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Norepinephrine

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221. Norepinephrine transporter expression is inversely associated with glycaemic indices: a pilot study in metabolically diverse persons with overweight and obesity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine transporter expression is inversely associated with glycaemic indices: a pilot study in metabolically diverse persons with overweight and obesity The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between the expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET), the protein responsible for neuronal uptake-1, and indices of glycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, in overweight and obese individuals.Thirteen non-medicated, non-smoking subjects, aged 58 ± 1 years (mean (...)  ± standard error of the mean), body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 1.0 kg m-2, with wide-ranging plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, range 5.1% to 6.5%) participated. They underwent forearm vein biopsy to access sympathetic nerves for the quantification of NET by Western blot, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, echocardiography and assessments of whole-body norepinephrine kinetics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity.Norepinephrine transporter expression

2016 Obesity science & practice

222. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after administration of norepinephrine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after administration of norepinephrine Stress-induced cardiomyopathy is a syndrome of transient cardiac dysfunction with no clear pathophysiology. It is thought to be secondary to catecholamine surge. The mechanism by which catecholamine can induce transient cardiac dysfunction is unknown. We present a case of a patient who developed stress-induced cardiomyopathy after she was administered norepinephrine due to a nursing error.

2016 Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center)

223. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action (...) by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms

2016 Molecular pharmacology

224. Rigid Adenine Nucleoside Derivatives as Novel Modulators of the Human Sodium Symporters for Dopamine and Norepinephrine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rigid Adenine Nucleoside Derivatives as Novel Modulators of the Human Sodium Symporters for Dopamine and Norepinephrine Thirty-two congeneric rigid adenine nucleoside derivatives containing a North (N)-methanocarba ribose substitution and a 2-arylethynyl group either enhanced (up to 760% of control) or inhibited [(125)I] methyl (1R,2S,3S)-3-(4-iodophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate (RTI-55) binding at the human dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and inhibited DA uptake (...) (compounds 9 and 16), with EC50 values of 35.1 and 9.1 nM, respectively, in [(125)I]RTI-55 binding enhancement, and 3,4-difluorophenyl as in the most potent DA uptake inhibitor (compound 6) with an IC50 value of 92 nM (3-fold more potent than cocaine), but not nitrogen heterocycles. Several compounds inhibited or enhanced binding at the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and serotonin transporter (SERT) and inhibited function in the micromolar range; truncation at the 4'-position in compound 23 allowed

2016 The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

225. Adolescents and Adults Differ in the Immediate and Long-Term Impact of Nicotine Administration and Withdrawal on Cardiac Norepinephrine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adolescents and Adults Differ in the Immediate and Long-Term Impact of Nicotine Administration and Withdrawal on Cardiac Norepinephrine Cardiovascular responses to smoking cessation may differ in adolescents compared to adults. We administered nicotine by osmotic minipump infusion for 17 days to adolescent and adult rats (30 and 90 days of age, respectively) and examined cardiac norepinephrine levels during treatment, after withdrawal, and for months after cessation. In adults, nicotine evoked (...) a significant elevation of cardiac norepinephrine and a distinct spike upon withdrawal, after which the levels returned to normal; the effect was specific to males. In contrast, adolescents did not show significant changes during nicotine treatment or in the immediate post-withdrawal period. However, beginning in young adulthood, males exposed to adolescent nicotine showed sustained elevations of cardiac norepinephrine, followed by later-emerging deficits that persisted through six months of age. We

2016 Brain Research Bulletin

226. Light and electron microscopic analysis of enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the basolateral amygdala, including evidence for convergence of enkephalin-containing axon terminals and norepinephrine transporter-containing axon terminals onto common target Full Text available with Trip Pro

Light and electron microscopic analysis of enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the basolateral amygdala, including evidence for convergence of enkephalin-containing axon terminals and norepinephrine transporter-containing axon terminals onto common target Modulatory interactions of opioids and norepinephrine (NE) in the anterior subdivision of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLa) are critical for the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. Although there have (...) terminals onto common structures in the BLa. Antibodies to ENK and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) were used in these studies. Light microscopic examination revealed that a subpopulation of small nonpyramidal neurons expressed ENK-ir in all nuclei of the BLC. In addition, the somata of some pyramidal cells exhibited light to moderate ENK-ir. ENK+ axon terminals were also observed. Ultrastructural analysis confined to the BLa revealed that most ENK+ axon terminals formed asymmetrical synapses

2016 Brain research

227. Acute Blockade of the C. elegans Dopamine Transporter DAT-1 by the Mammalian Norepinephrine Transporter Inhibitor Nisoxetine Reveals the Influence of Genetic Modifications of Dopamine Signaling In Vivo Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute Blockade of the C. elegans Dopamine Transporter DAT-1 by the Mammalian Norepinephrine Transporter Inhibitor Nisoxetine Reveals the Influence of Genetic Modifications of Dopamine Signaling In Vivo Modulation of neurotransmission by the catecholamine dopamine (DA) is conserved across phylogeny. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, excess DA signaling triggers Swimming-Induced Paralysis (Swip), a phenotype first described in animals with loss of function mutations in the presynaptic DA (...) transporter (dat-1). Swip has proven to be a phenotype suitable for the identification of novel dat-1 mutations as well as the identification of novel genes that impact DA signaling. Pharmacological manipulations can also induce Swip, though the reagents employed to date lack specificity and potency, limiting their use in evaluation of dat-1 expression and function. Our lab previously established the mammalian norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor nisoxetine to be a potent antagonist of DA uptake

2016 Neurochemistry international

228. Ranolazine attenuated heightened plasma norepinephrine and B-Type natriuretic peptide-45 in improving cardiac function in rats with chronic ischemic heart failure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ranolazine attenuated heightened plasma norepinephrine and B-Type natriuretic peptide-45 in improving cardiac function in rats with chronic ischemic heart failure As a new anti-anginal agent, ranolazinehas been shown to play a cardioprotective role in regulating myocardial ischemic injury. Given that plasma norepinephrine (NE) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, also termed B-type natriuretic peptide-45 in rats) are considered neuron-hormones to indicate heart failure progression. This study

2016 American journal of translational research

229. Predictors of haemodynamic instability during the changeover of norepinephrine infusion pumps Full Text available with Trip Pro

Predictors of haemodynamic instability during the changeover of norepinephrine infusion pumps Changeovers of norepinephrine infusion pumps (CNIPs) frequently lead to haemodynamic instability. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for haemodynamic instability associated with CNIP, independent of the method used to perform the relay.We performed a prospective study, in a university-affiliated intensive care unit. Over a 1-year period, all adult patients who had at least one CNIP were (...) included. CNIPs were automatically performed using smart pumps, in accordance with a standardised protocol. CNIP-induced haemodynamic instability was defined as a variation in mean arterial pressure (MAP) >25 %. A multivariate mixed effects logistic regression was fitted to assess the factors associated with CNIP-induced haemodynamic instability.From the 118 patients included in the study, 764 CNIPs were analysed. Most of the patients were treated with norepinephrine for septic shock of medical origin

2016 Annals of intensive care

230. Towards a theoretical role for tonic norepinephrine in the orbitofrontal cortex in facilitating flexible learning Full Text available with Trip Pro

Towards a theoretical role for tonic norepinephrine in the orbitofrontal cortex in facilitating flexible learning To adaptively respond in a complex, changing world, animals need to flexibly update their understanding of the world when their expectations are violated. Though several brain regions in rodents and primates have been implicated in aspects of this updating, current models of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and norepinephrine neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC-NE) suggest that each plays

2016 Neuroscience

231. Inhibition of the Serotonin Transporter Is Altered by Metabolites of Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and Represents a Caution to Acute or Chronic Treatment Paradigms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of the Serotonin Transporter Is Altered by Metabolites of Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and Represents a Caution to Acute or Chronic Treatment Paradigms Previous studies of transgenic mice carrying a single isoleucine to methionine substitution (I172M) in the serotonin transporter (SERT) demonstrated a loss of sensitivity to multiple antidepressants (ADs) at SERT. However, the ability of AD metabolites to antagonize SERT was not assessed. Here, we

2016 ACS chemical neuroscience

232. Islet Adaptations in Fetal Sheep Persist Following Chronic Exposure to High Norepinephrine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Islet Adaptations in Fetal Sheep Persist Following Chronic Exposure to High Norepinephrine Complications in pregnancy elevate fetal norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. Previous studies in NE-infused sheep fetuses revealed that sustained exposure to high NE resulted in lower expression of α2-adrenergic receptors in islets and increased insulin secretion responsiveness after acutely terminating the NE infusion. In this study, we determined if the compensatory increase in insulin secretion after

2016 The Journal of endocrinology

233. Reboxetine Improves Auditory Attention and Increases Norepinephrine Levels in the Auditory Cortex of Chronically Stressed Rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reboxetine Improves Auditory Attention and Increases Norepinephrine Levels in the Auditory Cortex of Chronically Stressed Rats Chronic stress impairs auditory attention in rats and monoamines regulate neurotransmission in the primary auditory cortex (A1), a brain area that modulates auditory attention. In this context, we hypothesized that norepinephrine (NE) levels in A1 correlate with the auditory attention performance of chronically stressed rats. The first objective of this research

2016 Frontiers in neural circuits

234. Ca2+ Dependent Surface Trafficking of Norepinephrine Transporters Depends on Threonine 30 and Ca2+ Calmodulin Kinases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ca2+ Dependent Surface Trafficking of Norepinephrine Transporters Depends on Threonine 30 and Ca2+ Calmodulin Kinases The antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) inactivates NE released during central and peripheral neuronal activity by transport into presynaptic cells. Altered NE clearance due to dysfunction of NET has been associated with the development of mental illness and cardiovascular diseases. NET activity in vivo is influenced by stress, neuronal activity

2016 Journal of chemical neuroanatomy

235. Locus Ceruleus Norepinephrine Release: A Central Regulator of CNS Spatio-Temporal Activation? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Locus Ceruleus Norepinephrine Release: A Central Regulator of CNS Spatio-Temporal Activation? Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain

2016 Frontiers in synaptic neuroscience

236. Impaired norepinephrine regulation of monocyte inflammatory cytokine balance in heart failure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired norepinephrine regulation of monocyte inflammatory cytokine balance in heart failure To evaluate the effect of norepinephrine on inflammatory cytokine expression in ex vivo human monocytes and monocytic THP-1 cells.For human monocyte studies, cells were isolated from 12 chronic heart failure (HF) (66 ± 12 years, New York Heart Association functional class III-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction 22% ± 9%) and 14 healthy subjects (66 ± 12 years). Monocytes (1 × 106/mL) were incubated (...) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 100 ng/mL, LPS + norepinephrine (NE) 10-6 mol/L or neither (control) for 4 h. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production were determined by ELISA. Relative contribution of α- and β-adrenergic receptor subtypes on immunomodulatory activity of NE was assessed in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells incubated with NE, the α-selective agonist phenylephrine (PE), and the β-selective agonist isoproterenol (IPN). NE-pretreated THP-1 cells were also co-incubated with the β

2016 World journal of cardiology

237. Individual differences in the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system: relevance to stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability Full Text available with Trip Pro

Individual differences in the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system: relevance to stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability Repeated exposure to psychosocial stress is a robust sympathomimetic stressor and as such has adverse effects on cardiovascular health. While the neurocircuitry involved remains unclear, the physiological and anatomical characteristics of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system suggest that it is poised to contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular

2016 Physiology & behavior

238. Evaluation of the analgesic effects of ammoxetine, a novel potent serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the analgesic effects of ammoxetine, a novel potent serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor The selective serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Ammoxetine ((±)-3-(benzo[d] [1,3]dioxol-4-yloxy)-N-methyl-3-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-1-amine) has been identified as a novel potent SNRI. In this study, we evaluated the acute analgesic properties of ammoxetine in different animal

2016 Acta pharmacologica Sinica

239. Gentisic acid sodium salt, a phenolic compound, is superior to norepinephrine in reversing cardiovascular collapse, hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and lactic acidemia in Pseudomonas aeruginosa septic shock in dogs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gentisic acid sodium salt, a phenolic compound, is superior to norepinephrine in reversing cardiovascular collapse, hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and lactic acidemia in Pseudomonas aeruginosa septic shock in dogs The development of lactic acidemia (LA) in septic shock (SS) is associated with an ominous prognosis. We previously showed that the mechanism of LA in SS may relate to impaired hepatic uptake of lactate, but the mechanism was not clear. Uptake of lactate by the liver occurs (...) by a membrane-associated, pH-dependent, antiport system known as the monocarboxylate transporter. In the hepatocyte, lactate can then be metabolized by oxidative phosphorylation or converted to glucose in the cytosol. In the present study, we examined (1) whether hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction accounted for decreased uptake of lactate in a canine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa SS, (2) whether norepinephrine (NE) treatment by increasing mean arterial pressure (MAP) could improve mitochondrial dysfunction

2016 Intensive care medicine experimental

240. Elevated blood plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, TGFβ1, and TNFα associated with high-altitude pulmonary edema in an Indian population Full Text available with Trip Pro

Elevated blood plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, TGFβ1, and TNFα associated with high-altitude pulmonary edema in an Indian population Biomarkers are essential to unravel the locked pathophysiology of any disease. This study investigated the role of biomarkers and their interactions with each other and with the clinical parameters to study the physiology of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in HAPE-patients (HAPE-p) against adapted highlanders (HLs (...) ) and healthy sojourners, HAPE-controls (HAPE-c). For this, seven circulatory biomarkers, namely, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), platelet-derived growth factor beta beta, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured in blood plasma of the three study groups. All the subjects were recruited at ~3,500 m, and clinical features such as arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), body mass index, and mean arterial pressure were

2016 Therapeutics and clinical risk management

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