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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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181. A structural model of the human serotonin transporter in an outward-occluded state. (Full text)

A structural model of the human serotonin transporter in an outward-occluded state. The human serotonin transporter hSERT facilitates the reuptake of its endogenous substrate serotonin from the synaptic cleft into presynaptic neurons after signaling. Reuptake regulates the availability of this neurotransmitter and therefore hSERT plays an important role in balancing human mood conditions. In 2016, the first 3D structures of this membrane transporter were reported in an inhibitor-bound, outward (...) -open conformation. These structures revealed valuable information about interactions of hSERT with antidepressant drugs. Nevertheless, the question remains how serotonin facilitates the specific conformational changes that open and close pathways from the synapse and to the cytoplasm as required for transport. Here, we present a serotonin-bound homology model of hSERT in an outward-occluded state, a key intermediate in the physiological cycle, in which the interactions with the substrate are likely

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

182. Delivery of different genes into pre- and post-synaptic neocortical interneurons connected by GABAergic synapses. (Full text)

Delivery of different genes into pre- and post-synaptic neocortical interneurons connected by GABAergic synapses. Local neocortical circuits play critical roles in information processing, including synaptic plasticity, circuit physiology, and learning, and GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have key roles in these circuits. Moreover, specific neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, are associated with deficits in GABAergic transmission in these circuits. GABAergic synapses (...) represent a small fraction of neocortical synapses, and are embedded in complex local circuits that contain many neuron and synapse types. Thus, it is challenging to study the physiological roles of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons and their synapses, and to develop treatments for the specific disorders caused by dysfunction at these GABAergic synapses. To these ends, we report a novel technology that can deliver different genes into pre- and post-synaptic neocortical interneurons connected

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

183. A systematic review of the overlap of fluid biomarkers in delirium and advanced cancer-related syndromes. (Full text)

A systematic review of the overlap of fluid biomarkers in delirium and advanced cancer-related syndromes. Delirium is a serious and distressing neurocognitive disorder of physiological aetiology that is common in advanced cancer. Understanding of delirium pathophysiology is largely hypothetical, with some evidence for involvement of inflammatory systems, neurotransmitter alterations and glucose metabolism. To date, there has been limited empirical consideration of the distinction between

2020 BMC psychiatry PubMed abstract

184. Tramadol for management of fibromyalgia pain and symptoms: Systematic review. (Abstract)

Tramadol for management of fibromyalgia pain and symptoms: Systematic review. Fibromyalgia is a heterogeneous condition that appears to be associated with physiological and biochemical disturbances of pain modulation, and that consequently affects numerous other facets of life. Tramadol is currently being explored as an option to manage fibromyalgia pain and other symptoms because of its inhibitory activity of reuptake of neurotransmitters, but its safety and efficacy have not yet been

2020 International journal of clinical practice

185. Vitamin D and the gut microbiome: a systematic review of in vivo studies. (Abstract)

Vitamin D and the gut microbiome: a systematic review of in vivo studies. Variation in the human microbiome has been linked with a variety of physiological functions, including immune regulation and metabolism and biosynthesis of vitamins, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Evidence for extraskeletal effects of vitamin D has been accruing and it has been suggested that the effect of vitamin D on health is partially mediated through the microbiome. We aimed to critically evaluate the evidence

2020 European journal of nutrition

186. Treatment-Related Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

motion. Peripheral stimuli from visceral organs and vasculature (via vagal and spinal sympathetic nerves) as a result of exogenous chemicals and endogenous substances that accumulate during inflammation, ischemia, and irritation. Neurotransmitters (including serotonin, substance P, and dopamine) found in the CTZ, the vomiting center (thought to be located in the nucleus tractus solitarius), and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract then release efferent impulses that are transmitted (...) and vomiting. Cancer Control 19 (2 Suppl): 3-9, 2012. [ ] Navari RM: Antiemetic control: toward a new standard of care for emetogenic chemotherapy. Expert Opin Pharmacother 10 (4): 629-44, 2009. [ ] Cefalo MG, Ruggiero A, Maurizi P, et al.: Pharmacological management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children with cancer. J Chemother 21 (6): 605-10, 2009. [ ] Darmani NA, Crim JL, Janoyan JJ, et al.: A re-evaluation of the neurotransmitter basis of chemotherapy-induced immediate and delayed

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

187. The endocannabinoid gene faah2a modulates stress-associated behavior in zebrafish. (Full text)

The endocannabinoid gene faah2a modulates stress-associated behavior in zebrafish. The ability to orchestrate appropriate physiological and behavioral responses to stress is important for survival, and is often dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disorders that account for leading causes of global disability burden. Numerous studies have shown that the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter system is able to regulate stress responses and could serve as a therapeutic target for the management

2018 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

188. Perinatal substance use: maternal

Aggression o Feelings of rejection o Disruptive/inattentive behaviour including Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) o Poor neurodevelopment Queensland Clinical Guideline: Perinatal substance use: maternal Refer to online version, destroy printed copies after use Page 10 of 29 1.4 Psychostimulants exposure Stimulants, also known as psychostimulants, act to increase neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. They produce euphoria, wellbeing, energy, wakefulness and alertness (...) not require medication • Use close to birth may cause baby to be agitated and overactive • Neurobehavioural effects: decreased arousal, increased stress and poor quality of movement (dose-response relationship) 32 • May be dose-response relationship resulting in neurotoxic effects • Heavy use related to lower arousal, more lethargy and increased physiological stress observed as difficulty maintaining normal, regular respirations 14,22,37,38 • Impaired bonding and emotional dysregulation 39 • Compromised

2016 Queensland Health

189. Altered dopaminergic regulation of the dorsal striatum is able to induce tic-like movements in juvenile rats. (Full text)

indicating that non-physiological activation of the striatum could generate tics. The striatum controls movement execution through the balanced activity of dopamine receptor D1 and D2-expressing medium spiny neurons of the direct and indirect pathway, respectively. Different neurotransmitters can activate or repress striatal activity and among them, dopamine plays a major role. In this study we introduced a chronic dopaminergic alteration in juvenile rats, in order to modify the delicate balance between

2018 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

190. Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure (Full text)

and on behalf of the American Heart Association Professional and Public Education Committee of the Council on Hypertension; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology; and Stroke Council Originally published 21 Jul 2016 Hypertension. 2016;68:e7–e46 You are viewing the most recent version of this article. Previous versions: Introduction The simplest definition of salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) states that it is a physiological trait present in rodents and other mammals, including (...) could be selected by inbreeding made it clear that hypertension had a genetic component. The gaussian distribution of population BP is probably the result of a random mixture of prohypertensive and antihypertensive genes and genetic variants in a heterogeneous population interacting with environmental factors (eg, diet), physiological characteristics (eg, aging), and clinical features (eg, renal function). Analogously, there were indirect clues suggesting genetic determination of SSBP: The trait

2016 American Heart Association PubMed abstract

191. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Sustained Neuromuscular Blockade in the Adult Critically Ill Patient

to the nicotinic receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the presynaptic side of the neuromuscular junction, when stimulated by acetylcholine molecules, inhibit the release of more neurotransmitter ( ). | Neurophysiology of the Neuromuscular Junction. When the vesicles fuse to the membrane of the nerve terminal, the amount of acetylcholine released into the cleft is several times greater than the amount required to activate nicotinic receptors on the myofibril ( ). The nicotinic receptor in adults (...) are competitive antagonists at nicotinic receptors, binding to the receptor for a longer period of time and preventing acetylcholine from binding to the receptor, which results in prolonged neuromuscular blockade ( ). The two classes of nondepolarizing NMBAs—the benzylisoquinolinium and the aminosteroid compounds—have one or more positively charged quaternary ammonium groups in their chemical structure, resulting in an ionized water-soluble drug at physiologic pH. These NMBAs are lipophobic; thus

2016 Society of Critical Care Medicine

192. Depression

but occurring on a cyclical basis related to ambient light deprivation during winter months. Both phototherapy and medications are frequently used. Mood disorder associated with a general medical condition. A form of depression with features similar to MDD but is part of the physiological sequelae of a major medical condition such as cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction, major trauma, or neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Perimenopausal mood disorder is addressed in Table 8 (following (...) is involved. Depression can interfere with effective treatment of the other conditions, delaying recovery and significantly increasing morbidity. Depressed patients are three times more likely to be non-adherent with medical recommendations. Depression is a more powerful predictor of mortality from myocardial infarction than physiological measures such as cardiac ejection fraction. Depression is prevalent in patients with heart failure and is associated with a poorer short-term prognosis. Major depressive

2016 University of Michigan Health System

193. Management of Concussion-mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

Injury February 2016 Page 6 of 133 II. Background A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a traumatically induced structural injury and/or physiological disruption of brain function as a result of an external force and is indicated by new onset or worsening of at least one of the following clinical signs immediately following the event:[2,3] • Any period of loss of or a decreased level of consciousness • Any loss of memory for events immediately before or after the injury (posttraumatic amnesia (...) . Conceptually, a confirmatory objective test that could provide a definitive diagnosis of mTBI that could be used to direct treatment and/or predict outcomes would be desirable. Unfortunately, at this time, evidence does not support the use of any laboratory, imaging, or physiological test for these purposes. There are several studies that evaluate the use of computerized tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within the first week after the concussive incident.[16,17] These studies fall

2016 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines

194. Age and the anaesthetist

and political models of the NHS in England Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Andrew Hartle President, AAGBI Liam Brennan President, RCoA 1.0: Executive Summary 04 2.0: Introduction – what is the problem? 05 3.0: Societal changes and financial issues 06 3.1: Life expectancy 06 3.2: Financial provision for retirement 07 3.3: The current conflicted situation 09 4.0: Age, physiological changes and comorbidities 10 4.1: The ageing process and its impact on organ function 10 4.2: The role of comorbidity 12 (...) on pension income could be considerable. 6 Data from the Pensions Advisory Service. http://www.pensionsadvisoryservice.org.uk10 Anaesthesia News August 2016 • Issue 349 Anaesthesia News August 2016 • Issue 349 11 homeostenosis and frailty Age related physiological changes (adapted from Chester & Rudolph [32]) 4.0: Age, physiological changes and comorbidities Anaesthesia News August 2016 • Issue 349 11 4.1: The ageing process and its impact on organ function The ageing process Ageing is a complex

2016 Association of Anaesthetists of GB and Ireland

195. CRACKCast E041 – Head Injury

with a serious TBI Principles of disease ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Scalp and cranium : “SCALP MAP” Scalp components: Dermis: thick layer of skin (skin) Subcutaneous tissue : hair follicles, and BLOOD supply (cutaneous) Galea : tough fascia (aponeurosis) Loose areolar tissue : loose tissue, where subgaleal hematomas form Pericranium : firmly attached to the skull Skull: Frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, and TWO parietal + temporal bones Temporal bones are the thinnest Must consider contrecoup injuries (...) pressure of CSF is 6-20 cm H20 Blood in the ventricles can cause traumatic hydrocephalus Blood brain barrier When intact it serves to balance ion and neurotransmitters. Post-traumatic cerebral edema affects the permeability of the BBB which can last for hours. This can lead to vasogenic edema Brain cellular damage and death – Primary and Secondary Brain Injuries Primary: Mechanical damage occurring at the time of head injury Brain lacerations, hemorrhages, contusions, tissue avulsions. Permanent

2016 CandiEM

196. Clearing the Smoke on Cannabis: Medical Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids ? An Update

countries in the 1960s was related principally to its nonmedical use by young people to produce euphoria and facilitate social interaction (the “high”). However, as scientific interest revived, the exploration of its potential therapeutic uses was renewed, and has increased greatly since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system and its widespread physiological activity in many different body organs and tissues, described later in this report. Cannabinoids The major pharmacologically active

2016 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

197. Presynaptic nicotinic receptors modulating neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system: functional interactions with other coexisting receptors. (Abstract)

which, in turn, generates antagonistic or synergistic effects. The understanding of these interactions may allow a better evaluation not only of the pharmacological effects of nicotine, but also of the normal physiological role of the natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine.Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) Presynaptic nicotinic receptors modulating neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system: functional interactions with other coexisting receptors. The cross-talk between receptors represents an important mechanism of neurotransmission modulation and plasticity. It can occur by direct physical interactions as in the case of G protein-coupled receptor heterodimerization, or it may involve intracellular pathways. The facilitatory or inhibitory action of one receptor might therefore depend

2010 Progress in Neurobiology

198. N-Acyl amino acids and N-acyl neurotransmitter conjugates: neuromodulators and probes for new drug targets (Full text)

N-Acyl amino acids and N-acyl neurotransmitter conjugates: neuromodulators and probes for new drug targets The myriad functions of lipids as signalling molecules is one of the most interesting fields in contemporary pharmacology, with a host of compounds recognized as mediators of communication within and between cells. The N-acyl conjugates of amino acids and neurotransmitters (NAANs) have recently come to prominence because of their potential roles in the nervous system, vasculature (...) and the immune system. NAAN are compounds such as glycine, GABA or dopamine conjugated with long chain fatty acids. More than 70 endogenous NAAN have been reported although their physiological role remains uncertain, with various NAAN interacting with a low affinity at G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and ion channels. Regardless of their potential physiological function, NAAN are of great interest to pharmacologists because of their potential as flexible tools to probe new sites on GPCRs, transporters

2010 British journal of pharmacology PubMed abstract

199. Activation of Progestin Receptors in Female Reproductive Behavior: Interactions with Neurotransmitters. (Full text)

Activation of Progestin Receptors in Female Reproductive Behavior: Interactions with Neurotransmitters. The steroid hormone, progesterone (P), modulates neuroendocrine functions in the central nervous system resulting in alterations in physiology and reproductive behavior in female mammals. A wide body of evidence indicates that these neural effects of P are predominantly mediated via their intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) functioning as "ligand-dependent" transcription factors (...) in the steroid-sensitive neurons regulating genes and genomic networks. In addition to P, intracellular PRs can be activated by neurotransmitters, growth factors and cyclic nucleotides in a ligand-independent manner via crosstalk and convergence of pathways. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that rapid signaling events associated with membrane PRs and/or extra-nuclear, cytoplasmic PRs converge with classical PR activated pathways in neuroendocrine regulation of female reproductive behavior. The molecular

2010 Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology PubMed abstract

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