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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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21. Bisphenol A Exposure Disrupts Neurotransmitters Through Modulation of Transaminase Activity in the Brain of Rodents (PubMed)

; and Department of Integrative Physiology and Pathobiology (A.M.S.), Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111. eng R01 ES008314 ES NIEHS NIH HHS United States Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Comment United States Endocrinology 0375040 0013-7227 0 Benzhydryl Compounds 0 Neurotransmitter Agents 0 Phenols EC 2.6.1.- Transaminases MLT3645I99 bisphenol A AIM IM Endocrinology. 2016 May;157(5):1740-50 26950200 Animals Benzhydryl Compounds Brain Humans Neurotransmitter Agents (...) Bisphenol A Exposure Disrupts Neurotransmitters Through Modulation of Transaminase Activity in the Brain of Rodents 27149041 2018 02 05 2018 12 02 1945-7170 157 5 2016 05 Endocrinology Endocrinology Bisphenol A Exposure Disrupts Neurotransmitters Through Modulation of Transaminase Activity in the Brain of Rodents. 1736-9 10.1210/en.2016-1207 Zalko Daniel D Toxalim (D.Z., C.C., M.T.-F., F.J., N.J.C.), Université de Toulouse, INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), 31027, Toulouse

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2016 Endocrinology

22. Kinase-dependent Regulation of Monoamine Neurotransmitter Transporters (PubMed)

Kinase-dependent Regulation of Monoamine Neurotransmitter Transporters Modulation of neurotransmission by the monoamines dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for normal nervous system function. Precise temporal and spatial control of this signaling in mediated in large part by the actions of monoamine transporters (DAT, NET, and SERT, respectively). These transporters act to recapture their respective neurotransmitters after release, and disruption of clearance (...) and reuptake has significant effects on physiology and behavior and has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. To ensure adequate and dynamic control of these transporters, multiple modes of control have evolved to regulate their activity and trafficking. Central to many of these modes of control are the actions of protein kinases, whose actions can be direct or indirectly mediated by kinase-modulated protein interactions. Here, we summarize the current state of our understanding of how

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2016 Pharmacological reviews

23. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated responses in medial vestibular and prepositus hypoglossi nuclei neurons showing distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes (PubMed)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated responses in medial vestibular and prepositus hypoglossi nuclei neurons showing distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes Cholinergic transmission in both the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN) plays an important role in horizontal eye movements. We previously demonstrated that the current responses mediated via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were larger than those mediated via muscarinic acetylcholine (...) receptors (mAChRs) in cholinergic MVN and PHN neurons that project to the cerebellum. In this study, to clarify the predominant nAChR responses and the expression patterns of nAChRs in MVN and PHN neurons that exhibit distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes, we identified cholinergic, inhibitory, and glutamatergic neurons using specific transgenic rats and investigated current responses to the application of acetylcholine (ACh) using whole cell recordings in brain stem slices. ACh application induced

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2016 Journal of neurophysiology

24. Can Nanofluidic Chemical Release Enable Fast, High Resolution Neurotransmitter-Based Neurostimulation? (PubMed)

Can Nanofluidic Chemical Release Enable Fast, High Resolution Neurotransmitter-Based Neurostimulation? Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high (...) resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology-rather than microfluidic-will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission. This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review

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2016 Frontiers in neuroscience

25. Targeting neurotransmitter receptors with nanoparticles in vivo allows single-molecule tracking in acute brain slices (PubMed)

Targeting neurotransmitter receptors with nanoparticles in vivo allows single-molecule tracking in acute brain slices Single-molecule imaging has changed the way we understand many biological mechanisms, particularly in neurobiology, by shedding light on intricate molecular events down to the nanoscale. However, current single-molecule studies in neuroscience have been limited to cultured neurons or organotypic slices, leaving as an open question the existence of fast receptor diffusion (...) -based platform for single-molecule studies in the living brain, opening new avenues of research in physiological and pathological animal models.

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2016 Nature communications

26. Co-existence of Functionally Different Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters (PubMed)

Co-existence of Functionally Different Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters The vesicular transmitter transporters VGLUT, VGAT, VMAT2 and VAChT, define phenotype and physiological properties of neuronal subtypes. VGLUTs concentrate the excitatory amino acid glutamate, VGAT the inhibitory amino acid GABA, VMAT2 monoamines, and VAChT acetylcholine (ACh) into synaptic vesicle (SV). Following membrane depolarization SV release their content into the synaptic cleft. A strict segregation

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2016 Frontiers in synaptic neuroscience

27. Actions of Steroids: New Neurotransmitters (PubMed)

Actions of Steroids: New Neurotransmitters Over the past two decades, the classical understanding of steroid action has been updated to include rapid, membrane-initiated, neurotransmitter-like functions. While steroids were known to function on very short time spans to induce physiological and behavioral changes, the mechanisms by which these changes occur are now becoming more clear. In avian systems, rapid estradiol effects can be mediated via local alterations in aromatase activity, which (...) precisely regulates the temporal and spatial availability of estrogens. Acute regulation of brain-derived estrogens has been shown to rapidly affect sensorimotor function and sexual motivation in birds. In rodents, estrogens and progesterone are critical for reproduction, including preovulatory events and female sexual receptivity. Membrane progesterone receptor as well as classical progesterone receptor trafficked to the membrane mediate reproductive-related hypothalamic physiology, via second

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2016 The Journal of Neuroscience

28. Synaptic vesicle pool‐specific modification of neurotransmitter release by intravesicular free radical generation (PubMed)

that maintain spontaneous and evoked neurotransmitter release preserve their identity during recycling and syt1 function in suppression of spontaneous neurotransmission can be acutely dissociated from syt1 function to synchronize synaptic vesicle exocytosis upon stimulation.© 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society. (...) Synaptic vesicle pool‐specific modification of neurotransmitter release by intravesicular free radical generation Synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles in response to stimulation or through the spontaneous fusion of a synaptic vesicle with the presynaptic plasma membrane. There is growing evidence that synaptic vesicles undergoing spontaneous fusion versus those fusing in response to stimuli are functionally distinct. In this study, we

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2016 The Journal of physiology

29. Dendritic release of neurotransmitters (PubMed)

Dendritic release of neurotransmitters Release of neuroactive substances by exocytosis from dendrites is surprisingly widespread and is not confined to a particular class of transmitters: it occurs in multiple brain regions, and includes a range of neuropeptides, classical neurotransmitters, and signaling molecules, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, ATP, and arachidonic acid. This review is focused on hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells that release vasopressin and oxytocin and midbrain (...) neurons that release dopamine. For these two model systems, the stimuli, mechanisms, and physiological functions of dendritic release have been explored in greater detail than is yet available for other neurons and neuroactive substances. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:235-252, 2017.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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2016 Comprehensive Physiology

30. Neurotransmitter Physiology

Neurotransmitter Physiology Neurotransmitter Physiology Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Neurotransmitter Physiology (...) Neurotransmitter Physiology Aka: Neurotransmitter Physiology II. Neurotransmitter Physiology at Synapse Medications affecting Precursor Uptake L-Phenylalanine L-Tyrosine L-Dopa (DA) (NE) (E) L-Tryptophan 5-Hydroxytryptophan, ( ) = Choline/lecithin + AcetylCoA => Acetylcholine (Ach) Medications affecting Synthetic Enzymes Metyrosine (Demser) blocks Tyrosine hydroxylase Decrease DA, NE, E, 5HT ( ) blocks decarboxylation Decrease DA, NE, E, 5HT Medications affecting Transfer into No clinically available drugs

2015 FP Notebook

31. PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in light regulated behavior and physiology: Studies in single and double mutant mice. (PubMed)

PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in light regulated behavior and physiology: Studies in single and double mutant mice. The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons (...) . Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system. We compared circadian rhythms in mice equipped with running wheels or implanted radio-transmitter measuring core body temperature kept in a full photoperiod

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2017 PLoS ONE

32. Effects of Monoamines and Antidepressants on Astrocyte Physiology: Implications for Monoamine Hypothesis of Depression (PubMed)

Effects of Monoamines and Antidepressants on Astrocyte Physiology: Implications for Monoamine Hypothesis of Depression Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting over one-fifth of the population worldwide. Owing to our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of MDD, the quest for finding novel antidepressant drug targets is severely impeded. Monoamine hypothesis of MDD provides a robust theoretical framework, forming the core of a large (...) jigsaw puzzle, around which we must look for the vital missing pieces. Growing evidence suggests that the glial loss observed in key regions of the limbic system in depressed patients, at least partly, accounts for the structural and cognitive manifestations of MDD. Studies in animal models have subsequently hinted at the possibility that the glial atrophy may play a causative role in the precipitation of depressive symptoms. Antidepressants as well as monoamine neurotransmitters exert profound

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2018 Journal of Experimental Neuroscience

33. Physiological Roles and Therapeutic Potential of Ca2+ Activated Potassium Channels in the Nervous System (PubMed)

Physiological Roles and Therapeutic Potential of Ca2+ Activated Potassium Channels in the Nervous System Within the potassium ion channel family, calcium activated potassium (KCa) channels are unique in their ability to couple intracellular Ca2+ signals to membrane potential variations. KCa channels are diversely distributed throughout the central nervous system and play fundamental roles ranging from regulating neuronal excitability to controlling neurotransmitter release. The physiological (...) the biophysical characteristics of these KCa channels, as well as their physiological roles and pathological implications. In addition, we also discuss the current pharmacological strategies and challenges to target KCa channels for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders.

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

34. Stable olfactory sensory neuron in vivo physiology during normal aging. (PubMed)

Stable olfactory sensory neuron in vivo physiology during normal aging. Normal aging is associated with a number of smell impairments that are paralleled by age-dependent changes in the peripheral olfactory system, including decreases in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and in the regenerative capacity of the epithelium. Thus, an age-dependent degradation of sensory input to the brain is one proposed mechanism for the loss of olfactory function in older populations. Here, we tested (...) this hypothesis by performing in vivo optical neurophysiology in 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old mice. We visualized odor-evoked neurotransmitter release from populations of OSNs into olfactory bulb glomeruli, and found that these sensory inputs are actually quite stable during normal aging. Specifically, the magnitude and number of odor-evoked glomerular responses were comparable across all ages, and there was no effect of age on the sensitivity of OSN responses to odors or on the neural discriminability

2018 Neurobiology of Aging

35. Multiple Lines of Evidence Indicate That Gliotransmission Does Not Occur under Physiological Conditions (PubMed)

Multiple Lines of Evidence Indicate That Gliotransmission Does Not Occur under Physiological Conditions A major controversy persists within the field of glial biology concerning whether or not, under physiological conditions, neuronal activity leads to Ca2+-dependent release of neurotransmitters from astrocytes, a phenomenon known as gliotransmission. Our perspective is that, while we and others can apply techniques to cause gliotransmission, there is considerable evidence gathered using (...) of vesicular release machinery, and the demise of the d-serine gliotransmission hypothesis, provides additional evidence against gliotransmission. Overall, the data suggest that Ca2+-dependent release of neurotransmitters is the province of neurons, not astrocytes, in the intact brain under physiological conditions.Dual Perspectives Companion Paper: Gliotransmission: Beyond Black-and-White, by Iaroslav Savtchouk and Andrea Volterra.Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/380003-11$15.00/0.

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2018 The Journal of Neuroscience

36. Physiological Measures of Dopaminergic and Noradrenergic Activity During Attentional Set Shifting and Reversal (PubMed)

Physiological Measures of Dopaminergic and Noradrenergic Activity During Attentional Set Shifting and Reversal Dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) are important neurotransmitters, which are suggested to play a vital role in modulating the neural circuitry involved in the executive control of cognition. One way to investigate the functions of these neurotransmitter systems is to assess physiological indices of DA and NA transmission. Here we examined how variations of spontaneous eye-blink rate (...) differences in executive functions (EF), possibly by regulating neurotransmission in prefrontal circuits. We also suggest that assessing specific, easily accessible indirect physiological markers, such as pupil size and blink rate, contributes to the comprehension of the relationship between neurotransmitter systems and EF.

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

37. Physiological and Functional Basis of Dopamine Receptors and Their Role in Neurogenesis: Possible Implication for Parkinson’s disease (PubMed)

Physiological and Functional Basis of Dopamine Receptors and Their Role in Neurogenesis: Possible Implication for Parkinson’s disease Dopamine controls various physiological functions in the brain and periphery by acting on its receptors D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. Dopamine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors involved in the regulation of motor activity and several neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, and attention (...) -deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Reduction in dopamine content in the nigrostriatal pathway is associated with the development of PD, along with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region. Dopamine receptors directly regulate neurotransmission of other neurotransmitters, release of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Here, we provide an update on recent knowledge about the signalling mechanism, mode of action, and the evidence

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2018 Journal of Experimental Neuroscience

38. Sensorial and Physiological Mechanism-based Assessments of Perioperative Pain

Sensorial and Physiological Mechanism-based Assessments of Perioperative Pain Sensorial and Physiological Mechanism-based Assessments of Perioperative Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Sensorial and Physiological Mechanism-based Assessments of Perioperative Pain (RCT) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03537612 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : May 25, 2018 Last Update Posted

2018 Clinical Trials

39. Disentangling astroglial physiology with a realistic cell model in silico (PubMed)

Disentangling astroglial physiology with a realistic cell model in silico Electrically non-excitable astroglia take up neurotransmitters, buffer extracellular K+ and generate Ca2+ signals that release molecular regulators of neural circuitry. The underlying machinery remains enigmatic, mainly because the sponge-like astrocyte morphology has been difficult to access experimentally or explore theoretically. Here, we systematically incorporate multi-scale, tri-dimensional astroglial architecture (...) into a realistic multi-compartmental cell model, which we constrain by empirical tests and integrate into the NEURON computational biophysical environment. This approach is implemented as a flexible astrocyte-model builder ASTRO. As a proof-of-concept, we explore an in silico astrocyte to evaluate basic cell physiology features inaccessible experimentally. Our simulations suggest that currents generated by glutamate transporters or K+ channels have negligible distant effects on membrane voltage

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2018 Nature communications

40. Ventral midbrain astrocytes display unique physiological features and sensitivity to dopamine D2 receptor signaling. (PubMed)

Ventral midbrain astrocytes display unique physiological features and sensitivity to dopamine D2 receptor signaling. Astrocytes are ubiquitous CNS cells that support tissue homeostasis through ion buffering, neurotransmitter recycling, and regulation of CNS vasculature. Yet, despite the essential functional roles they fill, very little is known about the physiology of astrocytes in the ventral midbrain, a region that houses dopamine-releasing neurons and is critical for reward learning (...) and motivated behaviors. Here, using a combination of whole-transcriptome sequencing, histology, slice electrophysiology, and calcium imaging, we performed the first functional and molecular profiling of ventral midbrain astrocytes and observed numerous differences between these cells and their telencephalic counterparts, both in their gene expression profile and in their physiological properties. Ventral midbrain astrocytes have very low membrane resistance and inward-rectifying potassium channel-mediated

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2018 Neuropsychopharmacology

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