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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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81. GABA Not Only a Neurotransmitter: Osmotic Regulation by GABAAR Signaling (PubMed)

GABA Not Only a Neurotransmitter: Osmotic Regulation by GABAAR Signaling Mature macroglia and almost all neural progenitor types express γ-aminobutyric (GABA) A receptors (GABA(A)Rs), whose activation by ambient or synaptic GABA, leads to influx or efflux of chloride (Cl(-)) depending on its electro-chemical gradient (E(Cl)). Since the flux of Cl(-) is indissolubly associated to that of osmotically obliged water, GABA(A)Rs regulate water movements by modulating ion gradients. In addition, since (...) for cell proliferation, maturation, and survival. In addition, we will discuss evidence that the osmotic regulation exerted by GABA may contribute to brain water homeostasis in physiological and in pathological conditions causing brain edema, in which the GABAergic transmission is often altered.

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2012 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

82. Implantable Microprobe with Arrayed Microsensors for Combined Amperometric Monitoring of the Neurotransmitters, Glutamate and Dopamine (PubMed)

Implantable Microprobe with Arrayed Microsensors for Combined Amperometric Monitoring of the Neurotransmitters, Glutamate and Dopamine An implantable, micromachined microprobe with a microsensor array for combined monitoring of the neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glut) and dopamine (DA), by constant potential amperometry has been created and characterized. Microprobe studies in vitro revealed Glut and DA microsensor sensitivities of 126±5 nA·μM(-1)·cm(-2) and 3250±50 nA·μM(-1)·cm(-2 (...) ), respectively, with corresponding detection limits of 2.1±0.2 μM and 62±8 nM, both at comparable ~1 sec response times. No diffusional interaction of H(2)O(2) among arrayed microelectrodes was observed. Also, no responses from the electroactive interferents, ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), DOPA (a DA catabolite) or DOPAC (a DA precursor), over their respective physiological concentration ranges, were detected. The dual sensing microbe attributes of size, detection limit, sensitivity, response time

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2012 Journal of electroanalytical chemistry (Lausanne, Switzerland)

83. Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis (PubMed)

Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability (...) appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. This article

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2012 Neuropharmacology

84. Influence of pressure on adenosine triphosphate function as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in small mesenteric arteries from the spontaneously hypertensive rat. (PubMed)

Influence of pressure on adenosine triphosphate function as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in small mesenteric arteries from the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Enhanced sympathetic neurotransmission contributes to hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We recently reported a method for studying sympathetic neurotransmission in pressurized small arteries, demonstrating a major role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a sympathetic neurotransmitter under these physiological (...) conditions. We have now used this methodology to assess the role of ATP as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in small mesenteric arteries isolated from SHRs.Small arteries were mounted in a suction electrode, cannulated and pressurized to either 30 or 90 mmHg. Nerve-evoked alterations in membrane potential were assessed using sharp microelectrodes. Neurally evoked vasoconstrictor responses were measured in the absence and presence of the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, tamsulosin (0.1 μmol/l), or the P2

2012 Journal of Hypertension

85. MR(Magnetic Resonance) Imaging of Neurotransmitters in Chronic Pain

: Layout table for MeSH terms Osteoarthritis Back Pain Low Back Pain Chronic Pain Osteoarthritis, Knee Peripheral Nervous System Diseases Diabetic Neuropathies Arthritis Joint Diseases Musculoskeletal Diseases Rheumatic Diseases Pain Neurologic Manifestations Signs and Symptoms Neuromuscular Diseases Nervous System Diseases Diabetes Complications Diabetes Mellitus Endocrine System Diseases Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Physiological Effects of Drugs (...) MR(Magnetic Resonance) Imaging of Neurotransmitters in Chronic Pain MR(Magnetic Resonance) Imaging of Neurotransmitters in Chronic Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. MR(Magnetic Resonance

2012 Clinical Trials

86. Neurotransmitter Measurements Using (WINCS) During Deep Brain Stimulation Neurosurgery

and Symptoms Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Physiological Effects of Drugs (...) Neurotransmitter Measurements Using (WINCS) During Deep Brain Stimulation Neurosurgery Neurotransmitter Measurements Using (WINCS) During Deep Brain Stimulation Neurosurgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies

2012 Clinical Trials

87. Dietary Nitrate and Physiological Aging

Nervous System Stimulants Physiological Effects of Drugs Sympathomimetics Autonomic Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Dopamine Agents Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Adrenergic Agents Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Membrane Transport Modulators Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors (...) Dietary Nitrate and Physiological Aging Dietary Nitrate and Physiological Aging - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Dietary Nitrate and Physiological Aging The safety and scientific validity

2015 Clinical Trials

88. The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients (PubMed)

in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur (...) The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since

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2015 Frontiers in endocrinology

89. A systematic review of physiological methods in rodent pharmacological MRI studies. (PubMed)

A systematic review of physiological methods in rodent pharmacological MRI studies. Pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) provides an approach to study effects of drug challenges on brain processes. Elucidating mechanisms of drug action helps us to better understand the workings of neurotransmitter systems, map brain function or facilitate drug development. phMRI is increasingly used in preclinical research employing rodent models; however, data interpretation and integration (...) are complicated by the use of different experimental approaches between laboratories. In particular, the effects of different anaesthetic regimes upon neuronal and haemodynamic processes and baseline physiology could be problematic.This paper investigates how differences in phMRI research methodologies are manifested and considers associated implications, placing particular emphasis on choice of anaesthetic regimes.A systematic review of rodent phMRI studies was conducted. Factors such as those describing

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2015 Psychopharmacology

90. Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos (PubMed)

Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of chitosan (...) on the microelectrode surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 1.6 nM serotonin with a sensitivity of 5.12 nA/μM, a linear range from 2 to 100 nM and a reproducibility of 6.5% for n=6 electrodes were obtained. Chitosan modified microelectrodes selectively measure serotonin in presence of physiological levels of ascorbic acid. In vivo measurements were performed

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2011 Analytica chimica acta

91. The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate stimulates DNA repair to increase neuronal resiliency. (PubMed)

The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate stimulates DNA repair to increase neuronal resiliency. Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system and plays an important role in synaptic plasticity required for learning and memory. Activation of glutamate ionotropic receptors promptly triggers membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) influx, resulting in the activation of several different protein kinases and transcription factors. For example (...) diseases. Interestingly, although glutamate-induced Ca(2+) influx can cause DNA damage by a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated mechanism, the Ca(2+) simultaneously activates CREB, resulting in up-regulation of the DNA repair and redox protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1. Here, we review connections between physiological or aberrant glutamate receptor activation, Ca(2+)-mediated signaling, oxidative DNA damage and repair efficiency, and neuronal vulnerability. We conclude

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2011 Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

92. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, an erectile neurotransmitter, improves erectile function more significantly in castrated rats than in normal rats. (PubMed)

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, an erectile neurotransmitter, improves erectile function more significantly in castrated rats than in normal rats. • To investigate the regulatory role of androgen in VIP-mediated erectile effect. Androgen is essential for physiological erection. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an important erectile neurotransmitter. While previous studies demonstrated that VIP expression in the penis was androgen-independent, it remains controversial whether

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2011 BJU international

93. Evaluation of Behavior, Executive Function, Neurotransmitter Function and Genomic Expression Kuvan Nonresponders

levels occur in PKU patients who are treated with Kuvan therapy, and that beneficial changes in cognition, especially executive functioning skills as measured by validated measurement questionnaires may result. Secondary Outcome Measures : change in neurotransmitter synthesis [ Time Frame: assessment during a 4 week trial of Kuvan administration ] This study seeks to establish evidence: that physiologic changes, unrelated to effect on the PAH enzyme, occur in PKU patients who are treated with Kuvan® (...) Evaluation of Behavior, Executive Function, Neurotransmitter Function and Genomic Expression Kuvan Nonresponders Evaluation of Behavior, Executive Function, Neurotransmitter Function and Genomic Expression Kuvan Nonresponders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2011 Clinical Trials

94. Effects of Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) on the Concentrations of Selected Neurotransmitters in Healthy Male Adults

Posted: December 13, 2013 Last Update Posted: December 13, 2013 Last Verified: October 2013 Keywords provided by Takeda: Drug Therapy pharmacodynamic Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Vortioxetine Neurotransmitter Agents Antidepressive Agents Psychotropic Drugs Anti-Anxiety Agents Tranquilizing Agents Central Nervous System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Membrane Transport Modulators Molecular (...) Effects of Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) on the Concentrations of Selected Neurotransmitters in Healthy Male Adults Effects of Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) on the Concentrations of Selected Neurotransmitters in Healthy Male Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2011 Clinical Trials

95. Altered neurotransmitter release machinery in mice deficient for the deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14 (PubMed)

imply that ax(J) nerve terminals are unable to recruit a sufficient number of vesicles to keep pace with physiological rates of transmitter release. Therefore, ubiquitination of synaptic proteins appears to play an important role in the normal operation of the neurotransmitter release machinery and in regulating the size of pools of synaptic vesicles. (...) Altered neurotransmitter release machinery in mice deficient for the deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14 Homozygous ataxic mice (ax(J)) express reduced levels of the deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14. They develop severe tremors by 2-3 wk of age, followed by hindlimb paralysis, and death by 6-8 wk. While changes in the ubiquitin proteasome system often result in the accumulation of ubiquitin protein aggregates and neuronal loss, these pathological markers are not observed in the ax(J) mice. Instead

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2011 American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology

96. Hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia and neurotransmitter synthesis (PubMed)

Hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia and neurotransmitter synthesis Central and peripheral neurons as well as neuroendocrine cells express a variety of neurotransmitters/modulators that play critical roles in regulation of physiological systems. The synthesis of several neurotransmitters/modulators is regulated by O(2)-requiring rate-limiting enzymes. Consequently, hypoxia resulting from perturbations in O(2) homeostasis can affect neuronal functions by altering neurotransmitter synthesis. Two broad categories (...) of hypoxia are frequently encountered: continuous hypoxia (CH) and intermittent hypoxia (IH). CH is often seen during high altitude sojourns, whereas IH is experienced in sleep-disordered breathing with recurrent apneas (i.e., brief, repetitive cessations of breathing). This article presents what is currently known on the effects of both forms of hypoxia on neurotransmitter levels and neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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2011 American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology

97. Anorectal physiology and pathophysiology in the elderly. (PubMed)

Anorectal physiology and pathophysiology in the elderly. Anorectal medical disorders facing the elderly include fecal incontinence, fecal impaction with overflow fecal incontinence, chronic constipation, dyssynergic defecation, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and pelvic floor disorders. This article discusses the latest advances in age-related changes in morphology and function of anal sphincter, changes in cellular and molecular biology, alterations in neurotransmitters and reflexes

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2014 Clinics in Geriatric Medicine

98. Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors. (PubMed)

Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors. Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca(2+) channels and activation of K(+) channels (...) . These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl(-) secretion and passive water

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2014 American Journal of Gastroenterology

99. Sedation and Physiological Effects of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD

: Nystrom01 First Posted: August 7, 2014 Last Update Posted: February 8, 2017 Last Verified: February 2017 Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Dexmedetomidine Hypnotics and Sedatives Central Nervous System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Analgesics Sensory System Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Adrenergic Agonists Adrenergic Agents Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms (...) Sedation and Physiological Effects of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD Sedation and Physiological Effects of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2014 Clinical Trials

100. CONTRAST (Can cONTrast Injection Better Approximate FFR compAred to Pure reSTing Physiology?)

CONTRAST (Can cONTrast Injection Better Approximate FFR compAred to Pure reSTing Physiology?) CONTRAST (Can cONTrast Injection Better Approximate FFR compAred to Pure reSTing Physiology?) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one (...) or more studies before adding more. CONTRAST (Can cONTrast Injection Better Approximate FFR compAred to Pure reSTing Physiology?) (CONTRAST) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02184117 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : July 9, 2014 Last Update Posted : May 16, 2016 Sponsor

2014 Clinical Trials

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