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Norepinephrine

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261. The central nervous norepinephrine network links a diminished sense of emotional well-being to an increased body weight. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The central nervous norepinephrine network links a diminished sense of emotional well-being to an increased body weight. The neurobiological mechanisms linking obesity to emotional distress remain largely undiscovered.In this pilot study, we combined positron emission tomography, using the norepinephrine transporter (NET) tracer [(11)C]-O-methylreboxetine, with functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging, the Beck depression inventory (BDI), and the impact of weight on quality of life (...) -Lite questionnaire (IWQOL-Lite), to investigate the role of norepinephrine in the severity of depression (BDI), as well as in the loss of emotional well-being with body weight (IWQOL-Lite).In a small group of lean-to-morbidly obese individuals (n=20), we show that an increased body mass index (BMI) is related to a lowered NET availability within the hypothalamus, known as the brain's homeostatic control site. The hypothalamus displayed a strengthened connectivity in relation to the individual

2015 International Journal of Obesity

262. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss with Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss with Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice. Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high (...) %) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD

2015 Endocrinology

263. Luminal Angiotensin II Stimulates Rat Medullary Thick Ascending Limb Chloride Transport in the in the Presence of Basolateral Norepinephrine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Luminal Angiotensin II Stimulates Rat Medullary Thick Ascending Limb Chloride Transport in the in the Presence of Basolateral Norepinephrine. Angiotensin II (ANG II) is secreted by the proximal tubule resulting in a luminal concentration that is 100- to 1,000-fold greater than that in the blood. Luminal ANG II has been shown to stimulate sodium transport in the proximal tubule and distal nephron. Surprisingly, luminal ANG II inhibits NaCl transport in the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL (...) ), a nephron segment responsible for a significant amount of NaCl absorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We confirmed that addition of 10(-8) M ANG II to the lumen inhibited mTAL chloride transport (220 ± 19 to 165 ± 25 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.01) and examined whether an interaction with basolateral norepinephrine existed to simulate the in vivo condition of an innervated tubule. We found that in the presence of a 10(-6) M norepinephrine bath, luminal ANG II stimulated mTAL chloride transport

2015 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

264. Examining the utility of using genotype and functional biology in a clinical pharmacology trial: pilot testing dopamine β-hydroxylase, norepinephrine, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Examining the utility of using genotype and functional biology in a clinical pharmacology trial: pilot testing dopamine β-hydroxylase, norepinephrine, and post-traumatic stress disorder. 24983834 2015 02 21 2018 11 13 1473-5873 24 4 2014 Aug Psychiatric genetics Psychiatr. Genet. Examining the utility of using genotype and functional biology in a clinical pharmacology trial: pilot testing dopamine β-hydroxylase, norepinephrine, and post-traumatic stress disorder. 181-2 10.1097/YPG (...) DA018197-05 DA NIDA NIH HHS United States DA026120 DA NIDA NIH HHS United States Letter Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. England Psychiatr Genet 9106748 0955-8829 0 Imidazoles 0 Thiones EC 1.14.17.1 Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase VPG12K4540 nepicastat X4W3ENH1CV Norepinephrine IM Clinical Trials as Topic Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase genetics Genotype Humans Imidazoles therapeutic use

2015 Psychiatric genetics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

265. Differential Cognitive Actions of Norepinephrine α2 and α1 Receptor Signaling in the Prefrontal Cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential Cognitive Actions of Norepinephrine α2 and α1 Receptor Signaling in the Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex (PFC) supports cognitive and behavioral processes that guide goal directed behavior. Moreover, dysregulated prefrontal cognitive dysfunction is associated with multiple psychiatric disorders. Norepinephrine (NE) signaling in the PFC is a critical modulator of prefrontal cognition and is targeted by a variety of drugs used to treat PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction

2015 Brain research

266. Response of Vibrio cholerae to the Catecholamine Hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Response of Vibrio cholerae to the Catecholamine Hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine In Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica, the stress-associated mammalian hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) trigger a signaling cascade by interacting with the QseC sensor protein. Here we show that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, exhibits a specific response to E and NE. These catecholates (0.1 mM) enhanced the growth and swimming motility of V. cholerae strain O395 (...) , the stress-associated hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) of the human host act as signal molecules for the production of virulence factors and promote bacterial growth by the sequestration of iron from the host. Here we show that V. cholerae, like some enterobacteria, benefits from these stress hormones and possesses a sensor to recognize them.Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

2015 Journal of bacteriology

267. Recurrent Hypoglycemia Increases Anxiety and Amygdala Norepinephrine Release During Subsequent Hypoglycemia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrent Hypoglycemia Increases Anxiety and Amygdala Norepinephrine Release During Subsequent Hypoglycemia Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) is a common and debilitating side effect of therapy in patients with both type 1 and, increasingly, type 2 diabetes. Previous studies in rats have shown marked effects of RH on subsequent hippocampal behavioral, metabolic, and synaptic processes. In addition to impaired memory, patients experiencing RH report alterations in cognitive processes that include mood (...) and anxiety, suggesting that RH may also affect amygdala function. We tested the impact of RH on amygdala function using an elevated plus-maze test of anxiety together with in vivo amygdala microdialysis for norepinephrine (NEp), a widely used marker of basolateral amygdala cognitive processes. In contrast to findings in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, neither RH nor acute hypoglycemia alone significantly affected plus-maze performance or NEp release. However, animals tested when hypoglycemic who

2015 Frontiers in endocrinology

268. The comprehensive immunomodulation of NeurimmiRs in haemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas after acetylcholine and norepinephrine stimulation Full Text available with Trip Pro

The comprehensive immunomodulation of NeurimmiRs in haemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas after acetylcholine and norepinephrine stimulation Neural-endocrine-immune (NEI) system is a major modulation network among the nervous, endocrine and immune system and weights greatly in maintaining homeostasis of organisms during stress and infection. Some microRNAs are found interacting with NEI system (designated NeurimmiRs), addressing swift modulations on immune system. The oyster Crassostrea gigas (...) , as an intertidal bivalve, has evolved a primary NEI system. However, the knowledge about NeurimmiRs in oysters remains largely unknown.Six small RNA libraries from haemocytes of oysters stimulated with acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) were sequenced to identify neurotransmitter-responsive miRNAs and survey their immunomodulation roles. A total of 331 miRNAs (132 identified in the present study plus 199 identified previously) were subjected to expression analysis, and twenty-one and sixteen of them

2015 BMC genomics

269. Sex Differences in the Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System and its Regulation by Stress Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sex Differences in the Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System and its Regulation by Stress Women are more likely than men to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. In addition to their sex bias, these disorders share stress as an etiological factor and hyperarousal as a symptom. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by stress could help explain increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Here we review preclinical studies (...) that have identified sex differences in the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) arousal system. First, we detail how structural sex differences in the LC can bias females towards increased arousal in response to emotional events. Second, we highlight studies demonstrating that estrogen can increase NE in LC target regions by enhancing the capacity for NE synthesis, while reducing NE degradation, potentially increasing arousal in females. Third, we review data revealing how sex differences

2015 Brain research

270. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors Early odor preference learning in rodents occurs within a sensitive period [≤postnatal day (P)10-12], during which pups show a heightened ability to form an odor preference when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation (e.g., stroking). Norepinephrine (NE) release from the locus coeruleus during stroking mediates this learning. However, in older

2015 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

271. Role of Estradiol in Intrinsic Hindbrain AMPK Regulation of Hypothalamic AMPK, Metabolic Neuropeptide, and Norepinephrine Activity and Food Intake in the Female Rat Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of Estradiol in Intrinsic Hindbrain AMPK Regulation of Hypothalamic AMPK, Metabolic Neuropeptide, and Norepinephrine Activity and Food Intake in the Female Rat This study addressed the hypothesis that dorsomedial hindbrain adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) imposes inherent estradiol-dependent control of hypothalamic AMPK, neuropeptide, and norepinephrine (NE) activity and feeding in the female rat. Estradiol (E)- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized rats were

2015 Neuroscience

272. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium

2015 American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

273. Valerenic Acid Protects Against Physical and Psychological Stress by Reducing the Turnover of Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Mouse Hippocampus-Amygdala Region Full Text available with Trip Pro

Valerenic Acid Protects Against Physical and Psychological Stress by Reducing the Turnover of Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Mouse Hippocampus-Amygdala Region In a previous study, we demonstrated that a Valeriana officinalis extract could attenuate increases in serum corticosterone levels in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. In addition, our results showed that the extract could modulate serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) turnover in the hippocampus and amygdala region

2015 Journal of medicinal food

274. Neuromodulatory influence of norepinephrine during developmental experience-dependent plasticity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuromodulatory influence of norepinephrine during developmental experience-dependent plasticity Critical periods represent phases of development during which neuronal circuits and their responses can be readily shaped by stimuli. Experience-dependent plasticity that occurs within these critical periods can be influenced in many ways; however, Shepard et al. (J Neurosci 35: 2432-2437, 2015) recently singled out norepinephrine as an essential driver of this plasticity within the auditory cortex

2015 Journal of neurophysiology

275. Polymorphism of rs3813034 in Serotonin Transporter Gene SLC6A4 Is Associated With the Selective Serotonin and Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor Response in Depressive Disorder: Sequencing Analysis of SLC6A4. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Polymorphism of rs3813034 in Serotonin Transporter Gene SLC6A4 Is Associated With the Selective Serotonin and Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor Response in Depressive Disorder: Sequencing Analysis of SLC6A4. Selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRI) are commonly used for treating major depression. Regretfully, significant heterogeneity exists regarding the benefits of SSRI/SNRI in individual cases. We previously reported that a polymorphism

2015 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

276. A Selective V1A Receptor Agonist, Selepressin, Is Superior to Arginine Vasopressin and to Norepinephrine in Ovine Septic Shock. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Selective V1A Receptor Agonist, Selepressin, Is Superior to Arginine Vasopressin and to Norepinephrine in Ovine Septic Shock. Selective vasopressin V(1A) receptor agonists may have advantages over arginine vasopressin in the treatment of septic shock. We compared the effects of selepressin, a selective V(1A) receptor agonist, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine on hemodynamics, organ function, and survival in an ovine septic shock model.Randomized animal study.University hospital animal (...) research laboratory.Forty-six adult female sheep.Fecal peritonitis was induced in the anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, fluid-resuscitated sheep, and they were randomized in two successive phases. Three late-intervention groups (each n = 6) received IV selepressin (1 pmol/kg/min), arginine vasopressin (0.25 pmol [0.1 mU]/kg/min), or norepinephrine (3 nmol [0.5 μg]/kg/min) when mean arterial pressure remained less than 70 mm Hg despite fluid challenge; study drugs were thereafter titrated to keep

2015 Critical Care Medicine

277. Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension: Roles of Norepinephrine Deficiency in its Causes, its Treatment, and Future Research Directions. (Abstract)

Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension: Roles of Norepinephrine Deficiency in its Causes, its Treatment, and Future Research Directions. Although a diversity of neurotransmitters and hormones participate in controlling blood pressure, norepinephrine released from postganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals is an important mediator of the rapid regulation of cardiovascular function required for homeostasis of cerebral perfusion. Hence, neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) often represents (...) a deficiency of noradrenergic responsiveness to postural change.PubMed searches with 'orthostatic hypotension' and 'norepinephrine' as conjoint search terms and no restriction on language or date, so as to survey the pathophysiologic and clinical relevance of norepinephrine deficiency for current NOH interventions and for future directions in treatment and research.Norepinephrine deficiency in NOH can arise peripherally, due to cardiovascular sympathetic denervation (as in pure autonomic failure

2015 Current medical research and opinion

278. Norepinephrine modulates osteoarthritic chondrocyte metabolism and inflammatory responses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine modulates osteoarthritic chondrocyte metabolism and inflammatory responses. Norepinephrine (NE) was measured in synovial fluid of trauma patients and sympathetic nerve fibers were detected in healthy and osteoarthritic (OA) joint tissues indicating that cartilage pathophysiology might be influenced by sympathetic neurotransmitters. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mostly unknown role of NE in OA chondrocyte metabolism and inflammatory responses.Articular cartilage

2015 Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

279. Weaning of Norepinephrine Guided by the Dynamic Arterial Compliance in Cardiac Surgery Post Operative.

Weaning of Norepinephrine Guided by the Dynamic Arterial Compliance in Cardiac Surgery Post Operative. Weaning of Norepinephrine Guided by the Dynamic Arterial Compliance in Cardiac Surgery Post Operative. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please (...) remove one or more studies before adding more. Weaning of Norepinephrine Guided by the Dynamic Arterial Compliance in Cardiac Surgery Post Operative. (SNEAD) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02479529 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : June 24, 2015 Last Update Posted

2015 Clinical Trials

280. Napping reverses the salivary interleukin-6 and urinary norepinephrine changes induced by sleep restriction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Napping reverses the salivary interleukin-6 and urinary norepinephrine changes induced by sleep restriction. Neuroendocrine and immune stresses imposed by chronic sleep restriction are known to be involved in the harmful cardiovascular effects associated with poor sleep.Despite a well-known beneficial effect of napping on alertness, its effects on neuroendocrine stress and immune responses after sleep restriction are largely unknown.This study was a strictly controlled (sleep-wake status, light (...) were assessed throughout the daytime study periods.The increase in norepinephrine values seen at the end of the afternoon after the sleep-restricted night was not present when the subjects had the opportunity to take naps. Interleukin-6 changes observed after sleep deprivation were also normalized after napping. During the recovery day in the no-nap condition, there were increased levels of afternoon epinephrine and dopamine, which was not the case in the nap condition. A recovery night after

2015 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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