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Norepinephrine

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10421. Urea transporter UT-A1 and aquaporin-2 proteins decrease in response to angiotensin II or norepinephrine-induced acute hypertension. (Abstract)

Urea transporter UT-A1 and aquaporin-2 proteins decrease in response to angiotensin II or norepinephrine-induced acute hypertension. The kidney responds to high levels of ANG II, as may occur during malignant hypertension, by increasing sodium and water excretion. To study whether kidney medullary transporters contribute to this response, rats were made hypertensive using ANG II. Within 3 days of being given ANG II, systolic blood pressure (BP) was increased (200 mmHg), vs control (130 mmHg (...) ), and remained high through day 14. Kidney inner medullary (IM) tip and base and outer medulla were analyzed for transporter protein abundance. There were significant decreases in UT-A1 urea transporter, aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel, and NKCC2/BSC1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter. To determine whether the decreases were a response to hypertension, ANG II, or an ANG II-induced increase in aldosterone, rats were given 1) norepinephrine (to increase BP) and 2) ANG II plus spironolactone (to block

2006 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

10422. Impaired autofeedback regulation of hypothalamic norepinephrine release in experimental uremia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired autofeedback regulation of hypothalamic norepinephrine release in experimental uremia. Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with multiple hypothalamic dysfunctions, including reduced secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Because GnRH release is tightly controlled by sympathetic neuronal input, a possible alteration of local noradrenergic neurotransmission in experimental CRF was evaluated. Basal, stimulated, and autoinhibited norepinephrine (NE) release was assessed

2005 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

10423. Norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction results in decreased blood volume in dialysis patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction results in decreased blood volume in dialysis patients. Hypotension during haemodialysis results from an inadequate cardiovascular response to ultrafiltration-induced hypovolaemia. It has been suggested that plasma volume could be increased as a result of systemic vasoconstriction.We studied the effect of a norepinephrine (NOR) infusion (30 min), compared with no infusion, on relative blood volume (RBV) in six haemodialysis patients. During infusion we (...) measured RBV, systolic blood pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume index (SI), total peripheral resistance (TPRI), ejection fraction (EF), inferior vena cava diameter (VCD) and core temperature.At the end of the NOR infusion, we observed a significant increase in TPRI (47+/-47% vs 4+/-17%; P<0.01) and SAP (27+/-12% vs 0+/-8%; P<0.01). Norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction resulted in a significant decrease in RBV (-9+/-3% vs 0+/-1%; P<0.01). No significant changes were seen in SI (-4+/-21

2006 Transplantation

10424. Norepinephrine transporter (NET), serotonin transporter (SERT), vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and organic cation transporters (OCT1, 2 and EMT) in human placenta from pre-eclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine transporter (NET), serotonin transporter (SERT), vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and organic cation transporters (OCT1, 2 and EMT) in human placenta from pre-eclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Pre-eclampsia is one of the most common causes of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. High blood pressure and proteinuria are important clinical signs of pre-eclampsia. Sympathetic overactivity and elevated level of circulating vaso active substances

2004 Placenta

10425. Norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and beta-endorphin in women suffering from fear of labor: responses to the cold pressor test during and after pregnancy. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and beta-endorphin in women suffering from fear of labor: responses to the cold pressor test during and after pregnancy. Women suffering from fear of labor have reduced pain tolerance during a cold pressor test (CPT) during and after pregnancy.We compared levels of norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol and beta-endorphin before and during the CPT up to 60 min in 20 normotensive women with and 20 without fear of labor at 37.4 +/- 0.2 (...) (mean +/- SE) gestational weeks and at 41.9 +/- 1.6 weeks after delivery.Baseline levels of norepinephrine in the pregnant fear group (1.63 +/- 0.18 nmol/L) were higher (p = 0.068) than in controls (1.38 +/- 0.14 nmol/L) but after delivery they were lower in the fear group (1.75 +/- 0.31 nmol/L vs. 2.31 +/- 0.26 nmol/L, p = 0.064). ACTH, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant groups. The CPT caused a 28.4% smaller response in norepinephrine in the pregnant

2004 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

10426. Renal effects of norepinephrine in septic and nonseptic patients. (Abstract)

Renal effects of norepinephrine in septic and nonseptic patients. To assess the effects of a norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction on renal function in septic and nonseptic patients.Open-label prospective study.Medical-surgical ICU in an urban teaching hospital.Fourteen patients with septic shock and 12 uninfected patients with head trauma (Glasgow coma score, < 8).Patients received norepinephrine infusion to increase systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and to raise mean arterial BP (...) (MAP) to > 70 mm Hg in the septic group and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) to > 70 mm Hg in the head trauma group.MAP and SVRI increased in both groups (p < 0.001), and CPP significantly increased in the head trauma group (p < 0.001). The cardiac index was not modified in either group. Norepinephrine infusion reestablished urine flow in 12 of the 14 septic patients (p < 0.001), with a decrease in serum creatinine levels (p < 0.001) and an increase in creatinine clearance rate (p < 0.001) after

2004 Chest

10427. Increasing renal blood flow: low-dose dopamine or medium-dose norepinephrine. (Abstract)

Increasing renal blood flow: low-dose dopamine or medium-dose norepinephrine. Many clinicians believe that low-dose dopamine (LDD) [2 micro g/kg/min] increases renal blood flow (RBF) and medium-dose norepinephrine (MD-NE) [0.4 micro g/kg/min] decreases RBF. They also believe that MD-NE might induce mesenteric and/or coronary ischemia. In fact, the effects of these drugs on renal and vital organ blood flow are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6 h of IV LDD

2004 Chest

10428. Norepinephrine increases alveolar fluid reabsorption and Na,K-ATPase activity. (Abstract)

Norepinephrine increases alveolar fluid reabsorption and Na,K-ATPase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists have a role in alveolar fluid reabsorption, via Na,K-ATPase, in the alveolar epithelium. Alveolar fluid reabsorption increased approximately twofold with increasing concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) as compared with control rats. Treatment with the nonselective alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist, octopamine, and the specific

2004 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

10429. Postnatal changes in response to norepinephrine in the normal and pulmonary hypertensive lung. (Abstract)

Postnatal changes in response to norepinephrine in the normal and pulmonary hypertensive lung. The effect of norepinephrine administration on pulmonary blood flow during the neonatal period is unclear. Therefore, norepinephrine responses were studied in isolated pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, and femoral arteries taken from normal pigs from birth to adulthood and from pigs subjected to chronic hypoxia either from birth for 3 days or from 3 to 14 days of age. Normally, the contractile (...) response of pulmonary arteries and veins to norepinephrine decreased after birth (p < 0.01), and alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation increased in pulmonary arteries and veins and in femoral arteries. Hypoxic exposure from birth prevented the normal postnatal reduction in pulmonary arterial contractile response, nor was there a postnatal increase in pulmonary arterial adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation. When hypoxic exposure followed a period of normal adaptation, the pulmonary arterial contractile

2004 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

10430. Effects of chloride channel blockers on rat renal vascular responses to angiotensin II and norepinephrine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of chloride channel blockers on rat renal vascular responses to angiotensin II and norepinephrine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels in the renal vasoconstriction elicited by angiotensin II (ANG II) and norepinephrine (NE). Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured in vivo using electromagnetic flowmetry. Ratiometric photometry of fura 2 fluorescence was used to estimate intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in isolated

2004 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

10431. Modulation of angiotensin II and norepinephrine-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by AT1a receptor deficiency. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modulation of angiotensin II and norepinephrine-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by AT1a receptor deficiency. Angiotensin (Ang) II stimulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in many cell types by mechanisms that are cell-type specific. We measured effects of Ang II or norepinephrine on PAI-1 expression in wild type (WT) and Ang type-1a receptor knockout mice (AT(1a)-/-) in the presence or absence of the non-specific AT(1) antagonist losartan. Ang II (...) and norepinephrine increased systolic blood pressure equally, whereas losartan decreased the pressor response of the former but not the latter in WT mice. In AT(1a)-/- mice, baseline systolic blood pressure was lower with no effect of Ang II, norepinephrine, or losartan. Ang II stimulated PAI-1 expression in the heart, aorta, and kidney and markedly in the liver of WT mice. In AT(1a)-/- mice, Ang II-stimulated PAI-1 was significantly attenuated compared with the WT in the heart and aorta but significantly

2007 Kidney International

10432. Impact of norepinephrine and fluid on cerebral oxygenation in experimental hemorrhagic shock. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of norepinephrine and fluid on cerebral oxygenation in experimental hemorrhagic shock. Few data exist regarding resuscitation of hypovolemic shock in infants, and alternative strategies such as vasopressor therapy merit further evaluation. However, the effects of norepinephrine on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in the pediatric population are still unclear. Eight anesthetized piglets were subjected to hypotension by blood withdrawal of 25 mL/kg (...) . Norepinephrine was titrated to achieve baseline mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and cerebral oxygenation was determined by brain tissue Po2 (Ptio2) and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived tissue oxygen index (TOI). Then, norepinephrine was stopped, MAP was allowed to decrease again below 30 mm Hg, and shed blood was retransfused. During hemorrhage, TOI dropped from 69+/-3 to 59+/-3%, and Ptio2 from 29+/-6 to 13+/-1 mm Hg (mean+/-SEM; p<0.001). Following norepinephrine, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP

2007 Pediatric Research

10433. Locally released norepinephrine in the oxygen-dependent regulation of vascular tone of human umbilical vein. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Locally released norepinephrine in the oxygen-dependent regulation of vascular tone of human umbilical vein. In a previous study, human umbilical vein preparations constricted at PO(2) values above the physiologic intrauterine PO(2) range and dilated at hypoxia. Denudation of the endothelium reversed the hypoxic vasodilatation only, suggesting the release of a nonendothelial vasoconstrictor. We therefore hypothesized that norepinephrine from adrenergic nerve terminals could be responsible (...) preparations. However, membrane potential and isometric tension were not different between endothelium-denuded preparations with and without 6-OH-dopamine pretreatment. We conclude that locally released norepinephrine contributes to the depolarization and vasoconstriction of the human umbilical vein at hyperoxia but does not antagonize the endothelium-dependent vasodilation at hypoxia.

2004 Pediatric Research

10434. Porcine pulmonary artery and bronchial responses to endothelin-1 and norepinephrine on recovery from hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Porcine pulmonary artery and bronchial responses to endothelin-1 and norepinephrine on recovery from hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Many infants recovering from acute lung disease and pulmonary hypertension still have evidence of reactive airways disease at one year of age, suggesting longer-term airway effects. We hypothesized that parallel changes in smooth muscle would occur in airways and pulmonary arteries from animals with pulmonary hypertension and during normoxic recovery. Thus, two (...) -hour-old piglets were subjected to 3 d chronic hypobaric hypoxia and 3-d-old piglets were subjected to 11 d hypoxia. Some animals were allowed to recover in room air for 3 or 6 d. The amount of smooth muscle and responses of isolated paired bronchial and pulmonary artery rings to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and norepinephrine were studied at the end of hypoxic exposure, on recovery and in age-matched control animals. In all hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertensive animals, smooth muscle area and ET-1

2006 Pediatric Research

10435. Femoral artery constriction by norepinephrine is enhanced by methylprednisolone in a rat model. (Abstract)

Femoral artery constriction by norepinephrine is enhanced by methylprednisolone in a rat model. Corticosteroids are associated with femoral head osteonecrosis and arterial hypertension. The patho-mechanism of femoral head osteonecrosis is often attributed to ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate if corticosteroids directly constrict the femoral artery or if they have a permissive effect on norepinephrine and endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction.Femoral artery segments were (...) harvested from twenty Wistar rats and mounted as ring preparations on a small-vessel myograph for the purpose of making isometric force measurements. For the norepinephrine study, twenty femoral artery segments from ten rats were stimulated cumulatively with norepinephrine before and after incubation with methylprednisolone (5 mug/mL). For the endothelin-1 study, forty femoral artery segments from ten rats were used. The four artery segments from each animal were randomized by pairs to either

2006 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

10436. Bone marrow norepinephrine mediates development of functionally different macrophages after thermal injury and sepsis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bone marrow norepinephrine mediates development of functionally different macrophages after thermal injury and sepsis. We sought to determine the influence of thermal (burn) injury with sepsis and norepinephrine on the clonogenic potential and functional cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in nonmyeloid committed (CD117) and myeloid committed (ER-MP12) bone marrow progenitor cells.We have previously demonstrated that norepinephrine stimulated myelopoiesis after burn injury (...) and sepsis, but the site of this stimulation in monocyte development is unknown. In the present study the influence of norepinephrine on the developmental hierarchy of bone marrow cells after thermal injury and sepsis was determined by assessing the clonogenic potential and LPS-stimulated cytokine responses of mature macrophages derived from CD117 and ER-MP12 bone marrow progenitor cells.Tissue and bone marrow norepinephrine content was ablated by chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine treatment

2004 Annals of Surgery

10437. Fixed-dose vasopressin compared with titrated dopamine and norepinephrine as initial vasopressor therapy for septic shock. (Abstract)

Fixed-dose vasopressin compared with titrated dopamine and norepinephrine as initial vasopressor therapy for septic shock. To investigate the early blood pressure effects of vasopressin compared with titrated catecholamines as initial drug therapy in patients with septic shock.Retrospective cohort, single-center study.Intensive care units at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.Fifty, 49, and 51 intensive care patients treated initially with vasopressin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (...) , respectively.Patients received either intravenous infusion of fixed-dose vasopressin 0.04 U/minute or titrated infusions of norepinephrine or dopamine for low systemic arterial pressures.Patients treated with vasopressin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were similar in all measured characteristics except for their score on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III (dopamine > vasopressin, p=0.049), renal comorbidities (dopamine > vasopressin, p=0.03) and baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP

2004 Pharmacotherapy

10438. Duloxetine: a dual serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor for treatment of major depressive disorder. (Abstract)

Duloxetine: a dual serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor for treatment of major depressive disorder. The burden of mental illness has been underestimated worldwide. Depression was the fourth leading cause of disease burden in the world in 1990 and is projected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, costing billions of dollars annually in direct and indirect medical costs and losses in productivity

2005 Pharmacotherapy

10439. Blood pressure and cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Blood pressure and cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Central nervous system norepinephrine (NE) is normally involved in blood pressure regulation, but it is pathophysiologically elevated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).We monitored blood pressure while performing serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling for 6 hours to determine CSF NE concentrations in men with combat-related PTSD (n = 11) and in healthy men (n = 8).CSF NE

2004 Psychosomatic Medicine

10440. Differential effects of vasopressin and norepinephrine on vascular reactivity in a long-term rodent model of sepsis. (Abstract)

Differential effects of vasopressin and norepinephrine on vascular reactivity in a long-term rodent model of sepsis. There is escalating interest in the therapeutic use of vasopressin in septic shock. However, little attention has focused on mechanisms underlying its pressor hypersensitivity, which contrasts with the vascular hyporesponsiveness to catecholamines. We investigated whether a long-term rodent model of sepsis would produce changes in endogenous levels and pressor reactivity (...) to exogenous norepinephrine and vasopressin comparable with those seen in septic patients.In vivo and ex vivo animal study.University research laboratory.Male adult Wistar rats.Fecal peritonitis was induced in conscious, fluid-resuscitated rats. Biochemical and hormonal profiles were measured at time points up to 48 hrs. Pressor responses to intravenous norepinephrine, vasopressin, and F-180, a selective V1 receptor agonist, were measured at 24 hrs. Contractile responses to these drugs were assessed

2007 Critical Care Medicine

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