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Norepinephrine

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201. Intrarenal and urinary oxygenation during norepinephrine resuscitation in ovine septic acute kidney injury. (Abstract)

Intrarenal and urinary oxygenation during norepinephrine resuscitation in ovine septic acute kidney injury. Norepinephrine is the principal vasopressor used to restore blood pressure in sepsis, but its effects on intrarenal oxygenation are unknown. To clarify this, we examined renal cortical, medullary, and urinary oxygenation in ovine septic acute kidney injury and the response to resuscitation with norepinephrine. A renal artery flow probe and fiberoptic probes were placed in the cortex (...) and medulla of sheep to measure tissue perfusion and oxygenation. A probe in the bladder catheter measured urinary oxygenation. Sepsis was induced in conscious sheep by infusion of Escherichia coli for 32 hours. At 24 to 30 hours of sepsis, either norepinephrine, to restore mean arterial pressure to preseptic levels or vehicle-saline was infused (8 sheep per group). Septic acute kidney injury was characterized by a reduction in blood pressure of ∼12 mm Hg, renal hyperperfusion, and oliguria. Sepsis

2016 Kidney International

202. Effects of selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on depressive- and impulsive-like behaviors and on monoamine transmission in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on depressive- and impulsive-like behaviors and on monoamine transmission in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy. Examine therapeutic potential of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NERI) in an animal model of comorbidity between epilepsy, depression-like, and impulsive-like impairments.Epilepsy was induced in male Wistar rats by LiCl and pilocarpine. An SSRI fluoxetine (...) ). Functional capacities of 5-HT1A receptors and α2A adrenoreceptors in PFC were analyzed by autoradiography.Epileptic rats showed behavioral signs of depression and hyperimpulsivity, suppressed serotonergic and noradrenergic tones, decreased levels of serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE); 5-HT1A receptor and α2A adrenoreceptors functions remained intact. FLX failed to improve behavioral deficits, but effectively raised 5-HT level and marginally improved RN-PFC serotonergic transmission. RBX reversed

2016 Epilepsia

203. Comparison of the effects of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on cerebrovascular events. (Abstract)

Comparison of the effects of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on cerebrovascular events. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. However, little is known about cerebrovascular risk in users of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Our aim was to determine the differential risk of cerebrovascular events between SSRIs and SNRIs.A

2016 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

204. Norepinephrine Dosing in Obese and Nonobese Patients With Septic Shock. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine Dosing in Obese and Nonobese Patients With Septic Shock. Whether or not norepinephrine infusions for support of hemodynamic status in patients with septic shock should be weight based is unknown. This situation is particularly pertinent in patients who are extremely overweight or obese.To compare dosing requirements and effect of norepinephrine on blood pressure in obese and nonobese patients with septic shock.In a retrospective cohort study, data on adult patients with septic (...) shock who received norepinephrine infusion for support of hemodynamic status in a tertiary care, academic medical center were analyzed. Patients were categorized as obese (body mass index ≥ 30) or nonobese (body mass index < 30). The primary outcome was dosing requirements of norepinephrine at 60 minutes after the start of the infusion. The secondary outcome was the log-transformed ratio of mean arterial pressure to norepinephrine.The final cohort consisted of 100 obese and 100 nonobese patients

2016 American Journal of Critical Care

205. Impact of Norepinephrine Shortage on Outcomes in Patients with Septic Shock Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of Norepinephrine Shortage on Outcomes in Patients with Septic Shock With the previous norepinephrine shortage, alternative agents were required to treat patients with septic shock. This retrospective study evaluated whether the shortage of norepinephrine had an adverse effect on patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock.This was a retrospective chart review, which compared patients who received norepinephrine versus those who did (...) not. Eligible patients were those ≥ 18 years old who were admitted to an intensive care unit with a diagnosis of sepsis and were initiated on a vasopressor to maintain hemodynamic stability. The specific primary endpoint was whether using norepinephrine versus other vasopressors had an effect on ICU length of stay. Secondary outcomes included mortality, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, development of renal insufficiency, and vasopressor requirements.There were 288 patients screened and 214 patients

2016 Research & reviews. Journal of hospital and clinical pharmacy

206. Effects of dopamine, norepinephrine and dobutamine on gastric mucosal pH of septic shock patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of dopamine, norepinephrine and dobutamine on gastric mucosal pH of septic shock patients The effect of different vasoactive drugs on the pH [intracellular pH (pHi)] of gastric mucosa in patients with septic shock was evaluated in the present study. According to the vasoactive drugs applied, 48 patients with septic shock were divided into 3 groups: A, B and C, with 16 cases each. Cases of group A were treated with dopamine, those of group B with norepinephrine while those of group C (...) were treated with norepinephrine plus dobutamine. The changes of pH of gastric mucosa were observed before treatment (baseline) and 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after treatment, and the hemodynamic indicators were observed before treatment (baseline) and 6 h after administration. The gastric mucosal pH was not significantly different between two of the three groups before treatment (each at P>0.05). The gastric mucosal pH of group A did not change 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after treatment with drugs compared

2016 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

207. Norepinephrine at the Nexus of Arousal, Motivation and Relapse Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine at the Nexus of Arousal, Motivation and Relapse Arousal plays a critical role in cognitive, affective and motivational processes. Consistent with this, the dysregulation of arousal-related neural systems is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including addiction. Noradrenergic systems exert potent arousal-enhancing actions that involve signaling at α1- and β-noradrenergic receptors within a distributed network of subcortical regions. The majority of research (...) stress and re-exposure to drugs of abuse. Evidence has long-indicated that norepinephrine plays an important role in relapse. Recent observations suggest that noradrenergic signaling elicits affectively-neutral arousal that is sufficient to reinstate drug seeking. Collectively, these observations indicate that norepinephrine plays a key role in the interaction between arousal, motivation, and relapse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

2016 Brain research

208. Exploring the Inhibitory Mechanism of Approved Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and Reboxetine Enantiomers by Molecular Dynamics Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exploring the Inhibitory Mechanism of Approved Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and Reboxetine Enantiomers by Molecular Dynamics Study Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (sNRIs) provide an effective class of approved antipsychotics, whose inhibitory mechanism could facilitate the discovery of privileged scaffolds with enhanced drug efficacy. However, the crystal structure of human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) has not been determined yet and the inhibitory mechanism

2016 Scientific reports

209. Co-ingestion of tricyclic antidepressants with selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: Overdose in the emergency department Full Text available with Trip Pro

Co-ingestion of tricyclic antidepressants with selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: Overdose in the emergency department 27303005 2017 03 17 2018 11 13 1715-5258 62 6 2016 Jun Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien Can Fam Physician Co-ingestion of tricyclic antidepressants with selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: Overdose in the emergency department. 485-9 Kaicker Jatin J Emergency medicine resident in the Emergency Medicine Program at Western University

2016 Canadian Family Physician

210. Electrocatalytic oxidation of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine at metal oxide doped phthalocyanine/MWCNT composite sensor Full Text available with Trip Pro

Electrocatalytic oxidation of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine at metal oxide doped phthalocyanine/MWCNT composite sensor Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with metal oxides (MO = Fe3O4, ZnO) nanoparticles doped phthalocyanine (Pc) and functionalized MWCNTs, and the electrocatalytic properties were studied. Successful synthesis of the metal oxide nanoparticles and the MO/Pc/MWCNT composite were confirmed using FTIR, Raman and SEM techniques. The electrodes were characterized using cyclic (...) voltammetry (CV) technique. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the electrode towards epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) oxidation was investigated using CV and DPV. Result showed that GCE-MWCNT/Fe3O4/2,3-Nc, GCE-MWCNT/Fe3O429H,31H-Pc, GCE-MWCNT/ZnO/2,3-Nc and GCE-MWCNT/ZnO/29H,31H-Pc electrodes gave enhanced EP and NE current response. Stability study indicated that the four GCE-MWCNT/MO/Pc modified electrodes were stable against electrode fouling effect with the percentage NE current drop of 5.56

2016 Scientific reports

211. Mechanistic insight into the norepinephrine-induced fibrosis in systemic sclerosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanistic insight into the norepinephrine-induced fibrosis in systemic sclerosis Raynaud's phenomenon is frequently observed in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, and cold- or stress-induced norepinephrine (NE) has been speculated to be associated with vasoconstriction. Objective was to elucidate the role of NE in fibrosis in SSc. IL-6 is a potent stimulator of collagen production in fibroblasts. NE enhanced IL-6 production and proliferation more significantly in SSc fibroblasts than

2016 Scientific reports

212. MicroRNAs 29b and 181a down-regulate the expression of the norepinephrine transporter and glucocorticoid receptors in PC12 cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

MicroRNAs 29b and 181a down-regulate the expression of the norepinephrine transporter and glucocorticoid receptors in PC12 cells MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that provide global regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Such regulation has been found to play a role in stress-induced epigenetic responses in the brain. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) and glucocorticoid receptors are closely related to the homeostatic integration and regulation after stress. Our (...) identified several candidate miRNAs potentially targeting NET and glucocorticoid receptors. Western blot results showed that over-expression of miR-181a and miR-29b significantly repressed protein levels of NET, which is accompanied by a reduced [3 H] norepinephrine uptake, and glucocorticoid receptors in PC12 cells. Luciferase reporter assays verified that both miR-181a and miR-29b bind the 3'UTR of mRNA of NET and glucocorticoid receptors. Furthermore, exposure of PC12 cells to corticosterone markedly

2016 Journal of neurochemistry

213. Selective Serotonin–norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors-induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selective Serotonin–norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors-induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Takotsubo translates to "octopus pot" in Japanese. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by a transient regional systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. Catecholamine excess is the one most studied and favored theories explaining the pathophysiology of TTC.We present the case of a 52-year-old Hispanic female admitted for venlafaxine-induced TTC with a review literature on all the cases (...) of Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)-associated TTC published so far.SNRI inhibit the reuptake of catecholamines into the presynaptic neuron, resulting in a net gain in the concentration of epinephrine and serotonin in the neuronal synapses and causing iatrogenic catecholamine excess, ultimately leading to TTC.

2016 North American journal of medical sciences

214. Norepinephrine Protects Cerebral Autoregulation and Reduces Hippocampal Necrosis after Traumatic Brain Injury via Blockade of ERK MAPK and IL-6 in Juvenile Pigs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine Protects Cerebral Autoregulation and Reduces Hippocampal Necrosis after Traumatic Brain Injury via Blockade of ERK MAPK and IL-6 in Juvenile Pigs Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children, and boys are disproportionately represented. Cerebral autoregulation is impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is often normalized by use of vasoactive agents to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP). In prior studies of 1 (...) - to 5-day-old newborn piglets, we observed that norepinephrine (NE) preferentially protected cerebral autoregulation and prevented hippocampal necrosis in females but not males after fluid percussion injury (FPI). The ERK isoform of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) produces hemodynamic impairment after FPI, but less is known about the role of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). We investigated whether NE protects autoregulation and limits histopathology after FPI in older juvenile (4-week-old

2016 Journal of neurotrauma

215. Early norepinephrine decreases fluid and ventilatory requirements in pediatric vasodilatory septic shock Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early norepinephrine decreases fluid and ventilatory requirements in pediatric vasodilatory septic shock We previously reported that vasodilatation was common in pediatric septic shock, regardless of whether they were warm or cold, providing a rationale for early norepinephrine (NE) to increase venous return (VR) and arterial tone. Our primary aim was to evaluate the effect of smaller fluid bolus plus early-NE versus the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) approach to more liberal

2016 Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine

216. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors may exacerbate stiff-person syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors may exacerbate stiff-person syndrome 27606356 2016 09 08 2018 11 13 2332-7812 3 5 2016 Oct Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors may exacerbate stiff-person syndrome. e281 10.1212/NXI.0000000000000281 Benavides David R DR Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Newsome Scott D SD Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. eng

2016 Neurology® neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation

217. Bioartificial Therapy of Sepsis: Changes of Norepinephrine-Dosage in Patients and Influence on Dynamic and Cell Based Liver Tests during Extracorporeal Treatments Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bioartificial Therapy of Sepsis: Changes of Norepinephrine-Dosage in Patients and Influence on Dynamic and Cell Based Liver Tests during Extracorporeal Treatments Purpose. Granulocyte transfusions have been used to treat immune cell dysfunction in sepsis. A granulocyte bioreactor for the extracorporeal treatment of sepsis was tested in a prospective clinical study focusing on the dosage of norepinephrine in patients and influence on dynamic and cell based liver tests during extracorporeal (...) . During the treatments, the norepinephrine-dosage could be significantly reduced while mean arterial pressure was stable. In the cell based analysis of hepatotoxicity, the viability and function of sensor-cells increased significantly during extracorporeal treatment in all patients and the PDR-values increased significantly between day 1 and day 7 only in survivors. Conclusion. The extracorporeal treatment with donor granulocytes showed promising effects on dosage of norepinephrine in patients, liver

2016 BioMed research international

218. Clonidine Reduces Norepinephrine and Improves Bone Marrow Function in a Rodent Model of Lung Contusion, Hemorrhagic Shock and Chronic Stress Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clonidine Reduces Norepinephrine and Improves Bone Marrow Function in a Rodent Model of Lung Contusion, Hemorrhagic Shock and Chronic Stress Propranolol has been shown previously to restore bone marrow function and improve anemia after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that daily clonidine administration would inhibit central sympathetic outflow and restore bone marrow function in our rodent model of lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic stress.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (...) underwent 6 days of restraint stress after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock during which the animals received clonidine (75 μg/kg) after the restraint stress. On postinjury day 7, we assessed urine norepinephrine, blood hemoglobin, plasma granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and peripheral blood mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells, as well as bone marrow cellularity and erythroid progenitor cell growth.The addition of clonidine to lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint

2016 Surgery

219. Age-related changes in prefrontal norepinephrine transporter density: The basis for improved cognitive flexibility after low doses of atomoxetine in adolescent rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Age-related changes in prefrontal norepinephrine transporter density: The basis for improved cognitive flexibility after low doses of atomoxetine in adolescent rats Adolescence is a period of major behavioral and brain reorganization. As diagnoses and treatment of disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often occur during adolescence, it is important to understand how the prefrontal cortices change and how these changes may influence the response to drugs during (...) development. The current study uses an adolescent rat model to study the effect of standard ADHD treatments, atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attentional set shifting and reversal learning. While both of these drugs act as norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, higher doses of atomoxetine and all doses of methylphenidate also block dopamine transporters (DAT). Low doses of atomoxetine, were effective at remediating cognitive rigidity found in adolescents. In contrast, methylphenidate improved performance

2016 Brain research

220. Norepinephrine versus Dopamine and their Interaction in Modulating Synaptic Function in the Prefrontal Cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norepinephrine versus Dopamine and their Interaction in Modulating Synaptic Function in the Prefrontal Cortex Among the neuromodulators that regulate prefrontal cortical circuit function, the catecholamine transmitters norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) stand out as powerful players in working memory and attention. Perturbation of either NE or DA signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), post

2016 Brain research

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