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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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121. Midazolam Whole Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model

Midazolam Whole Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Midazolam Whole Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Midazolam Whole Body (...) Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (MidPBPK) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01973894 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : November 1, 2013 Last Update Posted : May 25, 2017 Sponsor: Università degli Studi dell'Insubria Collaborator: University of Milan Information provided

2012 Clinical Trials

122. Dynamic Causal Models and Physiological Inference: A Validation Study Using Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Rodents (PubMed)

Dynamic Causal Models and Physiological Inference: A Validation Study Using Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Rodents Generative models of neuroimaging and electrophysiological data present new opportunities for accessing hidden or latent brain states. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) uses Bayesian model inversion and selection to infer the synaptic mechanisms underlying empirically observed brain responses. DCM for electrophysiological data, in particular, aims to estimate the relative strength (...) of synaptic transmission at different cell types and via specific neurotransmitters. Here, we report a DCM validation study concerning inference on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, using different doses of a volatile anaesthetic agent (isoflurane) to parametrically modify excitatory and inhibitory synaptic processing while recording local field potentials (LFPs) from primary auditory cortex (A1) and the posterior auditory field (PAF) in the auditory belt region in rodents. We test whether

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2011 PloS one

123. Intrinsic physiology of identified neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi and medial vestibular nuclei (PubMed)

Intrinsic physiology of identified neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi and medial vestibular nuclei Signal processing in the vestibular system is influenced by the intrinsic physiological properties of neurons that differ in neurotransmitters and circuit connections. Do membrane and firing properties differ across functionally distinct cell types? This study examines the intrinsic physiology of neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) which express (...) different neurotransmitters and have distinct axonal projections. NPH neurons expressing fluorescent proteins in glutamatergic, glycinergic, or GABAergic neurons were targeted for whole-cell patch recordings in brainstem slices obtained from transgenic mouse lines (YFP-16, GlyT2, and GIN). Recordings from MVN neurons projecting to the spinal cord, reticular formation, or oculomotor nucleus were obtained by targeting fluorescent neurons retrogradely labeled from tracer injections. Intrinsic physiological

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2011 Journal of Vestibular Research

124. Evidence against a physiological role of prostaglandins in the regulation of noradrenaline release in the cat spleen. (PubMed)

not play an important physiological role in the regulation of adrenergic neurotransmission in the cat spleen. In this tissue the major endogenous negative feed-back regulatory mechanism is triggered by the neurotransmitter through the activation of prejunctional alpha-adrenoceptors. (...) Evidence against a physiological role of prostaglandins in the regulation of noradrenaline release in the cat spleen. 1. The effects of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and indomethacin on responses and on noradrenaline overflow elicited by nerve stimulation were studied in the perfused cat's spleen, at different calcium concentrations in the perfusion medium: 0-26, 0-65 and 2-6 mve stimulation and in the overflow of the transmitter. PGE2 was more effective in reducing transmitter overflow at 5 than

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1975 The Journal of physiology

125. Nervous release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the gastrointestinal tract of cats: possible physiological implications. (PubMed)

nervous effects known to be mediated via non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve fibres were accompanied by significant increases of the VIP concentration in the venous effluent. The possible physiological implications of these findings are discussed and it is proposed that VIP may be a neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract. (...) Nervous release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the gastrointestinal tract of cats: possible physiological implications. 1. The release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) into blood from the gastrointestinal tract was studied when eliciting autonomic nervous effects known to be mediated via non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve fibres. All studies were performed on animals given atropine. 2. Electrical stimulation of the low threshold vagal fibres to the stomach did

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1978 The Journal of physiology

126. The physiological role of taurine. (PubMed)

The physiological role of taurine. 4399554 1972 02 17 2018 11 30 0264-6021 123 4 1971 Jul The Biochemical journal Biochem. J. The physiological role of taurine. 45P-46P Kaczmarek L K LK Davison A N AN eng Journal Article England Biochem J 2984726R 0264-6021 0 Neurotransmitter Agents 1EQV5MLY3D Taurine IM Animals Cerebral Cortex metabolism Electric Stimulation Extracellular Space In Vitro Techniques Neurotransmitter Agents metabolism Rats Synaptic Membranes physiology Taurine metabolism (...) physiology 1971 7 1 1971 7 1 0 1 1971 7 1 0 0 ppublish 4399554 PMC1177059 Pharmacol Rev. 1965 Dec;17(4):347-91 5321711 J Neurochem. 1968 Oct;15(10):1141-9 5711127 J Neurochem. 1969 Aug;16(8):1235-44 5803799 Biochem J. 1971 May;122(5):759-63 5129271 Biochim Biophys Acta. 1956 Jan;19(1):66-73 13304071

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1971 Biochemical Journal

127. Specificity of the Antibody Receptor Site to D-Lysergamide: Model of a Physiological Receptor for Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (PubMed)

Specificity of the Antibody Receptor Site to D-Lysergamide: Model of a Physiological Receptor for Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Antibodies to D-lysergic acid have been produced in rabbits and guinea pigs and a radioimmunoassay for the hapten was developed. The specificity of this lysergamide-antilysergamide reaction was determined by competitive binding with unlabeled lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psychotomimetic drugs, neurotransmitters, and other compounds with diverse structures. LSD

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1971 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

128. A Physiological Mechanism for Hebb's Postulate of Learning (PubMed)

A Physiological Mechanism for Hebb's Postulate of Learning Hebb's postulate of learning envisages that activation or inactivation of extant synaptic contacts in plastic neural networks depends on the synchronous impulse activity of pre- and postsynaptic nerve cells. The physiological mechanism proposed here for this process posits that at synapses acting according to Hebb's postulate, the receptors for the neurotransmitter are eliminated from the postsynaptic membrane by the transient reversals (...) of the sign of membrane polarization that occur during action potential impulses in the postsynaptic cell. But, since the release of neurotransmitter drives the membrane potential of the synaptic zone towards a level about half-way between the negative-inside resting potential and the positive-inside action potential, it would follow that the membrane patches surrounding the receptors of a synapse whose activity has contributed to setting off the postsynaptic impulse would be spared the full extent

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1973 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

129. N-Acyl amino acids and N-acyl neurotransmitter conjugates: neuromodulators and probes for new drug targets (PubMed)

N-Acyl amino acids and N-acyl neurotransmitter conjugates: neuromodulators and probes for new drug targets The myriad functions of lipids as signalling molecules is one of the most interesting fields in contemporary pharmacology, with a host of compounds recognized as mediators of communication within and between cells. The N-acyl conjugates of amino acids and neurotransmitters (NAANs) have recently come to prominence because of their potential roles in the nervous system, vasculature (...) and the immune system. NAAN are compounds such as glycine, GABA or dopamine conjugated with long chain fatty acids. More than 70 endogenous NAAN have been reported although their physiological role remains uncertain, with various NAAN interacting with a low affinity at G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and ion channels. Regardless of their potential physiological function, NAAN are of great interest to pharmacologists because of their potential as flexible tools to probe new sites on GPCRs, transporters

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2010 British journal of pharmacology

130. Presynaptic nicotinic receptors modulating neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system: functional interactions with other coexisting receptors. (PubMed)

which, in turn, generates antagonistic or synergistic effects. The understanding of these interactions may allow a better evaluation not only of the pharmacological effects of nicotine, but also of the normal physiological role of the natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine.Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) Presynaptic nicotinic receptors modulating neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system: functional interactions with other coexisting receptors. The cross-talk between receptors represents an important mechanism of neurotransmission modulation and plasticity. It can occur by direct physical interactions as in the case of G protein-coupled receptor heterodimerization, or it may involve intracellular pathways. The facilitatory or inhibitory action of one receptor might therefore depend

2010 Progress in Neurobiology

131. Activation of Progestin Receptors in Female Reproductive Behavior: Interactions with Neurotransmitters. (PubMed)

Activation of Progestin Receptors in Female Reproductive Behavior: Interactions with Neurotransmitters. The steroid hormone, progesterone (P), modulates neuroendocrine functions in the central nervous system resulting in alterations in physiology and reproductive behavior in female mammals. A wide body of evidence indicates that these neural effects of P are predominantly mediated via their intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) functioning as "ligand-dependent" transcription factors (...) in the steroid-sensitive neurons regulating genes and genomic networks. In addition to P, intracellular PRs can be activated by neurotransmitters, growth factors and cyclic nucleotides in a ligand-independent manner via crosstalk and convergence of pathways. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that rapid signaling events associated with membrane PRs and/or extra-nuclear, cytoplasmic PRs converge with classical PR activated pathways in neuroendocrine regulation of female reproductive behavior. The molecular

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2010 Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

132. Sexualized drug use (chemsex and methamphetamine) and men who have sex with men

previously have been recessed by religious, cultural, or psychological obstacles” (26). This next section provides a brief overview of methamphetamine, and includes a discussion of physiological impacts, propensity for addiction, associated harms, and casual use. Methamphetamine is an illegal, powerful stimulant (41) that has a significant impact on the body’s neurochemical systems (42). Neurons, the fundamental unit of the brain and nervous system, contain chemicals known as neurotransmitters (43 (...) ). Neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, are responsible for countless nervous system and bodily functions (44). While methamphetamine can affect serotonin and norepinephrine, it primarily impacts dopamine (45). Dopamine plays an important role in motor function, motivation, and the experience of reward and pleasure (46). Because the molecular structure of methamphetamine and dopamine are similar, methamphetamine can ‘trick’ neurons into taking up methamphetamine as they would

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

133. Biochemical factors modulating female genital sexual arousal physiology. (PubMed)

Biochemical factors modulating female genital sexual arousal physiology. Female genital sexual arousal responses are complex neurophysiological processes consisting of central and peripheral components that occur following sexual stimulation. The peripheral responses in sexual arousal include genital vasocongestion, engorgement and lubrication resulting from a surge of vaginal and clitoral blood flow. These hemodynamic events are mediated by a host of neurotransmitters and vasoactive agents.To (...) discuss the role of various biochemical factors modulating female genital sexual arousal responses.A comprehensive literature review was conducted using the PubMed database and citations were selected, based on topical relevance, and examined for study methodology and major findings.Data from peer-reviewed publications.Adrenergic as well as non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmitters play an important role in regulating genital physiological responses by mediating vascular and non-vascular smooth

2010 Journal Of Sexual Medicine

134. Study to Investigate the Effect of Formoterol vs Salmeterol on Small Airways Physiological Parameters in COPD Patients

Study to Investigate the Effect of Formoterol vs Salmeterol on Small Airways Physiological Parameters in COPD Patients Study to Investigate the Effect of Formoterol vs Salmeterol on Small Airways Physiological Parameters in COPD Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Study to Investigate the Effect of Formoterol vs Salmeterol on Small Airways Physiological Parameters in COPD Patients (Imperial) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01344655 Recruitment Status : Completed

2010 Clinical Trials

135. Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Cocaine in Cocaine-dependent Participants Treated With Levodopa in Combination With Carbidopa and Entacapone (LCE)

System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs Sensory System Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Vasoconstrictor Agents Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Membrane Transport Modulators Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Dopamine Agents Neurotransmitter Agents Antiparkinson Agents Anti-Dyskinesia Agents Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors Enzyme Inhibitors Catechol O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors (...) Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Cocaine in Cocaine-dependent Participants Treated With Levodopa in Combination With Carbidopa and Entacapone (LCE) Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Cocaine in Cocaine-dependent Participants Treated With Levodopa in Combination With Carbidopa and Entacapone (LCE) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail

2010 Clinical Trials

136. Physiology of Cough in Asthma: Comparison of Sensory-Mechanical Responses to Mannitol and Methacholine Challenge Tests

Physiology of Cough in Asthma: Comparison of Sensory-Mechanical Responses to Mannitol and Methacholine Challenge Tests Physiology of Cough in Asthma: Comparison of Sensory-Mechanical Responses to Mannitol and Methacholine Challenge Tests - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Physiology of Cough in Asthma: Comparison of Sensory-Mechanical Responses to Mannitol and Methacholine Challenge Tests The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01064245 Recruitment Status : Active

2010 Clinical Trials

137. Assessment of delirium

the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is caused by the direct physiological consequences of a general medical condition, substance intoxication, or substance withdrawal. The changes in attention and cognition must not occur in the context of a severely reduced level of arousal, such as coma. Three clinical subtypes of delirium have been identified. Potter J, George J. The prevention, diagnosis and management of delirium in older people: concise guidelines. Clin Med (...) on the pathogenesis of delirium point to the role of neurotransmitters, inflammation, and chronic stress on the brain. For example, the role of cholinergic deficiency in inducing delirium is strengthened by the clear association of anticholinergic drug use with increased incidence. Trzepacz P, van der Mast R. The neuropathophysiology of delirium. In: Lindesay J, Rockwood K, Macdonald A, eds. Delirium in old age. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2002:51-90. Studies in surgical patients have demonstrated

2018 BMJ Best Practice

138. Appropriate Use Criteria: Imaging of the Brain

a shorter time requirement for imaging and post- procedural recovery. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides functional information about brain activity by mapping the relative concentrations of certain radiotracers within the parenchyma. PET brain imaging is primarily used to evaluate blood flow, metabolic changes, and neurotransmitter dynamics, and is frequently performed in conjunction with CT for anatomic localization. PET/CT can be used to evaluate many types of dementia and memory disorders (...) or hydrocephalus ? Management of established hydrocephalus and ventricular shunts Imaging of the Brain Copyright © 2019. AIM Specialty Health. All Rights Reserved. 17 IMAGING STUDY - CT or MRI brain - Ultrasound required for initial evaluation in patients under 5 months of age Rationale Hydrocephalus is dilation of the ventricular system resulting from obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow or excess production. 67 Hydrocephalus can be further classified based on physiology and time of onset. Physiologically

2019 AIM Specialty Health

139. Donepezil

have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com Top results for donepezil 1. Donepezil for dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known (...) levels of acetylcholine, and is reported to have some benefits for people with AD in the general population. It is important to note (...) that people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the normal population as well as having subtle differences in physiology (e.g. metabolism and heart rate) and may therefore have different requirements from the general population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of donepezil for people with DS who develop AD. SEARCH

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

140. An International Consortium Update: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of PCOS in Adolescence

a fraction of them co-express other neurotransmitters that also play major roles in the control of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion [ ]. These other neurotransmitters include neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin. The NKB receptor NK3R is also expressed in Kiss1 neurons. This population of neurons which co-express kisspeptins, NKB, and dynorphin has been called KNDy neurons [ ]. Based on the reported actions of NKB and dynorphin, which predominantly stimulate and inhibit LH secretion, respectively, and the dense (...) [ ], a hallmark of sympathetic hyperactivity. The association between the neurotrophins and PCOS was strengthened by the finding that ovarian nerve growth factor production is increased in PCOS women [ ]. B. Diagnosis As previously reviewed [ ], diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescence remain controversial, primarily because the diagnostic pathological features used in adult women may be normal pubertal physiological events. These features include irregular menses, cystic acne, and polycystic ovarian

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2019 Pediatric Endocrine Society

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