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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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81. Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability (...) appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. This article

2012 Neuropharmacology

82. Implantable Microprobe with Arrayed Microsensors for Combined Amperometric Monitoring of the Neurotransmitters, Glutamate and Dopamine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Implantable Microprobe with Arrayed Microsensors for Combined Amperometric Monitoring of the Neurotransmitters, Glutamate and Dopamine An implantable, micromachined microprobe with a microsensor array for combined monitoring of the neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glut) and dopamine (DA), by constant potential amperometry has been created and characterized. Microprobe studies in vitro revealed Glut and DA microsensor sensitivities of 126±5 nA·μM(-1)·cm(-2) and 3250±50 nA·μM(-1)·cm(-2 (...) ), respectively, with corresponding detection limits of 2.1±0.2 μM and 62±8 nM, both at comparable ~1 sec response times. No diffusional interaction of H(2)O(2) among arrayed microelectrodes was observed. Also, no responses from the electroactive interferents, ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), DOPA (a DA catabolite) or DOPAC (a DA precursor), over their respective physiological concentration ranges, were detected. The dual sensing microbe attributes of size, detection limit, sensitivity, response time

2012 Journal of electroanalytical chemistry (Lausanne, Switzerland)

83. GABA Not Only a Neurotransmitter: Osmotic Regulation by GABAAR Signaling Full Text available with Trip Pro

GABA Not Only a Neurotransmitter: Osmotic Regulation by GABAAR Signaling Mature macroglia and almost all neural progenitor types express γ-aminobutyric (GABA) A receptors (GABA(A)Rs), whose activation by ambient or synaptic GABA, leads to influx or efflux of chloride (Cl(-)) depending on its electro-chemical gradient (E(Cl)). Since the flux of Cl(-) is indissolubly associated to that of osmotically obliged water, GABA(A)Rs regulate water movements by modulating ion gradients. In addition, since (...) for cell proliferation, maturation, and survival. In addition, we will discuss evidence that the osmotic regulation exerted by GABA may contribute to brain water homeostasis in physiological and in pathological conditions causing brain edema, in which the GABAergic transmission is often altered.

2012 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

84. Influence of pressure on adenosine triphosphate function as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in small mesenteric arteries from the spontaneously hypertensive rat. (Abstract)

Influence of pressure on adenosine triphosphate function as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in small mesenteric arteries from the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Enhanced sympathetic neurotransmission contributes to hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We recently reported a method for studying sympathetic neurotransmission in pressurized small arteries, demonstrating a major role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a sympathetic neurotransmitter under these physiological (...) conditions. We have now used this methodology to assess the role of ATP as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in small mesenteric arteries isolated from SHRs.Small arteries were mounted in a suction electrode, cannulated and pressurized to either 30 or 90 mmHg. Nerve-evoked alterations in membrane potential were assessed using sharp microelectrodes. Neurally evoked vasoconstrictor responses were measured in the absence and presence of the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, tamsulosin (0.1 μmol/l), or the P2

2012 Journal of Hypertension

85. Dietary Nitrate and Physiological Aging

Nervous System Stimulants Physiological Effects of Drugs Sympathomimetics Autonomic Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Dopamine Agents Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Adrenergic Agents Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Membrane Transport Modulators Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors (...) Dietary Nitrate and Physiological Aging Dietary Nitrate and Physiological Aging - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Dietary Nitrate and Physiological Aging The safety and scientific validity

2015 Clinical Trials

86. The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur (...) The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since

2015 Frontiers in endocrinology

87. Newer neurotransmitters in pain control. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Newer neurotransmitters in pain control. 44440 1980 06 27 2018 11 13 0003-3006 26 3 1979 May-Jun Anesthesia progress Anesth Prog Newer neurotransmitters in pain control. 66-71 Trieger N N eng Journal Article Review United States Anesth Prog 0043533 0003-3006 0 Analgesics 0 Endorphins 0 Neurotransmitter Agents D Q Analgesics history Endorphins physiology Humans Neurophysiology trends Neurotransmitter Agents history physiology 46 1979 5 1 1979 5 1 0 1 1979 5 1 0 0 ppublish 44440 PMC2516006

1979 Anesthesia progress

88. Lesions of the frontal cortex of the rat: changes in neurotransmitter systems in sub-cortical regions [proceedings] Full Text available with Trip Pro

Animals Brain metabolism Cerebral Cortex drug effects physiology Desipramine pharmacology Hydroxydopamines pharmacology Male Neurotransmitter Agents metabolism Rats 1978 11 1 1978 11 1 0 1 1978 11 1 0 0 ppublish 31222 PMC1668590 Brain Res. 1971 Aug 20;31(2):295-311 5569152 Br J Pharmacol. 1978 Mar;62(3):402P 638332 Brain Res. 1978 Feb 10;141(2):267-81 626903 (...) Lesions of the frontal cortex of the rat: changes in neurotransmitter systems in sub-cortical regions [proceedings] 31222 1979 02 12 2018 11 13 0007-1188 64 3 1978 Nov British journal of pharmacology Br. J. Pharmacol. Lesions of the frontal cortex of the rat: changes in neurotransmitter systems in sub-cortical regions [proceedings]. 430P Carter C J CJ Pycock C J CJ eng Journal Article England Br J Pharmacol 7502536 0007-1188 0 Hydroxydopamines 0 Neurotransmitter Agents TG537D343B Desipramine IM

1978 British journal of pharmacology

89. Neurotransmitter Co-release: Mechanism and Physiological Role Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neurotransmitter Co-release: Mechanism and Physiological Role Neurotransmitter identity is a defining feature of all neurons because it constrains the type of information they convey, but many neurons release multiple transmitters. Although the physiological role for corelease has remained poorly understood, the vesicular uptake of one transmitter can regulate filling with the other by influencing expression of the H(+) electrochemical driving force. In addition, the sorting of vesicular (...) neurotransmitter transporters and other synaptic vesicle proteins into different vesicle pools suggests the potential for distinct modes of release. Corelease thus serves multiple roles in synaptic transmission.

2011 Annual review of physiology

90. Anorectal Physiology/Pathophysiology in the Elderly Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anorectal Physiology/Pathophysiology in the Elderly Anorectal medical disorders facing the elderly include fecal incontinence, fecal impaction with overflow fecal incontinence, chronic constipation, dyssynergic defecation, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and pelvic floor disorders. This article discusses the latest advances in age-related changes in morphology and function of anal sphincter, changes in cellular and molecular biology, alterations in neurotransmitters and reflexes, and their impact

2014 Clinics in Geriatric Medicine

91. Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors. Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca(2+) channels and activation of K(+) channels (...) . These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl(-) secretion and passive water

2014 American Journal of Gastroenterology

92. CONTRAST (Can cONTrast Injection Better Approximate FFR compAred to Pure reSTing Physiology?)

CONTRAST (Can cONTrast Injection Better Approximate FFR compAred to Pure reSTing Physiology?) CONTRAST (Can cONTrast Injection Better Approximate FFR compAred to Pure reSTing Physiology?) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one (...) or more studies before adding more. CONTRAST (Can cONTrast Injection Better Approximate FFR compAred to Pure reSTing Physiology?) (CONTRAST) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02184117 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : July 9, 2014 Last Update Posted : May 16, 2016 Sponsor

2014 Clinical Trials

93. Sedation and Physiological Effects of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD

: Nystrom01 First Posted: August 7, 2014 Last Update Posted: February 8, 2017 Last Verified: February 2017 Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Dexmedetomidine Hypnotics and Sedatives Central Nervous System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Analgesics Sensory System Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Adrenergic Agonists Adrenergic Agents Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms (...) Sedation and Physiological Effects of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD Sedation and Physiological Effects of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2014 Clinical Trials

94. Aliphatic polyamines in physiology and diseases. (Abstract)

Aliphatic polyamines in physiology and diseases. Aliphatic polyamines are a family of polycationic molecules derived from decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine that classically comprise three molecules: putrescine, spermidine and spermine. In-cell polyamine homeostasis is tightly controlled at key steps of cell metabolism. Polyamines are involved in an array of cellular functions from DNA stabilization, and regulation of gene expression to ion channel function and, particularly, cell (...) proliferation. As such, aliphatic polyamines play an essential role in rapidly dividing cells such as in the immune system and digestive tract. Because of their role in cell proliferation, polyamines are also involved in carcinogenesis, prompting intensive research into polyamine metabolism as a target in cancer therapy. More recently, another aliphatic polyamine, agmatine, the decarboxylated derivative of arginine, has been identified as a neurotransmitter in mammals, and investigations have focused on its

2014 Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

95. Bioengineering of Physiologically Functional Intrinsically Innervated Human Internal Anal Sphincter Constructs Full Text available with Trip Pro

and cultured from intestinal tissues of adult human donors. These constructs expressed markers for contractile smooth muscle, glial cells, and mature neuronal populations. The constructs responded appropriately to physiologically relevant neurotransmitters, and neural network integration was demonstrated by responses to electrical field stimulation. The ability of enteric neuroprogenitor cells to differentiate into neuronal populations provides enormous potential for functional innervation of a variety (...) Bioengineering of Physiologically Functional Intrinsically Innervated Human Internal Anal Sphincter Constructs Muscle replacement for patients suffering from extensive tissue loss or dysfunction is a major objective of regenerative medicine. To achieve functional status, bioengineered muscle replacement constructs require innervation. Here we describe a method to bioengineer functionally innervated gut smooth muscle constructs using neuronal progenitor cells and smooth muscle cells isolated

2014 Tissue engineering. Part A

96. Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: General Principles (Diagnosis)

Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: General Principles (Diagnosis) Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: Normal Sleep in Adults, Infants, and the Elderly, Sleep Physiology, Circadian Rhythms That Influence Sleep Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method (...) =getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE4ODIyNi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation Updated: Dec 03, 2015 Author: M Suzanne Stevens, MD, MS, D-ABSM; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation Normal Sleep in Adults, Infants, and the Elderly Normal sleep is divided into non–rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM

2014 eMedicine.com

97. Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: General Principles (Overview)

Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: General Principles (Overview) Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: Normal Sleep in Adults, Infants, and the Elderly, Sleep Physiology, Circadian Rhythms That Influence Sleep Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method (...) =getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE4ODIyNi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation Updated: Dec 03, 2015 Author: M Suzanne Stevens, MD, MS, D-ABSM; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation Normal Sleep in Adults, Infants, and the Elderly Normal sleep is divided into non–rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM

2014 eMedicine.com

98. Exercise Physiology (Overview)

Exercise Physiology (Overview) Exercise Physiology: Overview, Basic Concepts -- Sex Differences, Musculoskeletal System Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODg0ODQtb3ZlcnZpZXc= processing > Exercise (...) Physiology Updated: Oct 20, 2015 Author: Amer Suleman, MD; Chief Editor: Craig C Young, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Exercise Physiology Overview Overview Exercise represents one the highest levels of extreme stresses to which the body can be exposed. For example, in a person who has an extremely high fever approaching the level of lethality, the body metabolism increases to approximately 100% above normal; by comparison, the metabolism of the body during a marathon race

2014 eMedicine.com

99. Exercise Physiology (Treatment)

Exercise Physiology (Treatment) Exercise Physiology: Overview, Basic Concepts -- Sex Differences, Musculoskeletal System Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODg0ODQtb3ZlcnZpZXc= processing > Exercise (...) Physiology Updated: Oct 20, 2015 Author: Amer Suleman, MD; Chief Editor: Craig C Young, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Exercise Physiology Overview Overview Exercise represents one the highest levels of extreme stresses to which the body can be exposed. For example, in a person who has an extremely high fever approaching the level of lethality, the body metabolism increases to approximately 100% above normal; by comparison, the metabolism of the body during a marathon race

2014 eMedicine.com

100. Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: General Principles (Treatment)

Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: General Principles (Treatment) Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: Normal Sleep in Adults, Infants, and the Elderly, Sleep Physiology, Circadian Rhythms That Influence Sleep Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method (...) =getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE4ODIyNi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation Updated: Dec 03, 2015 Author: M Suzanne Stevens, MD, MS, D-ABSM; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation Normal Sleep in Adults, Infants, and the Elderly Normal sleep is divided into non–rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM

2014 eMedicine.com

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