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3. Assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule

Assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule Assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Summary A solitary pulmonary nodule is defined as a relatively round lesion that is <3 cm in diameter and completely surrounded by lung parenchyma. It is distinct from lung lesions >3 cm (...) in diameter, which are considered lung masses. Traditionally, the definition of solitary pulmonary nodule has also excluded a ground-glass infiltrate seen on computed tomography (CT) scan, as this finding is commonly associated with bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma and does not fulfil the physical characteristics of a nodule. Aoki T, Nakata H, Watanabe H, et al. Evolution of peripheral lung adenocarcinomas: CT findings correlated with histology and tumor doubling time. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000 Mar;174(3

2018 BMJ Best Practice

4. Assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule

Assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule Assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Summary A solitary pulmonary nodule is defined as a relatively round lesion that is <3 cm in diameter and completely surrounded by lung parenchyma. It is distinct from lung lesions >3 cm (...) in diameter, which are considered lung masses. Traditionally, the definition of solitary pulmonary nodule has also excluded a ground-glass infiltrate seen on computed tomography (CT) scan, as this finding is commonly associated with bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma and does not fulfil the physical characteristics of a nodule. Aoki T, Nakata H, Watanabe H, et al. Evolution of peripheral lung adenocarcinomas: CT findings correlated with histology and tumor doubling time. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000 Mar;174(3

2018 BMJ Best Practice

5. Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics '); document.write(''); } function OAS_AD(pos) { if (OAS_version >= 11 && typeof(OAS_RICH)!='undefined') { OAS_RICH(pos); } else { OAS_NORMAL(pos); } } //--> Search for this keyword Source User menu Sections Sign up for highlighting editor-chosen studies (...) with the greatest impact on clinical care. Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer In July 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics endorsed the following publication: Francis GL, Waguespack SG, Bauer AJ, et al; The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Pediatric Thyroid Cancer. Management guidelines for children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid . 2015;25(7):716–759. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0460. All statements

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

6. Diagnostic Performance of Practice Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules: Thyroid Nodule Size versus Biopsy Rates. (PubMed)

Diagnostic Performance of Practice Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules: Thyroid Nodule Size versus Biopsy Rates. Background The diagnostic performance and unnecessary biopsy rates for evaluation of thyroid nodules varies among the current society guidelines. We hypothesized that diagnostic performance and unnecessary biopsy rates of different guidelines are largely determined by different thyroid size thresholds used as cutoff values that determine when to biopsy a thyroid nodule. Purpose To compare (...) the malignancy risk, diagnostic performance, and unnecessary biopsy rates of three guidelines and evaluate the changes according to the nodule size cutoff for biopsy. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 3323 consecutive thyroid nodules from 3190 patients between January 2013 and December 2013. US features were reviewed according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA), Korean Thyroid Association/Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KTA/KSThR), and American College of Radiology (ACR

2019 Radiology

7. Echogenicity of Palmar Dupuytren's Nodules Is Not a Predictor of Disease Progression in Terms of Increase in Nodule Size. (PubMed)

Echogenicity of Palmar Dupuytren's Nodules Is Not a Predictor of Disease Progression in Terms of Increase in Nodule Size. Ultrasound might enable us to measure Dupuytren's disease activity and predict disease progression. The aim of this study was to analyze whether echogenicity of Dupuytren's nodules can be used to predict progression in terms of increase in nodule size.Ultrasonographic assessment of a Dupuytren's nodule was performed in 91 patients participating in an existing longitudinal (...) cohort study. Images were scored for echogenicity by two observers. Echogenicity of 89 nodules was matched to growth 1 year later using linear regression analysis. Sensitivity analysis was performed using data obtained 1 year before ultrasound. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient.Hypoechogenicity was not a predictor of growth 1 year later (beta = -0.019, p = 0.748). Sensitivity analysis looking at the year before ultrasonographic

2019 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

8. Computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodule classification between benign nodule, primary lung cancer, and metastatic lung cancer at different image size using deep convolutional neural network with transfer learning. (PubMed)

Computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodule classification between benign nodule, primary lung cancer, and metastatic lung cancer at different image size using deep convolutional neural network with transfer learning. We developed a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) method for classification between benign nodule, primary lung cancer, and metastatic lung cancer and evaluated the following: (i) the usefulness of the deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for CADx of the ternary classification (...) learning were 60.7%, 64.7%, and 68.0%, respectively. DCNN was better than the conventional method for CADx, and the accuracy of DCNN improved when using transfer learning. Also, we found that larger image sizes as inputs to DCNN improved the accuracy of lung nodule classification.

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2018 PLoS ONE

9. Standard-, Reduced-, and No-Dose Thin-Section Radiologic Examinations: Comparison of Capability for Nodule Detection and Nodule Type Assessment in Patients Suspected of Having Pulmonary Nodules. (PubMed)

Standard-, Reduced-, and No-Dose Thin-Section Radiologic Examinations: Comparison of Capability for Nodule Detection and Nodule Type Assessment in Patients Suspected of Having Pulmonary Nodules. Purpose To compare the capability of pulmonary thin-section magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with ultrashort echo time (UTE) with that of standard- and reduced-dose thin-section computed tomography (CT) in nodule detection and evaluation of nodule type. Materials and Methods The institutional review (...) board approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Standard- and reduced-dose chest CT (60 and 250 mA) and MR imaging with UTE were used to examine 52 patients; 29 were men (mean age, 66.4 years ± 7.3 [standard deviation]; age range, 48-79 years) and 23 were women (mean age, 64.8 years ± 10.1; age range, 42-83 years). Probability of nodule presence was assessed for all methods with a five-point visual scoring system. All nodules were then classified as missed

2017 Radiology

10. Thyroid nodules coexisting with either cystic or solid breast nodules: a new clue for this association between nodules coming from ultrasonography (PubMed)

Thyroid nodules coexisting with either cystic or solid breast nodules: a new clue for this association between nodules coming from ultrasonography Thyroid and breast nodules (BNs) are common, their prevalence varying based mainly on the population (including age, residence in area of different iodine availability) studied and methods used. The coincidence of thyroid and breast diseases remains controversial and the majority of the studies evaluate the association between breast cancer (...) in the remaining 43 (33.9%) the single or multiple BN was/were solid [group 2; 19/43 had one thyroid nodule (TN) and the remaining 24/43 had ≥2 TNs]. When BN were cystic the coexisting TN(s) was/were more likely to be concordant in localization (i.e., right/right or left/left localization) whereas, when the BN were solid, the coexisting thyroid nodule/nodules was/were more likely to be discordant. In women with cystic BNs (CBNs), TNs were more frequently multiple (64% of cases), whereas in cases with solid BNs

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2017 Gland surgery

11. Assessment of Plasma Proteomics Biomarker's Ability to Distinguish Benign From Malignant Lung Nodules: Results of the PANOPTIC (PulmonAry NOdule Plasma proTeomIc Classifier) trial. (PubMed)

Assessment of Plasma Proteomics Biomarker's Ability to Distinguish Benign From Malignant Lung Nodules: Results of the PANOPTIC (PulmonAry NOdule Plasma proTeomIc Classifier) trial. Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%.A prospective, multicenter observational (...) trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two plasma proteins, LG3BP and C163A. Results were integrated with a clinical risk prediction model to identify likely benign nodules. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were calculated. Estimates of potential changes in invasive testing had the integrated classifier results been available and acted on were made.A

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2018 Chest

12. Don't Play with Your Nodule: Case Report of Tachycardia and Other Adverse Reactions from Manipulation of an Exenatide Injection Site Nodule. (PubMed)

Don't Play with Your Nodule: Case Report of Tachycardia and Other Adverse Reactions from Manipulation of an Exenatide Injection Site Nodule. Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasingly prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. adults, with increasing prevalence in emergency department (ED) visits. Multiple medications, such as exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, have been developed in the past decade to combat this growing problem. This medication is well documented (...) to cause gastrointestinal upset and skin nodules at the injection site. However, currently no documented cases exist regarding manipulation of injection nodules causing increased absorption or reports demonstrating an increase in adverse drug reactions.We report an interesting case of an adult male patient who likely experienced increased systemic absorption of exenatide by manipulating an injection nodule, which ultimately resulted in nausea, retching, diarrhea, and a tachycardic heart rate of 130-140

2018 Journal of Emergency Medicine

13. Evaluation of the 95% limits of agreement of the volumes of 5-year clinically stable solid nodules for the development of a follow-up system for indeterminate solid nodules in CT lung cancer screening (PubMed)

Evaluation of the 95% limits of agreement of the volumes of 5-year clinically stable solid nodules for the development of a follow-up system for indeterminate solid nodules in CT lung cancer screening This study sought to evaluate the 95% limits of agreement of the volumes of 5-year clinically stable solid nodules for the development of a follow-up system for indeterminate solid nodules.The volumes of 226 solid nodules that had been clinically stable for 5 years were measured in 186 patients (...) of growth rate, from ±39.2% to ±47.4%. Percent change-based, proportional change-based, and growth rate-based diagnoses of an increase or decrease in ten solid nodules were made at a mean of 302±402, 367±455, and 329±496 days, respectively, compared with a clinical diagnosis made at 809±616 days (P<0.05).The 95% limits of agreement for volume change in 5-year stable solid nodules may enable the detection of an increase or decrease in the solid nodule at an earlier stage than that enabled by a clinical

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2018 Journal of thoracic disease

14. Impact of Nodule Size on Malignancy Risk Differs according to the Ultrasonography Pattern of Thyroid Nodules (PubMed)

Impact of Nodule Size on Malignancy Risk Differs according to the Ultrasonography Pattern of Thyroid Nodules To test whether the impact of thyroid-nodule size on the malignancy risk differs according to the ultrasonography (US) patterns of nodules.This study is a post hoc analysis using data from the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) multicenter retrospective study which included 2000 consecutive thyroid nodules (≥ 1 cm) with final diagnoses. A total of 2000 consecutive thyroid (...) nodules from 1802 patients (1387 women and 613 men; mean age, 51.2 ± 12.2 years) were enrolled in this study. The malignancy risk of the nodules was assessed according to the nodule size and US patterns (Korean-TIRADS).Overall, the malignancy risk did not increase as nodules enlarged. In high-suspicion nodules, the malignancy rate had no association with nodule size (p = 0.467), whereas in intermediate- or low-suspicion nodules there was a trend toward an increasing malignancy risk as the nodule size

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2018 Korean Journal of Radiology

15. Impact of overexpression of cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase on soybean nodulation and nodule metabolome (PubMed)

Impact of overexpression of cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase on soybean nodulation and nodule metabolome Nitrogen-fixing nodules, which are also major sites of sulfur assimilation, contribute significantly to the sulfur needs of whole soybean plants. Nodules are the predominant sites for cysteine accumulation and the activity of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASS) is central to the sulfur assimilation process in plants. Here, we examined the impact of overexpressing OASS (...) on soybean nodulation and nodule metabolome. Overexpression of OASS did not affect the nodule number, but negatively impacted plant growth. HPLC measurement of antioxidant metabolites demonstrated that levels of cysteine, glutathione, and homoglutathione nearly doubled in OASS overexpressing nodules when compared to control nodules. Metabolite profiling by LC-MS and GC-MS demonstrated that several metabolites related to serine, aspartate, glutamate, and branched-chain amino acid pathways were

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2018 Scientific reports

16. Gibberellins promote nodule organogenesis but inhibit the infection stages of nodulation (PubMed)

Gibberellins promote nodule organogenesis but inhibit the infection stages of nodulation Leguminous plant roots can form a symbiosis with soil-dwelling nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a new root organ, the nodule. Successful nodulation requires co-ordination of spatially separated events in the root, including infection in the root epidermis and nodule organogenesis deep in the root cortex. We show that the hormone gibberellin plays distinct roles in these epidermal (...) and cortical programmes. We employed a unique set of genetic material in pea that includes severely gibberellin-deficient lines and della-deficient lines that enabled us to characterize all stages of infection and nodule development. We confirmed that gibberellin suppresses infection thread formation and show that it also promotes nodule organogenesis into nitrogen-fixing organs. In both cases, this is achieved through the action of DELLA proteins. This study therefore provides a mechanism to explain how

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2018 Journal of experimental botany

17. A novel CT-guided technique using medical adhesive for localization of small pulmonary ground-glass nodules and mixed ground-glass nodules (≤20 mm) before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (PubMed)

A novel CT-guided technique using medical adhesive for localization of small pulmonary ground-glass nodules and mixed ground-glass nodules (≤20 mm) before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery We aimed to evaluate the success rate and complication occurrence of CT-guided localization of small pure ground-glass nodules (pGGNs) and mixed ground-glass nodules (mGGNs) with medical adhesive injection before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).From March 2015 to May 2017, 41 patients with 44 (...) small pGGNs and mGGNs underwent CT-guided percutaneous localization with medical adhesive prior to wedge resection by VATS.Localization with medical adhesive was successful in all patients (100%). The nodules (13 pGGNs, 31 mGGNs) had a mean maximal long-axis diameter of 9±4 mm and a mean distance of 10±7 mm from the most superficial edge of the nodule to the visceral pleura. The localization time was 16±8 minutes. There was a moderate inverse relationship between localization time and the nodule

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2018 Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

18. Nodule size as predictive factor of efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in treating autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. (PubMed)

Nodule size as predictive factor of efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in treating autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. No defined pre-treatment factors are able to predict the response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN).Primary endpoint was to evaluate the success rate of RFA to restore euthyroidism in a cohort of adult patients with small solitary AFTN compared with medium-sized nodules. Secondary endpoints included nodule volume (...) reduction and rate of conversion from hot nodules to cold using scintiscan.This was a 24-month prospective monocentric open parallel-group trial. Twenty-nine patients with AFTN were divided into two groups based on thyroid volume: 15 patients with small nodules (<12 mL) in group A and 14 patients with medium nodules (>12 mL) in group B. All patients underwent a single session of RFA and were clinically, biochemically, and morphologically evaluated at baseline and at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months after

2018 International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group

19. CNN models discriminating between pulmonary micro-nodules and non-nodules from CT images (PubMed)

CNN models discriminating between pulmonary micro-nodules and non-nodules from CT images Early and automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from CT lung screening is the prerequisite for precise management of lung cancer. However, a large number of false positives appear in order to increase the sensitivity, especially for detecting micro-nodules (diameter < 3 mm), which increases the radiologists' workload and causes unnecessary anxiety for the patients. To decrease the false positive rate, we (...) propose to use CNN models to discriminate between pulmonary micro-nodules and non-nodules from CT image patches.A total of 13,179 micro-nodules and 21,315 non-nodules marked by radiologists are extracted with three different patch sizes (16 × 16, 32 × 32 and 64 × 64) from LIDC/IDRI database and used in the experiments. Three CNN models with different depths (1, 2 or 4 convolutional layers) are designed; their performances are evaluated by the fivefold cross-validation in term of the accuracy, area

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2018 Biomedical engineering online

20. INCREASING NODULE SIZE1 Expression Is Required for Normal Rhizobial Symbiosis and Nodule Development (PubMed)

INCREASING NODULE SIZE1 Expression Is Required for Normal Rhizobial Symbiosis and Nodule Development Nodulation is crucial for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying BNF have remained elusive. Here, we cloned a candidate gene underlying a major nodulation quantitative trait locus in soybean (Glycine max), INCREASING NODULE SIZE1 (GmINS1). GmINS1 encodes a cell wall β-expansin and is expressed primarily in vascular bundles, along with cortical (...) and parenchyma cells of nodules. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms distinguishing the two parents were found in the GmINS1 promoter region. Among them, single-nucleotide polymorphism A/C has a significant effect on GmINS1 expression in the parental genotype P2, based on β-glucuronidase activity and promoter deletion analysis. The expression of GmINS1 and the P2 genotype promoter was strongly associated with nodule development, not only in the parents but also in 40 progeny lines and 40 genotypes selected

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2018 Plant physiology

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