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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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41. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated responses in medial vestibular and prepositus hypoglossi nuclei neurons showing distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes (Full text)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated responses in medial vestibular and prepositus hypoglossi nuclei neurons showing distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes Cholinergic transmission in both the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN) plays an important role in horizontal eye movements. We previously demonstrated that the current responses mediated via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were larger than those mediated via muscarinic acetylcholine (...) receptors (mAChRs) in cholinergic MVN and PHN neurons that project to the cerebellum. In this study, to clarify the predominant nAChR responses and the expression patterns of nAChRs in MVN and PHN neurons that exhibit distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes, we identified cholinergic, inhibitory, and glutamatergic neurons using specific transgenic rats and investigated current responses to the application of acetylcholine (ACh) using whole cell recordings in brain stem slices. ACh application induced

2016 Journal of neurophysiology PubMed abstract

42. De novo assembly and characterization of central nervous system transcriptome reveals neurotransmitter signaling systems in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Full text)

De novo assembly and characterization of central nervous system transcriptome reveals neurotransmitter signaling systems in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Neurotransmitter signaling systems play crucial roles in multiple physiological and behavioral processes in insects. Genome wide analyses of de novo transcriptome sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for studying neurotransmitter signaling pathways. The rice striped stem borer, Chilo (...) suppressalis is a destructive rice pest in China and other Asian countries. The characterization of genes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport could identify potential targets for disruption of the neurochemical communication and for crop protection.Here we report de novo sequencing of the C. suppressalis central nervous system transcriptome, identification and expression profiles of genes putatively involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis, packaging, and recycling/degradation. A total

2015 BMC genomics PubMed abstract

43. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release (Full text)

of cooperation of Hebbian mechanism with regulation of neurotransmitter release induced by rapid diffused retrograde messenger in neurons with synapses as low and band-pass filters to obtain high encoding efficiency in different environmental and physiological conditions. (...) The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto

2015 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience PubMed abstract

44. Modulation of Neocortical Development by Early Neuronal Activity: Physiology and Pathophysiology (Full text)

Modulation of Neocortical Development by Early Neuronal Activity: Physiology and Pathophysiology Animal and human studies revealed that patterned neuronal activity is an inherent feature of developing nervous systems. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the mechanisms generating early electrical activity patterns and their impact on structural and functional development of the cerebral cortex. All neocortical areas display distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity (...) patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, intermittent spontaneous activity is synchronized within small neuronal networks, becoming more complex with further development. This transition is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission, with a particular role of non-synaptic tonic currents before the onset of phasic synaptic activity. In this review article we first describe functional impacts of classical neurotransmitters (GABA

2017 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience PubMed abstract

45. G Protein-Coupled Receptors at the Crossroad between Physiologic and Pathologic Angiogenesis: Old Paradigms and Emerging Concepts (Full text)

G Protein-Coupled Receptors at the Crossroad between Physiologic and Pathologic Angiogenesis: Old Paradigms and Emerging Concepts G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in transmitting signals across the extra- and intra-cellular compartments, thus allowing environmental stimuli to elicit critical biological responses. As GPCRs can be activated by an extensive range of factors including hormones, neurotransmitters, phospholipids and other stimuli, their involvement (...) in a plethora of physiological functions is not surprising. Aberrant GPCR signaling has been regarded as a major contributor to diverse pathologic conditions, such as inflammatory, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. In this regard, solid tumors have been demonstrated to activate an angiogenic program that relies on GPCR action to support cancer growth and metastatic dissemination. Therefore, the manipulation of aberrant GPCR signaling could represent a promising target in anticancer therapy. Here, we

2017 International journal of molecular sciences PubMed abstract

46. Advancing NMDA Receptor Physiology by Integrating Multiple Approaches (Full text)

Advancing NMDA Receptor Physiology by Integrating Multiple Approaches NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels activated by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and are essential to all aspects of brain function, including learning and memory formation. Missense mutations distributed throughout NMDAR subunits have been associated with an array of neurological disorders. Recent structural, functional, and computational studies have generated many insights into the activation process (...) connecting glutamate binding to ion-channel opening, which is central to NMDAR physiology and pathophysiology. The field appears poised for breakthroughs, including the exciting prospect of resolving the conformations and energetics of elementary steps in the activation process, and atomic-level modeling of the effects of missense mutations on receptor function. The most promising strategy going forward is through strong integration of multiple approaches.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

2017 Trends in Neurosciences PubMed abstract

47. Physiological Concentrations of Amyloid Beta Regulate Recycling of Synaptic Vesicles via Alpha7 Acetylcholine Receptor and CDK5/Calcineurin Signaling (Full text)

regulatory effect of Aβ on synaptic function and cognition; however the exact cellular and molecular correlates are still unclear. In this work, we tested the effect of physiological concentrations of Aβ species of endogenous origin on neurotransmitter release in rat cortical and hippocampal neurons grown in dissociated cultures. Modulation of production and degradation of the endogenous Aβ species as well as applications of the synthetic rodent Aβ40 and Aβ42 affected efficacy of neurotransmitter release (...) neurotransmitter release from presynapse and suggest that failure of the normal physiological function of Aβ in the fine-tuning of SV cycling could disrupt synaptic function and homeostasis, which would, eventually, lead to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration.

2017 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience PubMed abstract

48. Photodynamic Physiology—Photonanomanipulations in Cellular Physiology with Protein Photosensitizers (Full text)

Photodynamic Physiology—Photonanomanipulations in Cellular Physiology with Protein Photosensitizers Singlet oxygen generated in a type II photodynamic action, due to its limited lifetime (1 μs) and reactive distance (<10 nm), could regulate live cell function nanoscopically. The genetically-encoded protein photosensitizers (engineered fluorescent proteins such as KillerRed, TagRFP, and flavin-binding proteins such as miniSOG, Pp2FbFPL30M) could be expressed in a cell type- and/or subcellular (...) organelle-specific manner for targeted protein photo-oxidative activation/desensitization. The newly emerged active illumination technique provides an additional level of specificity. Typical examples of photodynamic activation include permanent activation of G protein-coupled receptor CCK1 and photodynamic activation of ionic channel TRPA1. Protein photosensitizers have been used to photodynamically modulate major cellular functions (such as neurotransmitter release and gene transcription) and animal

2017 Frontiers in physiology PubMed abstract

49. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations (Full text)

Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether (...) ). This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure) provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy

2017 Neural plasticity PubMed abstract

50. COPD-Related Physiology and the Brain

Disorders Mental Disorders Disease Attributes Pathologic Processes Lung Diseases, Obstructive Carbon Monoxide Antimetabolites Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Gasotransmitters Neurotransmitter Agents Physiological Effects of Drugs (...) COPD-Related Physiology and the Brain COPD-Related Physiology and the Brain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. COPD-Related Physiology and the Brain The safety and scientific validity

2017 Clinical Trials

51. Physiological Responses and Adaptation of Brown Adipose Tissue to Chronic Treatment With Beta 3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists

Physiological Responses and Adaptation of Brown Adipose Tissue to Chronic Treatment With Beta 3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists Physiological Responses and Adaptation of Brown Adipose Tissue to Chronic Treatment With Beta 3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached (...) the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Physiological Responses and Adaptation of Brown Adipose Tissue to Chronic Treatment With Beta 3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our

2017 Clinical Trials

52. Clinical and Physiological Studies of Tremor Syndromes

Clinical and Physiological Studies of Tremor Syndromes Clinical and Physiological Studies of Tremor Syndromes - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Clinical and Physiological Studies of Tremor (...) neurotransmitter levels in brain regions of interest (using MRS). EEG and MEG: we will quantify measures such as corticomuscular coherence, event- or task-related potentials, synchronization/desynchronization, and coherence between sensors or sources located close to the brain areas of interest. TMS: we will analyze measures such as MEP amplitude and central conduction time, as well as measures of cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms. Behavioral measures: we will quantify measures of voluntary

2017 Clinical Trials

53. Race, Natriuretic Peptides and Physiological Perturbations

: No Keywords provided by Pankaj Arora, MD, University of Alabama at Birmingham: Racial differences Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Prehypertension Vascular Diseases Cardiovascular Diseases Metoprolol Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Antihypertensive Agents Sympatholytics Autonomic Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Physiological Effects of Drugs Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Adrenergic Antagonists Adrenergic Agents Neurotransmitter Agents (...) Race, Natriuretic Peptides and Physiological Perturbations Race, Natriuretic Peptides and Physiological Perturbations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Race, Natriuretic Peptides

2017 Clinical Trials

54. Physiological Study of the Human CYP3A Activity (PiSA)

to Share IPD: No Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Midazolam Adjuvants, Anesthesia Hypnotics and Sedatives Central Nervous System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs Anti-Anxiety Agents Tranquilizing Agents Psychotropic Drugs Anesthetics, Intravenous Anesthetics, General Anesthetics GABA Modulators GABA Agents Neurotransmitter Agents (...) Physiological Study of the Human CYP3A Activity (PiSA) Physiological Study of the Human CYP3A Activity (PiSA) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Physiological Study of the Human CYP3A Activity

2017 Clinical Trials

55. NMDA receptors: linking physiological output to biophysical operation. (Full text)

NMDA receptors: linking physiological output to biophysical operation. NMDA receptors are preeminent neurotransmitter-gated channels in the CNS, which respond to glutamate in a manner that integrates multiple external and internal cues. They belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family and fulfil unique and crucial roles in neuronal development and function. These roles depend on characteristic response kinetics, which reflect the operation of the receptors. Here, we review biologically (...) salient features of the NMDA receptor signal and its mechanistic origins. Knowledge of distinctive NMDA receptor biophysical properties, their structural determinants and physiological roles is necessary to understand the physiological and neurotoxic actions of glutamate and to design effective therapeutics.

2017 Nature reviews. Neuroscience PubMed abstract

56. The catecholamine neurotransmitter precursor tyrosine increases anger during exposure to severe psychological stress. (Full text)

The catecholamine neurotransmitter precursor tyrosine increases anger during exposure to severe psychological stress. Acute stress produces behavioral and physiological changes modulated by central catecholamines (CA). Stress increases CA activity, and depletion of CA stores reduces responses to stress. Increasing CA activity by administration of the dietary amino acid CA precursor tyrosine may increase responsiveness to stress. This study determined whether tyrosine enhances the ability (...)  = .002, ANOVA treatment condition by test session interaction) during stress but had no other effects.Tyrosine did not alter most subjective or physiological responses to severe acute stress, but it increased ratings of anger. The modest increase in anger may be an adaptive emotional response in stressful environments.

2014 Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

57. Neurotransmitter control of islet hormone pulsatility. (Abstract)

Neurotransmitter control of islet hormone pulsatility. Pulsatile secretion is an inherent property of hormone-releasing pancreatic islet cells. This secretory pattern is physiologically important and compromised in diabetes. Neurotransmitters released from islet cells may shape the pulses in auto/paracrine feedback loops. Within islets, glucose-stimulated β-cells couple via gap junctions to generate synchronized insulin pulses. In contrast, α- and δ-cells lack gap junctions, and glucagon (...) release from islets stimulated by lack of glucose is non-pulsatile. Increasing glucose concentrations gradually inhibit glucagon secretion by α-cell-intrinsic mechanism/s. Further glucose elevation will stimulate pulsatile insulin release and co-secretion of neurotransmitters. Excitatory ATP may synchronize β-cells with δ-cells to generate coinciding pulses of insulin and somatostatin. Inhibitory neurotransmitters from β- and δ-cells can then generate antiphase pulses of glucagon release

2014 obesity & metabolism

58. The molecular basis of memory. Part 3: tagging with “emotive” neurotransmitters (Full text)

) + diffusible (neurometals and neurotransmitters)] as well as with other neurons. We propose a tripartite mechanism of animal memory based on the dynamic interactions of splayed neurons with the "neutrix." Their interactions form cognitive units of information (cuinfo), metal-centered complexes within the nECM around the neuron. Emotive content is provided by NTs, which embody molecular links between physiologic (body) responses and psychic feelings. We propose that neurotransmitters form mixed complexes (...) The molecular basis of memory. Part 3: tagging with “emotive” neurotransmitters Many neurons of all animals that exhibit memory (snails, worms, flies, vertebrae) present arborized shapes with many varicosities and boutons. These neurons, release neurotransmitters and contain ionotropic receptors that produce and sense electrical signals (ephaptic transmission). The extended shapes maximize neural contact with the surrounding neutrix [defined as: neural extracellular matrix (nECM

2014 Frontiers in aging neuroscience PubMed abstract

59. PGC-1α Provides a Transcriptional Framework for Synchronous Neurotransmitter Release from Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons (Full text)

PGC-1α Provides a Transcriptional Framework for Synchronous Neurotransmitter Release from Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons Accumulating evidence strongly implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in the pathophysiology of multiple neurological disorders, but the downstream gene targets of PGC-1α in the brain have remained enigmatic. Previous data demonstrate that PGC-1α is primarily concentrated in inhibitory neurons (...) and that PGC-1α is required for the expression of the interneuron-specific Ca(2+)-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) throughout the cortex. To identify other possible transcriptional targets of PGC-1α in neural tissue, we conducted a microarray on neuroblastoma cells overexpressing PGC-1α, mined results for genes with physiological relevance to interneurons, and measured cortical gene and protein expression of these genes in mice with underexpression and overexpression of PGC-1α. We observed bidirectional

2014 The Journal of Neuroscience PubMed abstract

60. Stochastic Properties of Neurotransmitter Release Expand the Dynamic Range of Synapses (Full text)

Stochastic Properties of Neurotransmitter Release Expand the Dynamic Range of Synapses Release of neurotransmitter is an inherently random process, which could degrade the reliability of postsynaptic spiking, even at relatively large synapses. This is particularly important at auditory synapses, where the rate and precise timing of spikes carry information about sounds. However, the functional consequences of the stochastic properties of release are unknown. We addressed this issue at the mouse (...) activity even when synapses showed significant depression during rapid activity. However, the precision of spike timing decreased with stochastic conductances, suggesting a trade-off between encoding information in spike timing versus probability. These effects were confirmed in fiber stimulation experiments, indicating that they are physiologically relevant, and that synaptic randomness, dynamic range, and jitter are causally related.

2013 The Journal of Neuroscience PubMed abstract

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