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Norepinephrine

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10441. Norepinephrine increases tolerance to acute anemia. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine increases tolerance to acute anemia. Extreme anemia threatens myocardial oxygen supply by 1) a decline of arterial oxygen content and 2) by a decline of mean aortic pressure (MAP) and thus coronary perfusion pressure. Standard treatment of low arterial oxygen content includes ventilation with pure oxygen and the transfusion of red blood cells. However, it is unknown whether the stabilization of MAP and coronary perfusion pressure with norepinephrine as the sole therapeutic (...) intervention (control group) or their MAP was maintained by adapted infusion of norepinephrine (norepinephrine group). The main outcome variable of this protocol was the 6-hr mortality in both groups. In the second protocol, 14 anesthetized pigs received hemodilution until death. In seven animals, no intervention was performed during the hemodilution procedure, whereas in the other seven animals, MAP was maintained at >60 mm Hg by adapted infusion of norepinephrine. The main outcome variable

2007 Critical Care Medicine

10442. Comparative effects of early versus delayed use of norepinephrine in resuscitated endotoxic shock. (Abstract)

Comparative effects of early versus delayed use of norepinephrine in resuscitated endotoxic shock. To assess hemodynamic, tissue oxygenation, and tissue perfusion changes by comparing traditional therapy (fluid resuscitation followed by vasopressor treatment) and alternative therapy (early vasopressor treatment) in a hyperkinetic and sedated model of endotoxic shock.Prospective controlled experimental study.Animal research laboratory.Male Wistar rats.Rats were anesthetized, mechanically (...) ventilated, paralyzed, and instrumented to measure mean arterial pressure, heart rate, pulse pressure variation, aortic and mesenteric blood flow, muscle and liver tissue oxygen pressure, blood gas, and lactate. Rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 7): endotoxin alone (Endo), endotoxin plus norepinephrine (Endo/NE), endotoxin plus fluid therapy alone (ENDO/Fl), endotoxin plus fluid therapy plus late catecholamine (Endo/Fl/Late NE), and endotoxin plus fluid therapy plus simultaneous

2007 Critical Care Medicine

10443. Abnormal myocardial presynaptic norepinephrine recycling in patients with Brugada syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Abnormal myocardial presynaptic norepinephrine recycling in patients with Brugada syndrome. Life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias can occur in young patients without structural heart disease (idiopathic forms). In many patients, these are typically triggered by an increased sympathetic tone, eg, by physical or mental stress. In contrast, in Brugada syndrome, ventricular tachyarrhythmias more often occur during rest or sleep when the vagal tone is predominant. Furthermore, adrenergic (...) function by means of positron emission tomography with the norepinephrine analogue 11C-Hydroxyephedrine (11C-HED) and the nonselective beta-blocker 11C-CGP 12177 (11C-CGP). Presynaptic sympathetic norepinephrine recycling, assessed by 11C-HED, was globally increased in patients with Brugada syndrome compared with a group of age-matched healthy control subjects (92.9+/-16.2 mL/g versus 69.1+/-14.2 mL/g; P<0.05), whereas postsynaptic beta-adrenoceptor density, assessed by 11C-CGP, was similar in patients

2004 Circulation

10444. Amiodarone improves cardiac sympathetic nerve function to hold norepinephrine in the heart, prevents left ventricular remodeling, and improves cardiac function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Amiodarone improves cardiac sympathetic nerve function to hold norepinephrine in the heart, prevents left ventricular remodeling, and improves cardiac function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy. It is unclear how amiodarone therapy exerts its effects on left ventricular remodeling and cardiac sympathetic nerve function in chronic heart failure. We investigated long-term effects of amiodarone on rat dilated cardiomyopathy after healing of cardiac myosin-induced autoimmune myocarditis.Rats were (...) in rats with chronic heart failure (257% compared with vehicle-treated rats with chronic heart failure; P<0.01). In proportion to MIBG distributions, cardiac tissue catecholamines were increased by amiodarone treatment.Long-term amiodarone treatment prevented left ventricular remodeling and improved cardiac function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy. Long-term amiodarone treatment also restored cardiac sympathetic tone to hold norepinephrine in the heart.

2005 Circulation

10445. Different contributions of endothelin-A and endothelin-B receptors in postischemic cardiac dysfunction and norepinephrine overflow in rat hearts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Different contributions of endothelin-A and endothelin-B receptors in postischemic cardiac dysfunction and norepinephrine overflow in rat hearts. Endothelin (ET)-1 and norepinephrine (NE) are involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated the role of ET-1 in ischemia/reperfusion-induced NE overflow and cardiac dysfunction using a selective ET(A) receptor antagonist (ABT-627), a selective ET(B) receptor antagonist (A-192621), and the spotting lethal (sl) rat, which carries

2005 Circulation

10446. Norepinephrine transporter-deficient mice exhibit excessive tachycardia and elevated blood pressure with wakefulness and activity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine transporter-deficient mice exhibit excessive tachycardia and elevated blood pressure with wakefulness and activity. Norepinephrine (NE) is a primary neurotransmitter of central autonomic regulation and sympathetic nerve conduction, and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) is crucial in limiting catecholaminergic signaling. NET is sensitive to antidepressants, cocaine, and amphetamine. NET blockade often is associated with cardiovascular side effects, and NET deficiency is linked

2004 Circulation

10447. Interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in active muscle. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in active muscle. Sympathetic nervous system activity increases with exercise in normal subjects. Heightened peripheral sympathetic nervous activity and the resultant increased neurovascular levels of norepinephrine (NE) evoke vasoconstriction and serve to maintain blood pressure and perfusion to vital organs. Previous work demonstrated that the interstitial ATP concentrations ([ATP]i) rise in contracting skeletal muscle, and it is known

2005 Circulation

10448. Association of a serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) with depression, perceived stress, and norepinephrine in patients with coronary disease: the Heart and Soul Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of a serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) with depression, perceived stress, and norepinephrine in patients with coronary disease: the Heart and Soul Study. The short allele of a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been shown to interact with stressful life events to predict depression in otherwise healthy individuals. Whether the short allele increases risk for depression associated with the stress of a chronic (...) illness has not been established.In a cross-sectional genetic association study, the authors examined the association of 5-HTTLPR with current depression (measured by the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule), perceived stress (measured by the Perceived Stress Scale), and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion in 557 outpatients with chronic coronary disease.Among individuals carrying an s allele, 25% (97 of 383) had current depression, compared with 17% (29 of 174) of l/l homozygotes

2007 American Journal of Psychiatry

10449. Improved survival after resuscitation with norepinephrine in a murine model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improved survival after resuscitation with norepinephrine in a murine model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. Recent studies have challenged current guidelines on fluid resuscitation. However, studies on resuscitation using norepinephrine in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock are lacking. The authors examined the effects of norepinephrine in combination with saline infusion in uncontrolled hemorrhage in rats.Rats subjected to a 15-min controlled hemorrhage (withdrawal of 3 ml blood/100 g body mass (...) ) followed by a 60-min uncontrolled hemorrhage (75% tail amputation) were randomly assigned to one of several treatment groups (10 rats/group) receiving different doses of norepinephrine (0 [NE0], 5 [NE5], 50 [NE50], or 500 [NE500] microg.100 g(-1).h(-1)). In the four hypotensive resuscitation groups (n = 40), mean arterial pressure was not allowed to fall below 40 mmHg by titrated infusion of normal saline. In the four normotensive resuscitation groups (n = 40), it was not allowed to fall below 80 mmHg

2007 Anesthesiology

10450. Uncoupling protein 1 is necessary for norepinephrine-induced glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue. (Abstract)

Uncoupling protein 1 is necessary for norepinephrine-induced glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue. Sympathetic stimulation activates glucose utilization in parallel with fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the beta-adrenergic receptors. To clarify the roles of the principal thermogenic molecule mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the sympathetically stimulated glucose utilization, we investigated the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG (...) ) into BAT and some other tissues of UCP1-knockout (KO) mice in vivo. In wild-type (WT) mice, administration of norepinephrine (NE) accelerated the disappearance of plasma 2-DG and increased 2-DG uptake into BAT and heart without any rise of plasma insulin level. In UCP1-KO mice, the stimulatory effect of NE on 2-DG uptake into BAT, but not into heart, disappeared completely. Insulin administration increased 2-DG uptake into BAT and also heart similarly in WT and UCP1-KO mice. NE also increased

2005 Diabetes

10451. Norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and beta-endorphin in women suffering from fear of labor: responses to the cold pressor test during and after pregnancy. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and beta-endorphin in women suffering from fear of labor: responses to the cold pressor test during and after pregnancy. Women suffering from fear of labor have reduced pain tolerance during a cold pressor test (CPT) during and after pregnancy.We compared levels of norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol and beta-endorphin before and during the CPT up to 60 min in 20 normotensive women with and 20 without fear of labor at 37.4 +/- 0.2 (...) (mean +/- SE) gestational weeks and at 41.9 +/- 1.6 weeks after delivery.Baseline levels of norepinephrine in the pregnant fear group (1.63 +/- 0.18 nmol/L) were higher (p = 0.068) than in controls (1.38 +/- 0.14 nmol/L) but after delivery they were lower in the fear group (1.75 +/- 0.31 nmol/L vs. 2.31 +/- 0.26 nmol/L, p = 0.064). ACTH, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant groups. The CPT caused a 28.4% smaller response in norepinephrine in the pregnant

2004 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

10452. Norepinephrine treatment and aging lead to systemic and intracellular oxidative stress in rats. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine treatment and aging lead to systemic and intracellular oxidative stress in rats. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in cellular senescence and organismic aging. Furthermore, they have been implicated in some of the adverse effects of chronic stress due to elevated peripheral levels of catecholamines. Here, we applied three different techniques to individually compare the systemic and intracellular oxidative stress in aged (23 months) and young (5 months) Sprague (...) -Dawley rats, and in young rats treated for 12 or 24 h with norepinephrine (NE). Thiol groups of blood serum proteins (RSH) were determined by means of Ellman's reaction. Intracellular ROS were assessed in spleen cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by carbonylation of cellular (spleen) proteins as determined by immunoblotting (Oxyblot) and/or by means of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence. As compared to the young, untreated controls, both old rats and NE treated young rats showed

2007 Experimental Gerontology

10453. Norepinephrine and metaraminol in septic shock: a comparison of the hemodynamic effects. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine and metaraminol in septic shock: a comparison of the hemodynamic effects. To compare the effects of norepinephrine and metaraminol on hemodynamics in septic shock patients.Open-label, controlled clinical trial in the general intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital.Ten consecutive septic shock patients receiving norepinephrine to maintain the mean arterial pressure higher than 65 mmHg.Patients were monitored with pulmonary artery catheter and indirect calorimetry (...) . At the baseline hemodynamic variables were obtained during norepinephrine infusion. Subsequently norepinephrine was replaced by metaraminol infusion in a dose sufficient to keep mean arterial pressure constant. After 20 min of stable arterial pressure a new set of measurement was repeated.Mean arterial pressure did not differ significantly with norepinephrine or metaraminol; there was no relationship between the norepinephrine and metaraminol doses. Replacement norepinephrine with metaraminol did not modify

2005 Intensive Care Medicine

10454. Renal arterial resistance in septic shock: effects of increasing mean arterial pressure with norepinephrine on the renal resistive index assessed with Doppler ultrasonography. (Abstract)

Renal arterial resistance in septic shock: effects of increasing mean arterial pressure with norepinephrine on the renal resistive index assessed with Doppler ultrasonography. To determine the effects of increasing mean arterial pressure (MAP) on renal resistances assessed by Doppler ultrasonography in septic shock.Prospective, single-center, nonrandomized, open-label trial in the surgical intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital.11 patients with septic shock who required fluid (...) resuscitation and norepinephrine to increase and maintain MAP at or above 65 mmHg.Norepinephrine was titrated in 11 patients in septic shock during three consecutive not randomized periods of 2 h to achieve a MAP at successively 65, 75, and 85 mmHg.At the end of each period hemodynamic parameters and renal function variables (urinary output, creatinine, clearance) were measured, and Doppler ultrasonography was performed on interlobar arteries to assess the renal resistive index. When increasing MAP from 65

2007 Intensive Care Medicine

10455. Effects of norepinephrine and dobutamine on pressure load-induced right ventricular failure. (Abstract)

Effects of norepinephrine and dobutamine on pressure load-induced right ventricular failure. A transient increase in pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure can persistently depress right ventricular (RV) contractility. We investigated the effects norepinephrine and dobutamine on RV-PA coupling in this model of RV failure.Prospective, controlled, randomized animal study.University research laboratory.Twenty-two anesthetized dogs.Animals underwent transient (90-min) PA constriction to induce persistent (...) RV failure. They were randomly assigned to control, norepinephrine, or dobutamine group. Norepinephrine was administered at 0.1 and 0.5 microg x kg x min or dobutamine at 5 and 10 microg x kg x min.We measured PA distal resistance and proximal elastance by pressure-flow relationships and vascular impedance. We also measured RV contractility by the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (Ees), PA effective elastance by the end-diastolic to end-systolic relationship (Ea), and RV-PA coupling

2004 Critical Care Medicine

10456. Effects of norepinephrine on alpha-subtype receptors in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. (Abstract)

Effects of norepinephrine on alpha-subtype receptors in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. To test the hypothesis that norepinephrine induces a pressor response in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat and identify the alpha-(1)adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the mediation or modulation of these effects.Prospective vehicle controlled study.University research laboratory.Intact chest preparation, adult mongrel cats.In separate experiments, the effects of 5-methyl-urapidil, a selective alpha-(1 (...) )A-subtype adrenoceptor antagonist, chloroethylclonidine, an alpha-(1)B-subtype and -(1)D-subtype adrenoceptor antagonist, and BMY 7378, the selective alpha-(1)D-subtype adrenoceptor antagonist, were investigated on pulmonary arterial responses to norepinephrine and other agonists in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat.The systemic pressure and lobar arterial perfusion pressure were continuously monitored, electronically averaged, and permanently recorded. In the feline pulmonary vascular bed

2004 Critical Care Medicine

10457. Norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction results in decreased blood volume in dialysis patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction results in decreased blood volume in dialysis patients. Hypotension during haemodialysis results from an inadequate cardiovascular response to ultrafiltration-induced hypovolaemia. It has been suggested that plasma volume could be increased as a result of systemic vasoconstriction.We studied the effect of a norepinephrine (NOR) infusion (30 min), compared with no infusion, on relative blood volume (RBV) in six haemodialysis patients. During infusion we (...) measured RBV, systolic blood pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume index (SI), total peripheral resistance (TPRI), ejection fraction (EF), inferior vena cava diameter (VCD) and core temperature.At the end of the NOR infusion, we observed a significant increase in TPRI (47+/-47% vs 4+/-17%; P<0.01) and SAP (27+/-12% vs 0+/-8%; P<0.01). Norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction resulted in a significant decrease in RBV (-9+/-3% vs 0+/-1%; P<0.01). No significant changes were seen in SI (-4+/-21

2006 Transplantation

10458. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A critical review. (Abstract)

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A critical review. To critically review the antiobsessional properties of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (venlafaxine and clomipramine) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as an alternative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are currently considered the first-line treatment of OCD.A MEDLINE search was performed to identify clinical

2006 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

10459. Depressive symptoms and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion levels in patients with coronary disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Depressive symptoms and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion levels in patients with coronary disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiac events in patients with heart disease. Elevated catecholamine levels may contribute to this association, but whether depressive symptoms are associated with catecholamine levels in patients with heart disease is unknown.The authors examined the association between depressive (...) symptoms (defined by a Patient Health Questionnaire score > or =10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine excretion levels in 598 subjects with coronary disease.A total of 106 participants (18%) had depressive symptoms. Participants with depressive symptoms had greater mean norepinephrine excretion levels than those without depressive symptoms (65 microg/day versus 59 mug/day, with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, urinary creatinine levels, comorbid illnesses

2005 American Journal of Psychiatry

10460. Distinguishing roles for norepinephrine and serotonin in the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs. (Abstract)

Distinguishing roles for norepinephrine and serotonin in the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs. Antidepressant drugs have typically been classified into sets of compounds with actions targeted at serotonin (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]), norepinephrine (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [NRIs]), or both neurotransmitters (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). Their classification has been based predominantly on their acute pharmacologic effects, usually (...) antidepressants. Behavioral tests indicate that depletion of serotonin (5-HT) is capable of preventing the effects produced by SSRIs but not NRIs. The depletion of catecholamines also inhibits the effects of NRIs, although test results can be complicated by inhibition of motor activity. Depletion of norepinephrine may also inhibit the effects of some SSRIs, but not highly selective SSRIs like citalopram. Although the pattern of results from in vivo tests supports the concept that parallel neurotransmitter

2004 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

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