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Norepinephrine

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10401. Effects of titrated arginine vasopressin on hemodynamic variables and oxygen transport in healthy and endotoxemic sheep. (Abstract)

Effects of titrated arginine vasopressin on hemodynamic variables and oxygen transport in healthy and endotoxemic sheep. To determine the effects of titrated arginine vasopressin (AVP) alone or in combination with norepinephrine (NE) on hemodynamics and oxygen transport in healthy and endotoxemic sheep.Prospective controlled trial.University research laboratory.Six adult ewes.Healthy sheep received AVP as a titrated infusion, initiated with 0.6 units/hr and increased by 0.6 units/hr every 15

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10402. Modulation of serum cytokine levels by a novel superoxide dismutase mimetic, M40401, in an Escherichia coli model of septic shock: correlation with preserved circulating catecholamines. (Abstract)

Modulation of serum cytokine levels by a novel superoxide dismutase mimetic, M40401, in an Escherichia coli model of septic shock: correlation with preserved circulating catecholamines. We have shown previously that inactivation of catecholamines by superoxide anions contributes to the loss of vascular reactivity to norepinephrine and the subsequent hypotension that develops in Gram-negative endotoxic shock. In addition to their vasopressor actions, catecholamines, via beta-adrenoceptor (...) venous catheters were intravenously infected with 10(10) live E. coli bacteria (O55:B5, n = 51) over 30 mins, ending at time = 0 hrs. At 0.5 or 3 hrs, infected rats were administered an intravenous infusion of either M40401 (n = 33) or 0.9% saline (n = 18) for 6 hrs at a rate of 1 mL/h. In additional experiments, anesthetized animals with catheterized left femoral arteries and veins were administered a dose-range of norepinephrine (0.1-1 microg/kg) as bolus intravenous injections. Thereafter, E. coli

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10403. Moderate hypothermia may be detrimental after traumatic brain injury in fentanyl-anesthetized rats. (Abstract)

dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations were increased at the end of hypothermia in hypothermic (vs. normothermic) rats (p <.05), indicating that hypothermia augmented the systemic stress response. Similarly, serum fentanyl concentrations were higher in hypothermic (vs. normothermic) rats at the end of both hypothermia and rewarming (p <.05), demonstrating that hypothermia reduced the clearance and/or metabolism of fentanyl.Moderate hypothermia was detrimental after experimental traumatic brain

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10404. Ischemic skin lesions as a complication of continuous vasopressin infusion in catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock: incidence and risk factors. (Abstract)

patients (30.2%). Thirteen of 19 patients (68%) developed ISL in distal limbs, two patients (10.5%) developed ISL of the trunk, four patients (21%) developed ISL in distal limbs and in the trunk. Five patients (26%) had additional ischemia of the tongue. Body mass index, preexistent peripheral arterial occlusive disease, presence of septic shock, and norepinephrine requirements were significantly higher in patients developing ISL. ISL patients received significantly more units of fresh frozen plasma

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10405. Prophylactic anticoagulation with enoxaparin: Is the subcutaneous route appropriate in the critically ill? (Abstract)

between the anti-Xa activity at 3 hrs and the dose of norepinephrine (r =.12, p =.7).Critically ill patients with normal renal function demonstrated significantly lower anti-Xa levels in response to a single daily dose of subcutaneous enoxaparin when compared with medical patients in the normal ward.

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10406. Cytokines down-regulate alpha1-adrenergic receptor expression during endotoxemia. (Abstract)

Cytokines down-regulate alpha1-adrenergic receptor expression during endotoxemia. The reduced pressure response to norepinephrine in septic patients has directed our interest to the regulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in vitro and in vivo during conditions mimicking acute sepsis.Prospective animal trial followed by a controlled cell culture study.Laboratory of the Department of Anesthesiology.Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 to 250 g and a mesangial cell line.Experimental endotoxemia (...) was induced in rats with lipopolysaccharide, and blood pressure dose-response studies with norepinephrine were performed. Alpha1-receptor gene expression was determined in various organs by a specific RNase protection assay, and tissue concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured. Rat renal mesangial cells were incubated with these cytokines or with nitric oxide donors to investigate the regulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors during

2003 Critical Care Medicine

10407. Assessment of cerebrovascular autoregulation in head-injured patients: a validation study. (Full text)

and fentanyl. Norepinephrine was used to control CPP. During PET scanning, transcranial Doppler (TCD) flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was monitored, and the arterio-jugular oxygen content difference (AJDo2) was measured at each CPP. Autoregulation was determined as the static rate of autoregulation based on PET (SROR(PET)) and TCD (SROR(TCD)) data, based on changes in AJDo2, and with 2 indexes based on the relationship between slow waves of CPP and flow velocity (mean velocity index, Mx

2003 Stroke PubMed abstract

10408. Cerebral autoregulation under moderate hypothermia in patients with acute stroke. (Abstract)

Cerebral autoregulation under moderate hypothermia in patients with acute stroke. We undertook this study to examine the integrity of cerebral autoregulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with moderate hypothermia (33 degrees C).Fourteen patients, aged 58+/-11 years, with an acute anterior circulation infarction and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score >15 were evaluated. Patients received catecholamines (norepinephrine) via continuous intravenous infusion and were (...) =(%DeltaCVR/%DeltaMAP)x100% (where %DeltaCVR is an estimate of percent change in cerebrovascular resistance). An sCA value of 0% indicates absent autoregulation, and a value of 100% indicates perfect autoregulation. Autoregulation is considered impaired when sCA values are <40%. MAP changes were produced by increasing the rate of the norepinephrine infusion. Six patients were examined under both normothermic and hypothermic conditions, while 8 were examined only under hypothermia.The induced MAP increase

2002 Stroke

10409. Raised sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure and central sleep apnea is due to heart failure severity. (Abstract)

Raised sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure and central sleep apnea is due to heart failure severity. Congestive heart failure (CHF) patients with central sleep apnea (CHF-CSA) have elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) compared with CHF patients without apnea (CHF-N). Patients with CHF-CSA also demonstrate higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), which is suggestive of worse cardiac function. Whether CSA contributes to chronic elevation of sympathetic nerve activity or is associated

2003 Circulation

10410. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids in small mesenteric arteries from patients with Crohn's disease. (Abstract)

, 6, and 8) has been observed in biopsy specimens of inflammatory intestinal mucosa. However, contractile responses of small mesenteric arteries from CD patients in response to norepinephrine were not changed ex vivo when compared with controls. Exposure to either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine or the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin did not modify contractions induced by norepinephrine in either control or CD patients. However, in the latter, the specific COX (...) -2 inhibitor N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl) methanesulfonamide significantly attenuated norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed marked COX-2 expression in the whole arterial wall of vessels from CD patients. Vessels from control patients exhibited weak COX-2 staining in the adventitial and endothelial layers only.The above results provide direct evidence for COX-2 expression in small mesenteric arteries from CD patients. They also shed new

2003 Circulation

10411. Simvastatin normalizes autonomic neural control in experimental heart failure. (Full text)

Simvastatin normalizes autonomic neural control in experimental heart failure. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to beneficially affect outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF). We hypothesized that statins exert effects on autonomic function, as assessed by plasma norepinephrine levels, direct recordings of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and baroreflex function.Normolipidemic CHF rabbits were treated with simvastatin or vehicle. CHF was induced by continuous (...) % (P<0.05); and in CHF rabbits on high-dose simvastatin (3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), 21.1+/-4.5% (P=NS). Similar data were observed for plasma norepinephrine. In CHF rabbits treated with 3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) simvastatin, baroreflex regulation of heart rate to transient hypotension with sodium nitroprusside was normalized by 66% compared with CHF controls.These are the first data showing that non-lipid-lowering statin effects include a normalization of sympathetic outflow and reflex regulation in CHF

2003 Circulation PubMed abstract

10412. Abnormal postexercise cardiovascular recovery and its determinants in patients after right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. (Abstract)

(group A), 79 patients after RVOTR (group B), and 44 control subjects. HR variability, arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), plasma norepinephrine, and hemodynamics were measured. Although there was no difference between group A and control subjects, declines in HR and VO2 after light and peak exercise and in systolic blood pressure (SBP) after peak exercise were delayed in group B. Age, low-frequency component of HR variability, and plasma norepinephrine were independent determinants of early HR

2002 Circulation

10413. Vascular structural and functional changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus: evidence for the roles of abnormal myogenic responsiveness and dyslipidemia. (Abstract)

responsiveness compared with patients with EH and control patients. Vasoconstrictor function to norepinephrine was normal in patients with type 2D and type 2D+H and EH. Endothelium-dependent dilation was normal in patients with EH but abnormal in patients with type 2D and type 2D+H. There was a significant correlation between dilator impairment and the degree of dyslipidemia recorded in all groups.These results demonstrate vascular hypertrophy in small arteries from patients with type 2D. This could

2002 Circulation

10414. Human cytomegalovirus seropositivity is associated with impaired vascular function. (Full text)

for anti-IgG antibodies to CMV and HSV from 400 subjects (mean age for diabetics and nondiabetics, 37.8+/-4.3 and 37.9+/-3.7 [SD]). We also assessed Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae serology. Coronary atheroma was quantified by means of electron beam computed tomography. Subjects (n=157) underwent venous occlusion plethysmography with acetylcholine, bradykinin, glyceryl trinitrate, norepinephrine, and l-NG-monomethyl-l-arginine. Individuals who were seropositive for CMV had reduced

2003 Circulation PubMed abstract

10415. Neurovascular dissociation with paradoxical forearm vasodilation during systemic tyramine administration. (Full text)

Neurovascular dissociation with paradoxical forearm vasodilation during systemic tyramine administration. Despite the widespread use of tyramine as a pharmacological tool to assess the effects of norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve terminals, its vascular effects are not adequately characterized. In particular, previous results indicate that intravenous tyramine produces little if any systemic vasoconstriction, suggesting that tyramine does not cause significant norepinephrine release (...) from sympathetic nerves innervating peripheral vascular beds. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of intravenous tyramine on local forearm norepinephrine spillover and vascular resistance.Seven healthy subjects were studied with systemic and local forearm norepinephrine spillover and forearm blood flow at baseline, during systemic tyramine infusion, and after sympathetic stimulation induced by the cold pressor test. Tyramine infusion caused a significant increase in systemic

2003 Circulation PubMed abstract

10416. Beta1-adrenergic receptor blockade attenuates angiotensin II-mediated catecholamine release into the cardiac interstitium in mitral regurgitation. (Full text)

Beta1-adrenergic receptor blockade attenuates angiotensin II-mediated catecholamine release into the cardiac interstitium in mitral regurgitation. This study tested the hypothesis that beta1-adrenoreceptor blockade modulates the angiotensin II (Ang II)-evoked neural release of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi) into the cardiac interstitial fluid (ISF) space in experimentally induced mitral regurgitation (MR) in the dog.Normal dogs (n=8) were compared with dogs with MR of 2 (n=8) and 4

2003 Circulation PubMed abstract

10417. Relation between cardiac sympathetic activity and hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. (Full text)

untreated hypertensive subjects with echocardiographic evidence of LV hypertrophy (EH+), 11 hypertensive subjects with similar blood pressure but without LV hypertrophy (EH-), and 10 age-matched normotensive control subjects (NT). LV mass index was 87+/-15 g/m2 in NT, 106+/-11 g/m2 in EH-, and 138+/-17 g/m2 in EH+ (P<0.001). Total body and renal norepinephrine spillover were higher in both hypertensive groups compared with NT (total norepinephrine spillover, NT 223+/-145 versus EH- 418+/-135 versus EH (...) + 497+/-303 ng/min; renal norepinephrine spillover, NT 38.8+/-25.3 versus EH- 88.6+/-58.0 versus EH+ 103.4+/-56.2 ng/min; both P<0.05). However, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (NT 25+/-6 versus EH- 38+/-20 versus EH+ 57+/-19 bursts per 100 heartbeats; P<0.01) and cardiac norepinephrine spillover (NT 11.7+/-6.2 versus EH- 13.1+/-7.2 versus EH+ 28.6+/-17.4 ng/min; P<0.01) were only increased in EH+. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover correlated positively with LV mass index in all subjects (r=0.52; P

2003 Circulation PubMed abstract

10418. B-type natriuretic peptides and ejection fraction for prognosis after myocardial infarction. (Full text)

from a substantial (n=666) cohort of patients with acute myocardial infarction to test the prognostic utility of concurrent measurements of BNP, amino-terminal BNP (N-BNP), norepinephrine, and radionuclide LVEF. The B-type peptides and LVEF were predictors of death, heart failure, and new myocardial infarction (all P<0.001) independent of patient age, gender, previous myocardial infarction, antecedent hypertension or diabetes, previous heart failure, plasma norepinephrine, creatinine, cholesterol

2003 Circulation PubMed abstract

10419. Stress-related mediators stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by two ovarian cancer cell lines. (Abstract)

possible mechanisms underlying these relationships.The effects of stress-related mediators including norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine, isoproterenol (a nonspecific beta-adrenergic agonist), and cortisol on the production of VEGF by the ovarian cell lines SKOV3 and EG were investigated.NE and isoproterenol significantly enhanced VEGF production by SKOV3 cells, and all three of the adrenergic agonists enhanced VEGF production by EG cells. These effects were blocked by the beta antagonist propranolol

2003 Clinical Cancer Research

10420. Neuroimmunology and inflammation: implications for therapy of allergic and autoimmune diseases. (Abstract)

to immune dysregulation or altered or amplified cytokine production, resulting in atopic, autoimmune diseases or decreased host defense. Various types of transmitter substances of the neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) network include epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glucagon, insulin, cytokines, growth factors, and numerous other mediators. The stress response and induction of a dysregulation of cytokine balance can trigger the hypothalamic-pituitary

2003 Asthma & Immunology

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