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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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61. Iron uptake and transport across physiological barriers (PubMed)

Iron uptake and transport across physiological barriers Iron is an essential element for human development. It is a major requirement for cellular processes such as oxygen transport, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, and myelin synthesis. Despite its crucial role in these processes, iron in the ferric form can also produce toxic reactive oxygen species. The duality of iron's function highlights the importance of maintaining a strict balance of iron levels in the body. As a result (...) , organisms have developed elegant mechanisms of iron uptake, transport, and storage. This review will focus on the mechanisms that have evolved at physiological barriers, such as the intestine, the placenta, and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where iron must be transported. Much has been written about the processes for iron transport across the intestine and the placenta, but less is known about iron transport mechanisms at the BBB. In this review, we compare the established pathways at the intestine

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2016 Biometals

62. Recent advances in the understanding of how neuropeptide Y and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone function in adipose physiology (PubMed)

Recent advances in the understanding of how neuropeptide Y and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone function in adipose physiology Communication between the brain and the adipose tissue has been the focus of many studies in recent years, with the "brain-fat axis" identified as a system that orchestrates the assimilation and usage of energy to maintain body mass and adequate fat stores. It is now well-known that appetite-regulating peptides that were studied as neurotransmitters in the central (...) , stimulates lipolysis in rodents. There is also evidence of interaction between the 2 peptides. This review aims to summarize recent advances in the study of NPY and α-MSH regarding their role in adipose tissue physiology, with an emphasis on the cellular and molecular mechanisms. A greater understanding of the brain-fat axis and regulation of adiposity by bioactive peptides may provide insights on strategies to prevent or treat obesity and also enhance nutrient utilization efficiency in agriculturally

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2016 Adipocyte

63. Physiological inputs regulate species-specific anatomy during embryogenesis and regeneration (PubMed)

Physiological inputs regulate species-specific anatomy during embryogenesis and regeneration A key problem in evolutionary developmental biology is identifying the sources of instructive information that determine species-specific anatomical pattern. Understanding the inputs to large-scale morphology is also crucial for efforts to manipulate pattern formation in regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. Recent studies have revealed a physiological system of communication among cells (...) that regulates pattern during embryogenesis and regeneration in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Somatic tissues form networks using the same ion channels, electrical synapses, and neurotransmitter mechanisms exploited by the brain for information-processing. Experimental manipulation of these circuits was recently shown to override genome default patterning outcomes, resulting in head shapes resembling those of other species in planaria and Xenopus. The ability to drastically alter macroscopic anatomy

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2016 Communicative & integrative biology

64. Time-dependent reversal of synaptic plasticity induced by physiological concentrations of oligomeric Aβ42: an early index of Alzheimer’s disease (PubMed)

Time-dependent reversal of synaptic plasticity induced by physiological concentrations of oligomeric Aβ42: an early index of Alzheimer’s disease The oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is thought to contribute to the subtle amnesic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by causing synaptic dysfunction. Here, we examined the time course of synaptic changes in mouse hippocampal neurons following exposure to Aβ42 at picomolar concentrations, mimicking its physiological levels in the brain. We found (...) opposite effects of the peptide with short exposures in the range of minutes enhancing synaptic plasticity, and longer exposures lasting several hours reducing it. The plasticity reduction was concomitant with an increase in the basal frequency of spontaneous neurotransmitter release, a higher basal number of functional presynaptic release sites, and a redistribution of synaptic proteins including the vesicle-associated proteins synapsin I, synaptophysin, and the post-synaptic glutamate receptor I

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2016 Scientific reports

65. Biochemical regulation of pigment motility in vertebrate chromatophores: a review of physiological color change mechanisms (PubMed)

Biochemical regulation of pigment motility in vertebrate chromatophores: a review of physiological color change mechanisms The fundamental unit of rapid, physiological color change in vertebrates is the dermal chromatophore unit. This unit, comprised of cellular associations between different chromatophore types, is relatively conserved across the fish, amphibian, and reptilian species capable of physiological color change and numerous attempts have been made to understand the nature (...) of the four major chromatophore types (melanophores, erythrophores, xanthophores, and iridophores) and their biochemical regulation. In this review, we attempt to describe the current state of knowledge regarding what classifies a pigment cell as a dynamic chromatophore, the unique characteristics of each chromatophore type, and how different hormones, neurotransmitters, or other signals direct pigment reorganization in a variety of vertebrate taxa.

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2016 Current zoology

66. Physiological controls of large‐scale patterning in planarian regeneration: a molecular and computational perspective on growth and form (PubMed)

in planaria. However, recent data also indicate that the global pattern is regulated by physiological circuits composed of ionic and neurotransmitter signaling. Here, we overview the multi-scale problem of understanding pattern regulation in planaria, with specific focus on bioelectric signaling via ion channels and gap junctions (electrical synapses), and computational efforts to extract explanatory models from functional and molecular data on regeneration. We present a perspective that interprets (...) Physiological controls of large‐scale patterning in planarian regeneration: a molecular and computational perspective on growth and form Planaria are complex metazoans that repair damage to their bodies and cease remodeling when a correct anatomy has been achieved. This model system offers a unique opportunity to understand how large-scale anatomical homeostasis emerges from the activities of individual cells. Much progress has been made on the molecular genetics of stem cell activity

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2016 Regeneration

67. Functional and Physiological Changes Induced by Pinhole Glasses in Presbyopia

System Stimulants Physiological Effects of Drugs Sympathomimetics Autonomic Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Dopamine Agents Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Adrenergic Agents Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Membrane Transport Modulators Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors (...) Functional and Physiological Changes Induced by Pinhole Glasses in Presbyopia Functional and Physiological Changes Induced by Pinhole Glasses in Presbyopia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2016 Clinical Trials

68. Physiological and Cognitive Biomarkers for Ketamine's Antidepressant Effects

: January 29, 2016 Results First Posted: February 28, 2017 Last Update Posted: April 23, 2018 Last Verified: March 2018 Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Ketamine Antidepressive Agents Analgesics Sensory System Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Physiological Effects of Drugs Anesthetics, Dissociative Anesthetics, Intravenous Anesthetics, General Anesthetics Central Nervous System Depressants Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Excitatory Amino Acid Agents Neurotransmitter (...) Physiological and Cognitive Biomarkers for Ketamine's Antidepressant Effects Physiological and Cognitive Biomarkers for Ketamine's Antidepressant Effects - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2016 Clinical Trials

69. Leptin-mediated ion channel regulation: PI3K pathways, physiological role, and therapeutic potential (PubMed)

Leptin-mediated ion channel regulation: PI3K pathways, physiological role, and therapeutic potential Leptin is produced by adipose tissue and identified as a "satiety signal," informing the brain when the body has consumed enough food. Specific areas of the hypothalamus express leptin receptors (LEPRs) and are the primary site of leptin action for body weight regulation. In response to leptin, appetite is suppressed and energy expenditure allowed. Beside this hypothalamic action, leptin targets (...) other brain areas in addition to neuroendocrine cells. LEPRs are expressed also in the hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, substantia nigra, pancreatic β-cells, and chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland. It is intriguing how leptin is able to activate different ionic conductances, thus affecting excitability, synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter release, depending on the target cell. Most of the intracellular pathways activated by leptin and directed to ion channels involve PI3K, which in turn

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2016 Channels

70. Placebo Controlled Evaluation of Sedation and Physiological Response to Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD

for MeSH terms Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases, Obstructive Lung Diseases Respiratory Tract Diseases Dexmedetomidine Hypnotics and Sedatives Central Nervous System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Analgesics Sensory System Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Adrenergic Agonists Adrenergic Agents Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action (...) Placebo Controlled Evaluation of Sedation and Physiological Response to Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD Placebo Controlled Evaluation of Sedation and Physiological Response to Intranasal Dexmedetomidine in Severe COPD - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2016 Clinical Trials

71. A Novel Striated Muscle-Specific Myosin-Blocking Drug for the Study of Neuromuscular Physiology (PubMed)

A Novel Striated Muscle-Specific Myosin-Blocking Drug for the Study of Neuromuscular Physiology The failure to transmit neural action potentials (APs) into muscle APs is referred to as neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF). Although synaptic dysfunction occurs in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and impaired neurotransmission contributes to muscle fatigue, direct evaluation of neurotransmission by measurement of successfully transduced muscle APs is difficult due to the subsequent (...) movements produced by muscle. Moreover, the voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitor used to study neurotransmitter release at the adult neuromuscular junction is ineffective in embryonic tissue, making it nearly impossible to precisely measure any aspect of neurotransmission in embryonic lethal mouse mutants. In this study we utilized 3-(N-butylethanimidoyl)-4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BHC), previously identified in a small-molecule screen of skeletal muscle myosin inhibitors, to suppress movements

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2016 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

72. Presynaptic BK channels control transmitter release: physiological relevance and potential therapeutic implications (PubMed)

Presynaptic BK channels control transmitter release: physiological relevance and potential therapeutic implications BK channels are large conductance potassium channels characterized by four pore-forming α subunits, often co-assembled with auxiliary β and γ subunits to regulate Ca(2+) sensitivity, voltage dependence and gating properties. Abundantly expressed in the CNS, they have the peculiar characteristic of being activated by both voltage and intracellular calcium rise. The increase (...) in intracellular calcium via voltage-dependent calcium channels (Cav ) during spiking triggers conformational changes and BK channel opening. This narrows the action potential and induces a fast after-hyperpolarization that shuts calcium channels. The tight coupling between BK and Cav channels at presynaptic active zones makes them particularly suitable for regulating calcium entry and neurotransmitter release. While in most synapses, BK channels exert a negative control on transmitter release under basal

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2016 The Journal of physiology

73. Does rapid and physiological astrocyte–neuron signalling amplify epileptic activity? (PubMed)

Does rapid and physiological astrocyte–neuron signalling amplify epileptic activity? The hippocampus is a key brain region in the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Long-term changes of its architecture and function on the network and cellular level are well documented in epilepsy. Astrocytes can control many aspects of neuronal function and their long-term alterations over weeks, months and years play an important role in epilepsy. However, a pathophysiological transformation (...) of astrocytes does not seem to be required for astrocytes to contribute to epileptic activity. Some of the properties of physiological astrocyte-neuron communication could allow these cells to exacerbate or synchronize neuronal firing on shorter time scales of milliseconds to minutes. Therefore, these astrocyte-neuron interactions are increasingly recognized as potential contributors to epileptic activity. Fast and reciprocal communication between astrocytes and neurons is enabled by a diverse set

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2016 The Journal of physiology

74. Voltage‐gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology (PubMed)

Voltage‐gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology Voltage-gated calcium channels are essential players in many physiological processes in excitable cells. There are three main subdivisions of calcium channel, defined by the pore-forming α1 subunit, the CaV 1, CaV 2 and CaV 3 channels. For all the subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel, their gating properties are key for the precise control of neurotransmitter release, muscle (...) particularly on the role of auxiliary α2 δ subunits in both physiological and pathological processes involving calcium channels, and as a therapeutic target.© 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

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2016 The Journal of physiology

75. Neurosteroid and neurotransmitter alterations in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed)

Neurosteroid and neurotransmitter alterations in Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a massive loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra leading to dopamine hypofunction and alteration of the basal ganglia circuitry. These neurons, are under the control, among others, of the excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems. An imbalance between these systems may contribute to excitotoxicity and dopaminergic cell death (...) . Neurosteroids, a group of steroid hormones synthesized in the brain, modulate the function of several neurotransmitter systems. The substantia nigra of the human brain expresses high concentrations of allopregnanolone (3α, 5αtetrahydroprogesterone), a neurosteroid that positively modulates the action of GABA at GABAA receptors and of 5α-dihydroprogesterone, a neurosteroid acting at the genomic level. This article reviews the roles of NS acting as neuroprotectants and as GABAA receptor agonists

2013 Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

76. The Effects of Exercise on Depression Symptoms Using Levels of Neurotransmitters and EEG as Markers

Disorder Behavioral Symptoms Mood Disorders Mental Disorders Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Physiological Effects of Drugs (...) The Effects of Exercise on Depression Symptoms Using Levels of Neurotransmitters and EEG as Markers The Effects of Exercise on Depression Symptoms Using Levels of Neurotransmitters and EEG as Markers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please

2013 Clinical Trials

77. Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Over the Brain on the Neurotransmitter Binding

agents Receptors, neurotransmitter Transcranial magnetic stimulation Stroke gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Hemiplegia Paralysis Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms Neurotransmitter Agents gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Physiological Effects of Drugs GABA Agents (...) Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Over the Brain on the Neurotransmitter Binding Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Over the Brain on the Neurotransmitter Binding - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies

2013 Clinical Trials

78. The Effects of Exercise on Depression Symptoms Using Levels of Neurotransmitters and EEG as Markers

Disorder Behavioral Symptoms Mood Disorders Mental Disorders Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Physiological Effects of Drugs (...) The Effects of Exercise on Depression Symptoms Using Levels of Neurotransmitters and EEG as Markers The Effects of Exercise on Depression Symptoms Using Levels of Neurotransmitters and EEG as Markers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please

2013 Clinical Trials

79. Alcohol Administration Blocks Stress-Induced Impairments in Memory and Anxiety, and Alters Hippocampal Neurotransmitter Receptor Expression in Male Rats (PubMed)

Alcohol Administration Blocks Stress-Induced Impairments in Memory and Anxiety, and Alters Hippocampal Neurotransmitter Receptor Expression in Male Rats Chronic exposure to stress has many deleterious effects on behavior, which can often lead to self-medication with anxiolytics, antidepressants, or alcohol. We determined the effects of alcohol administration following a stressor on established behavioral, physiological, and neural responses to stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received (...) levels on day-1 of treatment and a habituation by day-7. In conclusion, this study found a reversal of stress-induced deficits in cognition and anxiety when alcohol was given post-stress, and changes in neurotransmitter receptor expression may contribute to these behavioral effects.Published by Elsevier Inc.

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2013 Hormones and behavior

80. Stochastic Properties of Neurotransmitter Release Expand the Dynamic Range of Synapses (PubMed)

Stochastic Properties of Neurotransmitter Release Expand the Dynamic Range of Synapses Release of neurotransmitter is an inherently random process, which could degrade the reliability of postsynaptic spiking, even at relatively large synapses. This is particularly important at auditory synapses, where the rate and precise timing of spikes carry information about sounds. However, the functional consequences of the stochastic properties of release are unknown. We addressed this issue at the mouse (...) activity even when synapses showed significant depression during rapid activity. However, the precision of spike timing decreased with stochastic conductances, suggesting a trade-off between encoding information in spike timing versus probability. These effects were confirmed in fiber stimulation experiments, indicating that they are physiologically relevant, and that synaptic randomness, dynamic range, and jitter are causally related.

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2013 The Journal of Neuroscience

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