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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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121. Altered neurotransmitter release machinery in mice deficient for the deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14 (Full text)

imply that ax(J) nerve terminals are unable to recruit a sufficient number of vesicles to keep pace with physiological rates of transmitter release. Therefore, ubiquitination of synaptic proteins appears to play an important role in the normal operation of the neurotransmitter release machinery and in regulating the size of pools of synaptic vesicles. (...) Altered neurotransmitter release machinery in mice deficient for the deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14 Homozygous ataxic mice (ax(J)) express reduced levels of the deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14. They develop severe tremors by 2-3 wk of age, followed by hindlimb paralysis, and death by 6-8 wk. While changes in the ubiquitin proteasome system often result in the accumulation of ubiquitin protein aggregates and neuronal loss, these pathological markers are not observed in the ax(J) mice. Instead

2011 American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology PubMed abstract

122. Hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia and neurotransmitter synthesis (Full text)

Hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia and neurotransmitter synthesis Central and peripheral neurons as well as neuroendocrine cells express a variety of neurotransmitters/modulators that play critical roles in regulation of physiological systems. The synthesis of several neurotransmitters/modulators is regulated by O(2)-requiring rate-limiting enzymes. Consequently, hypoxia resulting from perturbations in O(2) homeostasis can affect neuronal functions by altering neurotransmitter synthesis. Two broad categories (...) of hypoxia are frequently encountered: continuous hypoxia (CH) and intermittent hypoxia (IH). CH is often seen during high altitude sojourns, whereas IH is experienced in sleep-disordered breathing with recurrent apneas (i.e., brief, repetitive cessations of breathing). This article presents what is currently known on the effects of both forms of hypoxia on neurotransmitter levels and neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

2011 American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology PubMed abstract

123. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, an erectile neurotransmitter, improves erectile function more significantly in castrated rats than in normal rats. (Full text)

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, an erectile neurotransmitter, improves erectile function more significantly in castrated rats than in normal rats. • To investigate the regulatory role of androgen in VIP-mediated erectile effect. Androgen is essential for physiological erection. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an important erectile neurotransmitter. While previous studies demonstrated that VIP expression in the penis was androgen-independent, it remains controversial whether

2011 BJU international PubMed abstract

124. Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos (Full text)

Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of chitosan (...) on the microelectrode surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 1.6 nM serotonin with a sensitivity of 5.12 nA/μM, a linear range from 2 to 100 nM and a reproducibility of 6.5% for n=6 electrodes were obtained. Chitosan modified microelectrodes selectively measure serotonin in presence of physiological levels of ascorbic acid. In vivo measurements were performed

2011 Analytica chimica acta PubMed abstract

125. The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate stimulates DNA repair to increase neuronal resiliency. (Full text)

The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate stimulates DNA repair to increase neuronal resiliency. Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system and plays an important role in synaptic plasticity required for learning and memory. Activation of glutamate ionotropic receptors promptly triggers membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) influx, resulting in the activation of several different protein kinases and transcription factors. For example (...) diseases. Interestingly, although glutamate-induced Ca(2+) influx can cause DNA damage by a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated mechanism, the Ca(2+) simultaneously activates CREB, resulting in up-regulation of the DNA repair and redox protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1. Here, we review connections between physiological or aberrant glutamate receptor activation, Ca(2+)-mediated signaling, oxidative DNA damage and repair efficiency, and neuronal vulnerability. We conclude

2011 Mechanisms of Ageing and Development PubMed abstract

126. Intrinsic physiology of identified neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi and medial vestibular nuclei (Full text)

Intrinsic physiology of identified neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi and medial vestibular nuclei Signal processing in the vestibular system is influenced by the intrinsic physiological properties of neurons that differ in neurotransmitters and circuit connections. Do membrane and firing properties differ across functionally distinct cell types? This study examines the intrinsic physiology of neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) which express (...) different neurotransmitters and have distinct axonal projections. NPH neurons expressing fluorescent proteins in glutamatergic, glycinergic, or GABAergic neurons were targeted for whole-cell patch recordings in brainstem slices obtained from transgenic mouse lines (YFP-16, GlyT2, and GIN). Recordings from MVN neurons projecting to the spinal cord, reticular formation, or oculomotor nucleus were obtained by targeting fluorescent neurons retrogradely labeled from tracer injections. Intrinsic physiological

2011 Journal of Vestibular Research PubMed abstract

127. Dynamic Causal Models and Physiological Inference: A Validation Study Using Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Rodents (Full text)

Dynamic Causal Models and Physiological Inference: A Validation Study Using Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Rodents Generative models of neuroimaging and electrophysiological data present new opportunities for accessing hidden or latent brain states. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) uses Bayesian model inversion and selection to infer the synaptic mechanisms underlying empirically observed brain responses. DCM for electrophysiological data, in particular, aims to estimate the relative strength (...) of synaptic transmission at different cell types and via specific neurotransmitters. Here, we report a DCM validation study concerning inference on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, using different doses of a volatile anaesthetic agent (isoflurane) to parametrically modify excitatory and inhibitory synaptic processing while recording local field potentials (LFPs) from primary auditory cortex (A1) and the posterior auditory field (PAF) in the auditory belt region in rodents. We test whether

2011 PloS one PubMed abstract

130. Sexualized drug use (chemsex and methamphetamine) and men who have sex with men

previously have been recessed by religious, cultural, or psychological obstacles” (26). This next section provides a brief overview of methamphetamine, and includes a discussion of physiological impacts, propensity for addiction, associated harms, and casual use. Methamphetamine is an illegal, powerful stimulant (41) that has a significant impact on the body’s neurochemical systems (42). Neurons, the fundamental unit of the brain and nervous system, contain chemicals known as neurotransmitters (43 (...) ). Neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, are responsible for countless nervous system and bodily functions (44). While methamphetamine can affect serotonin and norepinephrine, it primarily impacts dopamine (45). Dopamine plays an important role in motor function, motivation, and the experience of reward and pleasure (46). Because the molecular structure of methamphetamine and dopamine are similar, methamphetamine can ‘trick’ neurons into taking up methamphetamine as they would

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

131. Assessment of delirium

the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is caused by the direct physiological consequences of a general medical condition, substance intoxication, or substance withdrawal. The changes in attention and cognition must not occur in the context of a severely reduced level of arousal, such as coma. Three clinical subtypes of delirium have been identified. Potter J, George J. The prevention, diagnosis and management of delirium in older people: concise guidelines. Clin Med (...) on the pathogenesis of delirium point to the role of neurotransmitters, inflammation, and chronic stress on the brain. For example, the role of cholinergic deficiency in inducing delirium is strengthened by the clear association of anticholinergic drug use with increased incidence. Trzepacz P, van der Mast R. The neuropathophysiology of delirium. In: Lindesay J, Rockwood K, Macdonald A, eds. Delirium in old age. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2002:51-90. Studies in surgical patients have demonstrated

2018 BMJ Best Practice

132. Donepezil

have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com Top results for donepezil 1. Donepezil for dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known (...) levels of acetylcholine, and is reported to have some benefits for people with AD in the general population. It is important to note (...) that people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the normal population as well as having subtle differences in physiology (e.g. metabolism and heart rate) and may therefore have different requirements from the general population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of donepezil for people with DS who develop AD. SEARCH

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

133. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults: an AUA/SUFU Guideline

. In this case, the frequency is appropriate because of the intake volume and the patient does not have OAB. Frequency due to polydipsia is physiologically self-induced OAB and should be managed with education, with consideration of fluid management. Similarly, diabetes insipidus (DI) also is associated with frequent, large volume voids and should be distinguished from OAB. The clinical presentation of interstitial cystitis/ bladder pain syndrome shares the symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency

2019 American Urological Association

134. Esketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression

pharmacologic approaches — this subpopulation is described as having treatment-resistant depression (TRD). TRD is a more challenging depressive disorder to treat and available therapies are often limited by significant psychological and physiological side effects. Esketamine is the S-enantiomer of racemic ketamine and is being developed as a nasal spray device for potential therapeutic use in patients with TRD. It has not yet been approved in any country but is under priority review at Health Canada (...) . NCT03675776: Study of rapastinel as monotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). ClinicalTrials.gov . Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2019: . Accessed 2019 Feb 1. Wilkinson ST, Sanacora G. A new generation of antidepressants: an update on the pharmaceutical pipeline for novel and rapid-acting therapeutics in mood disorders based on glutamate/GABA neurotransmitter systems. Drug discovery today. 2018;14:14. Axsome Therapeutics, Inc. NCT02741791: A study to assess

2019 CADTH - Issues in Emerging Health Technologies

135. Bioidentical HRT

purporting the benefits of cBHRT. It has been proposed by menopause specialists that rBHRT should be referred to as ‘body identical’ to distinguish regulated hormone therapy from the compounded varieties. cBHRT formulation types E1 and E3 function as competitive inhibitors of E2 because they use the same receptor. Specialist pharmacies/cBHRT prescribers have interpreted this to mean that E2 needs to be ‘balanced’ with its antagonists, E1 and E3, in order to be physiological. Their rationale forms (...) to the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and androgen receptors. This can lead to unwanted side effects such as fluid retention, acne and weight gain. Progestogens and progesterone can lower mood through stimulation of the neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid; whilst progesterone has sedative effects through its intermediate metabolites, progestogens can cause PMS-type side effects including anxiety and irritability. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) It is well recognised that unlike oral estrogen, transdermal

2019 British Menopause Society

136. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults

is volume matched. In this case, the frequency is appropriate because of the intake volume and the patient does not have OAB. Frequency due to polydipsia is physiologically self-induced OAB and should be managed with education, with consideration of fluid management. Similarly, diabetes insipidus also is associated with frequent, large volume voids and should be distinguished from OAB. The clinical presentation of interstitial cystitis/ bladder pain syndrome shares the symptoms of urinary frequency

2019 American Urological Association

137. An International Consortium Update: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of PCOS in Adolescence (Full text)

a fraction of them co-express other neurotransmitters that also play major roles in the control of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion [ ]. These other neurotransmitters include neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin. The NKB receptor NK3R is also expressed in Kiss1 neurons. This population of neurons which co-express kisspeptins, NKB, and dynorphin has been called KNDy neurons [ ]. Based on the reported actions of NKB and dynorphin, which predominantly stimulate and inhibit LH secretion, respectively, and the dense (...) [ ], a hallmark of sympathetic hyperactivity. The association between the neurotrophins and PCOS was strengthened by the finding that ovarian nerve growth factor production is increased in PCOS women [ ]. B. Diagnosis As previously reviewed [ ], diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescence remain controversial, primarily because the diagnostic pathological features used in adult women may be normal pubertal physiological events. These features include irregular menses, cystic acne, and polycystic ovarian

2019 Pediatric Endocrine Society PubMed abstract

138. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

, examinations, tests, and the prolonged pursuit of parenthood often for years without success (de Klerk et al. 2007). More research is indicated to further elucidate the connection between infertility interventions and psychiatric implications. Psychotropic Medications and Infertility Theoretically, psychotropic medications may influence the reproductive function in both men and women. This may occur by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin and GABA, that are involved (...) in the physiologic regulation of the male and female reproductive axes (Hendrick et al. 2000). Psychotropic medications may also alter the metabolism and protein binding of hormones, influencing the levels of sex steroids (Hendrick et al. 2000). However, a 2015 systematic review concluded that clinical studies have not demonstrated a deleterious effect of psychotropic medication on oocytes in terms of retrieval and pregnancy rates (Worly & Gur 2015). A majority of studies however, show an association between

2019 American Psychiatric Association

139. What is the evidence on the role of the arts in improving health and well-being? A scoping review

case studies, small-scale cross-sectional surveys, nationally representative longitudinal cohort studies, community-wide ethnographies and randomized controlled trials. Research methods included psychological scales, biological markers, neuroimaging, physiological assessments, behavioural observations, interviews and examinations of clinical records. Research studies also drew on theories from diverse disciplines. There is naturally variation in the quality of this evidence, and certain areas where (...) ). Management is shaped in part by resilience and whether individuals can adapt with their health: whether they can restore their physiological homeostasis (balance) and feel they have the capacity to cope and fulfil their potential with a degree of independence and opportunity to participate socially (18–20). Health is, therefore, a dynamic process that, at its core, is about having the capacity to self-manage. 1.1.3 Linking the arts with health Arts activities can be considered as complex or multimodal

2019 WHO Health Evidence Network

140. Appropriate Use Criteria: Imaging of the Brain

a shorter time requirement for imaging and post- procedural recovery. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides functional information about brain activity by mapping the relative concentrations of certain radiotracers within the parenchyma. PET brain imaging is primarily used to evaluate blood flow, metabolic changes, and neurotransmitter dynamics, and is frequently performed in conjunction with CT for anatomic localization. PET/CT can be used to evaluate many types of dementia and memory disorders (...) or hydrocephalus ? Management of established hydrocephalus and ventricular shunts Imaging of the Brain Copyright © 2019. AIM Specialty Health. All Rights Reserved. 17 IMAGING STUDY - CT or MRI brain - Ultrasound required for initial evaluation in patients under 5 months of age Rationale Hydrocephalus is dilation of the ventricular system resulting from obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow or excess production. 67 Hydrocephalus can be further classified based on physiology and time of onset. Physiologically

2019 AIM Specialty Health

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