association was found between norepinephrine transporter gene G1287A genotypes and response to methylphenidate for hyperactive-impulsive subscale scores (mean score reduction was 7.15 and 6.94 for G/G and G/A genotype, respectively, and 2.13 for A/A; p

2004 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

10469. Consensus statement and research needs: the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment. (Abstract)

Consensus statement and research needs: the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment. During a special session, the faculty identified several specific areas related to the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment that either warrant the clinician's attention or are in need of more research. Areas of interest include fatigue and lethargy in depression, treatment strategies for treatment-resistant depression, the somatic

2006 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

10470. The role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment. (Abstract)

The role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment. Most antidepressants in use today are descendants of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor iproniazid and the tricyclic agent imipramine. These agents were both originally developed for other indications but then were serendipitously determined to have antidepressant effects. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of these first antidepressants, along with those of reserpine and amphetamine, led to the monoamine (...) theories of depression. Through the past several decades, approaches undertaken to clarify the roles of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in depression have included animal studies, human biological and postmortem studies, inferences drawn from antidepressant drug actions, and challenge or depletion studies; most recently, brain imaging studies have proved to be especially informative. This research has identified novel potential targets, with the goal of developing new

2006 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

10471. Prediction of antidepressant response to milnacipran by norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphisms. (Abstract)

Prediction of antidepressant response to milnacipran by norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphisms. With a multitude of antidepressants available, predictors of response to different classes of antidepressants are of considerable interest. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether norepinephrine transporter gene (NET) and serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) polymorphisms are associated with the antidepressant response to milnacipran, a dual serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake

2004 American Journal of Psychiatry

10472. Norepinephrine modulates glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine modulates glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and its adrenergic input are key components in stress-induced reinstatement and maintenance of drug use. Intra-BNST injections of either beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) antagonists or alpha2-adrenergic receptor (alpha2-AR) agonists can inhibit footshock-induced reinstatement and maintenance of cocaine- and morphine-seeking. Using electrophysiological (...) ) results in an increase in excitatory transmission in dBNST, but not in vBNST. Consistent with the work with receptor subtype specific agonists, application of the endogenous ligand norepinephrine (NE, 100 microM) elicits two distinct effects on glutamatergic transmission. In dBNST, NE elicits an increase in transmission (62% of dBNST NE experiments) or a decrease in transmission (38% of dBNST NE experiments). In vBNST, NE elicits a decrease in transmission in 100% of the experiments. In dBNST, the NE

2005 Neuropsychopharmacology

10473. Modulation of pathogenicity with norepinephrine related to the type III secretion system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modulation of pathogenicity with norepinephrine related to the type III secretion system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Norepinephrine (NE) controls the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, but its role in the pathogenicity of enteropathogens is not clear. We examined the effect of NE on the pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with regard to its type III secretion systems (TTSSs).To evaluate the effect of NE on pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus, we examined the cytotoxic activity

2007 Journal of Infectious Diseases

10474. Norepinephrine regulates hepatic innate immune system in leptin-deficient mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine regulates hepatic innate immune system in leptin-deficient mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. It is not known why natural killer T (NKT) cells, which modulate liver injury by regulating local cytokine production, are reduced in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. NKT cells express adrenoceptors. Thus, we hypothesize that the low norepinephrine (NE) activity of ob/ob mice promotes depletion of liver NKT cells, thereby sensitizing ob/ob livers to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toxicity

2004 Hepatology

10475. Insulin effects on CSF norepinephrine and cognition in Alzheimer's disease. (Abstract)

Insulin effects on CSF norepinephrine and cognition in Alzheimer's disease. We assessed the effects of induced hyperinsulinemia on plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of norepinephrine (NE) and on cognition for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal older adults. For normal adults, insulin increased plasma and CSF NE levels; also, recall for paraphrased details of a story improved as CSF NE levels increased. Mental control was positively correlated with CSF levels of NE

2006 Neurobiology of Aging

10476. Norepinephrine increases the pathogenic potential of Campylobacter jejuni. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine increases the pathogenic potential of Campylobacter jejuni. Campylobacter jejuni can cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, ranging from enteritis and diarrhoea to severe inflammation, profuse bloody diarrhoea and chronic relapsing infection. Norepinephrine (NE) levels in the intestine increase under conditions of stress and trauma, and are thought to result in spill over of NE into the intestinal lumen. NE is known to stimulate the growth of a range of bacterial species

2007 Gut

10477. Urea transporter UT-A1 and aquaporin-2 proteins decrease in response to angiotensin II or norepinephrine-induced acute hypertension. (Abstract)

Urea transporter UT-A1 and aquaporin-2 proteins decrease in response to angiotensin II or norepinephrine-induced acute hypertension. The kidney responds to high levels of ANG II, as may occur during malignant hypertension, by increasing sodium and water excretion. To study whether kidney medullary transporters contribute to this response, rats were made hypertensive using ANG II. Within 3 days of being given ANG II, systolic blood pressure (BP) was increased (200 mmHg), vs control (130 mmHg (...) ), and remained high through day 14. Kidney inner medullary (IM) tip and base and outer medulla were analyzed for transporter protein abundance. There were significant decreases in UT-A1 urea transporter, aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel, and NKCC2/BSC1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter. To determine whether the decreases were a response to hypertension, ANG II, or an ANG II-induced increase in aldosterone, rats were given 1) norepinephrine (to increase BP) and 2) ANG II plus spironolactone (to block

2006 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

10478. beta(1) Receptors protect the renal afferent arteriole of angiotensin-infused rabbits from norepinephrine-induced oxidative stress. Full Text available with Trip Pro

beta(1) Receptors protect the renal afferent arteriole of angiotensin-infused rabbits from norepinephrine-induced oxidative stress. Renal afferent arterioles (Aff) from angiotensin II (AngII)-infused rabbits have enhanced contractions to AngII that are normalized by tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic), whereas contractions to norepinephrine (NE) are normal and unaffected by tempol. Tested was the hypothesis that beta-receptor stimulation with NE prevents enhanced reactivity and superoxide

2006 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

10479. Analysis of the relationship between norepinephrine and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels among patients with end-stage renal disease. (Abstract)

Analysis of the relationship between norepinephrine and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels among patients with end-stage renal disease. High sympathetic activity and alterations in nitric oxide synthesis attributable to accumulation of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have recently been identified as potential causal mechanisms for the high cardiovascular mortality rates among patients with ESRD. The link between these risk factors has not been (...) studied. Therefore, the relationship between plasma norepinephrine (NE) and ADMA levels was examined in a large cohort of hemodialysis patients (n = 224), and whether these factors interacted in predicting all-cause mortality and new cardiovascular event rates among those patients was investigated. Plasma ADMA levels were strongly associated with plasma NE levels (P < 0.001) and to a lesser extent with heart rate (P < 0.01). In multivariate analyses, the ADMA-NE correlation was observed

2004 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

10480. Modulation of angiotensin II and norepinephrine-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by AT1a receptor deficiency. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modulation of angiotensin II and norepinephrine-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by AT1a receptor deficiency. Angiotensin (Ang) II stimulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in many cell types by mechanisms that are cell-type specific. We measured effects of Ang II or norepinephrine on PAI-1 expression in wild type (WT) and Ang type-1a receptor knockout mice (AT(1a)-/-) in the presence or absence of the non-specific AT(1) antagonist losartan. Ang II (...) and norepinephrine increased systolic blood pressure equally, whereas losartan decreased the pressor response of the former but not the latter in WT mice. In AT(1a)-/- mice, baseline systolic blood pressure was lower with no effect of Ang II, norepinephrine, or losartan. Ang II stimulated PAI-1 expression in the heart, aorta, and kidney and markedly in the liver of WT mice. In AT(1a)-/- mice, Ang II-stimulated PAI-1 was significantly attenuated compared with the WT in the heart and aorta but significantly

2007 Kidney International

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