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Nipple Soreness in Lactation

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41. The application of low-level laser therapy after cesarean section does not compromise blood prolactin levels and lactation status. (PubMed)

The application of low-level laser therapy after cesarean section does not compromise blood prolactin levels and lactation status. This study evaluates the systemic effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on blood prolactin levels and lactation status when it is used to hasten surgical wound healing in women having undergone a cesarean section.LLLT has been used in parturient patients for postpartum mastitis and nipple soreness. However, previous studies have revealed hormonal (...) and physiological effects of LLLT on the lactation status.Twenty healthy women scheduled for cesarean section were randomly divided into two groups: an LLLT group and a control group. LLLT was delivered as follows: (1) irradiation with 980 nm (100 mW, 3.3 J/cm(2), total energy 60 J), and 650 nm (30 mW, 1.5 J/cm(2), total energy 27 J) to the incision line, and (2) intravenous laser irradiation at 2.5 mW and 650 nm for 15 min on three consecutive postoperative days. Except for LLLT, all the therapeutic conditions

2009 Photomedicine and laser surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

42. Model Breastfeeding Policy

, ointments, or other topical preparations will be avoided unless such therapy has been indicated for a dermatologic problem. Mothers with sore nipples will be observed for latch-on techniques and will be instructed to apply expressed colostrum or breastmilk to the areola/nipple after each feeding. 19. Nipple shields or bottle nipples will not be routinely used to cover a mother’s nipples, to treat latch-on problems, or to prevent or manage sore or cracked nipples or used when a mother has ?at or inverted (...) Policy Statements 1. The ‘‘name of institution’’ staff will actively support breastfeeding as the preferred method of providing nutrition to infants. A multidisciplinary, culturally ap- propriate team comprising hospital administrators, physician and nursing staff, lactation consultants and specialists, nutrition staff, other appropriate staff, and parents shall be established and maintained to identify and eliminate institutional barriers to breastfeeding. On a yearly basis, this group will compile

2010 Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

43. BEST ABCs: Benefits and Effectiveness of Support Offered Through A Breastfeeding Clinic Study

, supplementation, hospitalization) [ Time Frame: 24 hours - 3 months ] Incidence of breastfeeding difficulties (e.g., sore nipples, insufficient milk supply, inadequate latch, engorgement) [ Time Frame: 24 hours - 3 months ] Breastfeeding self efficacy score (Breastfeeding Self Efficacy Scale or BSES) at 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months [ Time Frame: 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months ] Score of the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale for new mothers [ Time Frame: 3 weeks ] Access to community-based services: Public (...) established. Following discharge, women can access breastfeeding support from Public Health Units, lactation consultants, health care providers, and Internet (e.g. from breastfeeding associations). Despite the current support, duration and exclusivity rates of breastfeeding drop precipitously in the first weeks and months after birth. We have obtained funding from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care to evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a post-partum clinic based

2014 Clinical Trials

44. Counseling the Breastfeeding Mother (Diagnosis)

for fatigue, stress, postpartum depression, sore nipples, and engorgement. The options for early follow-up assessment of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad are numerous and can include a home health visit, a consultation with a lactation specialist, a hospital follow-up program, or an appointment at a doctor's office or clinic. Telephone counseling should be viewed as an additional support, but it should not replace a visit in person. This degree of follow-up may seem excessive, but ensuring the well (...) the mother breastfeeding her newborn. Check the baby's weight. Assess the neonate's general health status. Ask the mother if latch-on and suckling at breast are good. Ask the mother if she has sore or painful nipples. Ask the mother about support or help at home. Follow-up with an office or clinic visit when the neonate is aged 5-7 days. Perform the following: Evaluate baby for jaundice, adequate hydration, and age-appropriate elimination patterns. Assess maternal well-being. For example, evaluate

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

45. Counseling the Breastfeeding Mother (Treatment)

for fatigue, stress, postpartum depression, sore nipples, and engorgement. The options for early follow-up assessment of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad are numerous and can include a home health visit, a consultation with a lactation specialist, a hospital follow-up program, or an appointment at a doctor's office or clinic. Telephone counseling should be viewed as an additional support, but it should not replace a visit in person. This degree of follow-up may seem excessive, but ensuring the well (...) the mother breastfeeding her newborn. Check the baby's weight. Assess the neonate's general health status. Ask the mother if latch-on and suckling at breast are good. Ask the mother if she has sore or painful nipples. Ask the mother about support or help at home. Follow-up with an office or clinic visit when the neonate is aged 5-7 days. Perform the following: Evaluate baby for jaundice, adequate hydration, and age-appropriate elimination patterns. Assess maternal well-being. For example, evaluate

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

46. Counseling the Breastfeeding Mother (Overview)

for fatigue, stress, postpartum depression, sore nipples, and engorgement. The options for early follow-up assessment of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad are numerous and can include a home health visit, a consultation with a lactation specialist, a hospital follow-up program, or an appointment at a doctor's office or clinic. Telephone counseling should be viewed as an additional support, but it should not replace a visit in person. This degree of follow-up may seem excessive, but ensuring the well (...) the mother breastfeeding her newborn. Check the baby's weight. Assess the neonate's general health status. Ask the mother if latch-on and suckling at breast are good. Ask the mother if she has sore or painful nipples. Ask the mother about support or help at home. Follow-up with an office or clinic visit when the neonate is aged 5-7 days. Perform the following: Evaluate baby for jaundice, adequate hydration, and age-appropriate elimination patterns. Assess maternal well-being. For example, evaluate

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

47. Counseling the Breastfeeding Mother (Follow-up)

for fatigue, stress, postpartum depression, sore nipples, and engorgement. The options for early follow-up assessment of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad are numerous and can include a home health visit, a consultation with a lactation specialist, a hospital follow-up program, or an appointment at a doctor's office or clinic. Telephone counseling should be viewed as an additional support, but it should not replace a visit in person. This degree of follow-up may seem excessive, but ensuring the well (...) the mother breastfeeding her newborn. Check the baby's weight. Assess the neonate's general health status. Ask the mother if latch-on and suckling at breast are good. Ask the mother if she has sore or painful nipples. Ask the mother about support or help at home. Follow-up with an office or clinic visit when the neonate is aged 5-7 days. Perform the following: Evaluate baby for jaundice, adequate hydration, and age-appropriate elimination patterns. Assess maternal well-being. For example, evaluate

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

48. Breast feeding: Guidance for staff assisting the mother

accommodation to prevent them having to walk to the hospital in the middle of the night. Rationale 18: Expression during the night is important for the maintenance of a healthy lactation. Rationale 19: Difficulties in establishing breastfeeding may stem from a lack of confidence, anxiety or physical discomfort. Rationale 20: Ineffective positioning will lead to a poor latch and ineffective breast feeding. Poor positioning is a common predisposing factor for sore nipples. Rationale 21: Engorged breasts (...) ). The composition of the breast milk changes during feeds. Initially the milk is ‘watery’, (foremilk) but as the baby settles into a regular sucking rhythm, the fat and calorie content increase (hindmilk). Adequate emptying of the breast is necessary for the maintenance of effective lactation. Milk is produced while the baby is suckling, so to establish lactation the nipple area (areola) needs to be stimulated regularly. If the baby is unable to suck the breast, milk should be expressed at least 8 times a day

2009 Publication 1593

49. Breast Feeding Technique

-on Infants positioned under nipple Do not block infant's nares with Infant's chin should be pressed into the mother's Use finger to break infant's suction should not be painful after the first 30-60 seconds of latching on Infant should have a rhythmic suck and swallow feeding pattern Ensure that infant latches on to entire areola Use C-Hold to support and direct latch-on Avoid baby latching onto only nipple Results in nipple soreness and fissures Infant should latch on to as much of areola as possible (...) Feeding Technique Aka: Breast Feeding Technique , Lactation Technique , Breast Feeding Pearls , Effective Breast Feeding Signs From Related Chapters II. Technique: Breast Feeding positions Cradle hold Use arm on side of Mother's antecubital space supports baby's head Mother's hand supports baby's bottom Cross-cradle hold Use arm on opposite side of Mother's antecubital space supports baby's bottom Mother's hand supports baby's head Baby cradled like football inside arm Similar to football hold (except

2015 FP Notebook

50. Breast Feeding Problems for the Mother

Feeding Problems for the Mother Breast Feeding Problems for the Mother Aka: Breast Feeding Problems for the Mother , Lactation Problems for the Mother From Related Chapters II. Approach: Nipple Conditions Inverted Nipples Identify problem well before delivery Recommend nipple shells to help evert nipples Sore Nipples See Milk Blebs (milk-filled s on nipple) Soak in warm water for 5-10 minutes, then gently rub nipple with washcloth to unroof may be unroofed with sterile 18 gauge needle III. Approach (...) . Approach: Inhibited Milk let down Warm shower Privacy for Comfortable environment Private Soft music Low light intensity Local heat to s VII. Approach: Medications See VIII. Approach: Work-Related Lactation problems Educate regarding various s and devices Support and encourage using at work IX. Approach: Vasospasm (Raynauds phenomenon of nipple) Decrease nipple cold exposure and warm nipple as needed Reduce nipple Avoid s (e.g. ) Consider 30 mg daily for 2 weeks (safe in ) X. References (2016) Presc

2015 FP Notebook

51. Mastitis

Mastitis From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology : 9-33% of lactating women Most common in first few weeks and nearly all cases within first 3 months III. Pathophysiology rally occurs in several weeks postpartum enter through a cracked nipple IV. Etiology e V. Symptoms Malaise Myalgias VI. Signs Unilateral inflammation Warmth Tenderness Erythema Observe for signs of Breast abscess Requires needle aspiration VII. Labs: Milk Culture Indications (not routine) Severe Mastitis Refractory despite optimal (...) refractory) Indicated in refractory cases (after 3 attempted needle aspirations) Also first-line measure in very superficial lesions, with skin thinning over the abscess References Sacchetti in Herbert (2016) EM:Rap 16(5): 1 XII. Follow-up Early antibiotics prevent abscess formation If not better in 48 hours examine for abscess Consider XIII. Prevention Optimal with good latch-on by infant Address predisposing factors early Sore nipples suggest problems Correct latch-on problems Address dry nipples

2015 FP Notebook

52. Mechanical pumps are effective for expressing milk

birth to 6 months of age. Children who do not receive human milk are more likely to suffer health problems. Not all babies are able to feed at the breast because of prematurity, illness, abnormalities, or separation from their mothers. These babies need expressed milk. Mothers may also express milk for their own comfort if they have sore nipples or engorgement; to increase milk supply; or to leave milk if away from their baby. Cochrane Systematic Review Becker GE et al. Methods of milk expression (...) Mechanical pumps are effective for expressing milk PEARLS Practical Evidence About Real Life Situations PEARLS are succinct summaries of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for primary care practitioners. They Mechanical pumps are effective for expressing milk Clinical question How effective are mechanical pumps for milk expression in lactating women? Bottom line Mothers appear to obtain greater total volumes of milk in a 6-day period within 2 weeks of birth using an electric or foot-powered pump

2009 Cochrane PEARLS

53. Breastfeeding

an inverted nipple far enough back into his mouth to nurse effectively." La Leche League offers several techniques to use during pregnancy or even in the early days following birth that may help to bring a flat or inverted nipple out. Lactation consultant [ ] are trained to assist mothers in preventing and solving breastfeeding difficulties such as sore nipples and low milk supply. They commonly work in hospitals, physician or midwife practices, public health programs, and private practice. Exclusive (...) the breast for lactation. Before pregnancy the breast is largely composed of (fat) tissue but under the influence of the hormones , , , and other hormones, the breasts prepare for production of milk for the baby. There is an increase in blood flow to the breasts. Pigmentation of the nipples and also increases. Size increases as well, but breast size is not related to the amount of milk that the mother will be able to produce after the baby is born. By the second trimester of pregnancy , a thick yellowish

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2012 Wikipedia

54. Ankyloglossia

that the quality of the mother’s breastfeeding was not assessed. Wallace and Clark also studied breastfeeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia. They followed 10 infants with ankyloglossia who underwent surgical . Eight of the ten mothers experienced poor infant latching onto the breast, 6/10 experienced sore nipples and 5/10 experienced continual feeding cycles; 3/10 mothers were exclusively breastfeeding. Following a tongue-tie division, 4/10 mothers noted immediate improvements in breastfeeding, 3 (...) , Helen; Clarke, Susan (2006). "Tongue tie division in infants with breast feeding difficulties". International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology . 70 (7): 1257–61. : . . ^ Lalakea ML, Messner AH (2003). "Ankyloglossia: does it matter?". Pediatr. Clin. North Am . 50 (2): 381–97. : . . Hazelbaker AK: The assessment tool for lingual frenulum function (ATLFF): Use in a lactation consultant private practice Masters thesis, Pacific Oaks College, 1993 ABM Protocols: Protocol #11: Guidelines

2012 Wikipedia

55. Puerperal Mastitis

to sleep through the whole night for example). Rapid weaning. Painful breasts. Preferred breast, leading to milk accumulation in the other. Pressure on the breast - due to tight clothing, seat belt, sleeping in the prone position. Nipple fissures, cracks and sores. Trauma to breasts. Blocked milk ducts. Presentation [ , ] Mastitis is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and signs indicating inflammation - breast pain along with systemic features. Symptoms This normally presents ≥1 week postpartum (...) . You may find the article more useful, or one of our other . In this article In This Article Puerperal Mastitis In this article Mastitis means inflammation of the breast, and may be non-infectious or infectious in origin. In lactating women, it is essentially caused by an accumulation of milk. Epidemiology Between 10% and 33% of breast-feeding women develop lactation mastitis. [ , ] The incidence is highest in the first few weeks postpartum, decreasing gradually after that. [ ] However, cases may

2008 Mentor

56. Benign Breast Disease

problems arise during breast-feeding there may be sore or cracked nipples, thrush, engorgement, etc. Nodularity [ ] Fibrocystic change is the most common benign breast disorder and most often presents with pain and nodularity. This usually affects women aged 20-50 and appears to be hormonal in aetiology. Any of the histological types listed above may be found and where there is proliferative change (with or without atypia) it seems there is an associated increased risk of developing breast cancer (...) times. With lactation See separate article. Breast ducts become blocked with engorged milk, and bacteria enter from cracks in the nipple. There may be engorgement of the breast and axillary lymphadenopathy. Warm compresses and analgesia such as ibuprofen or paracetamol may give some relief. Encourage the woman to continue breast-feeding. A penicillinase-resistant antibiotic such as flucloxacillin is required where first-line measures have not succeeded. An abscess may develop in the peripheral part

2008 Mentor

57. Infant Feeding

. tuberculosis and H. influenzae . Decisions about stopping breast milk because of infection should balance the potential risk with the huge benefits of breastfeeding. Problems [ ] Cracked/sore nipples Nipple soreness is very common during the first weeks of breastfeeding. Some breastfeeding mothers describe nipple soreness as a pinching, itching, or burning sensation. It may be caused by: Improper position of the baby: altering feeding positions may help to reduce soreness, providing good attachment (...) is maintained. Improper feeding techniques: nipple soreness may be caused by incomplete suction release at the end of baby's feeding. Gently inserting a finger into the side of the mouth to break the suction may help. Improper nipple care: excessively dry (or excessively moist) skin can cause nipple soreness. Moisture can be caused by bras made of synthetic fabrics. Ointments containing lanolin may be helpful. Olive oil and expressed milk may also be effective for soothing uncomfortable nipples. Regardless

2008 Mentor

58. Postnatal care up to 8 weeks after birth

the first skin-to-skin contact. [2006] [2006] 1.3.15 From the first feed, women should be offered skilled breastfeeding support (from a healthcare professional, mother-to-mother or peer support) to enable comfortable positioning of the mother and baby and to ensure that the baby attaches correctly to the breast to establish effective feeding and prevent concerns such as sore nipples. [2006] [2006] 1.3.16 Additional support with positioning and attachment should be offered to women who have had (...) their colostrum or breast milk and advised on how to correctly store and freeze it. [2006] [2006] 1.3.28 Breast pumps should be available in hospital, particularly for women who have been separated from their babies, to establish lactation. All women who use a breast pump should be offered instructions on how to use it. [2006] [2006] Pre Prev venting, identifying and treating breastfeeding concerns enting, identifying and treating breastfeeding concerns Nipple pain Nipple pain 1.3.29 Women should be advised

2006 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

59. HIV transmission : guidelines for assessing risk

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 8. Increasing and Reducing Risk of HIV: Biological Factors A. Mucosal Immunity and HIV . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Sexually T ransmitted Infections . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Common Vaginal Infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Open Cuts, Sores, Lesions, Ulcers, Burns and Rashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Vaginal Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Circumcision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Saliva

2005 CPG Infobase

60. Breastfeeding Multiples

Principles for Optimizing Breastfeeding Success for Families Expecting and Parenting Multiple Birth Infants..…………………………………….. 6 5.1 Families need opportunities to become informed about and prepare for breastfeeding term and preterm multiple birth infants…………….…… 7 5.2 Families require access to multiple-specific and general breastfeeding resources…………………..………………………………………………….. 9 5.3 Families should be supported to initiate lactation and provide breast milk to their infants at the earliest opportunity (...) for breastfeeding preterm or term multiple birth infants. • Families require access to breastfeeding of multiples education and support resources. Resources include printed materials, videos/CDs, Multiple Births Canada, multiple birth families that have breastfed, local multiple birth support groups, lactation consultants/counselors, telephone support lines, online support forums, and breastfeeding of multiples education sessions. • Infant/child care and home help are critical to breastfeeding success. Families

2007 British Columbia Perinatal Health Program

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