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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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181. What’s so good about Menstrual Cycles?

throughout the body and drive the beneficial adaptations to exercise. In the case of menstrual cycles, the fluctuations of oestrogen and progesterone are key to this process. The effects of these sex steroids go far beyond reproduction. These hormones play important roles in bone strength, cardiovascular health, optimal lipid profile and production of neurotransmitters to regulate mood. The effects of low levels of oestrogen and progesterone are well documented in menopausal women who experience loss (...) ) is a situation of low energy availability (LEA) that can be unintentional or intentional as a result of a mismatch between energy intake and energy requirement. The two sources of energy demand arise from exercise training load and maintenance of fundamental physiological function across multiple body systems [2]. In female athletes/dancers with RED-S the most obvious clinical sign is amenorrhoea as a result of FHA. In all cases of RED-S the management strategy is directed to address the underlying issue

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2019 British Journal of Sports Medicine Blog

182. Delivery of different genes into pre- and post-synaptic neocortical interneurons connected by GABAergic synapses. (PubMed)

Delivery of different genes into pre- and post-synaptic neocortical interneurons connected by GABAergic synapses. Local neocortical circuits play critical roles in information processing, including synaptic plasticity, circuit physiology, and learning, and GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have key roles in these circuits. Moreover, specific neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, are associated with deficits in GABAergic transmission in these circuits. GABAergic synapses (...) represent a small fraction of neocortical synapses, and are embedded in complex local circuits that contain many neuron and synapse types. Thus, it is challenging to study the physiological roles of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons and their synapses, and to develop treatments for the specific disorders caused by dysfunction at these GABAergic synapses. To these ends, we report a novel technology that can deliver different genes into pre- and post-synaptic neocortical interneurons connected

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2019 PLoS ONE

183. A structural model of the human serotonin transporter in an outward-occluded state. (PubMed)

A structural model of the human serotonin transporter in an outward-occluded state. The human serotonin transporter hSERT facilitates the reuptake of its endogenous substrate serotonin from the synaptic cleft into presynaptic neurons after signaling. Reuptake regulates the availability of this neurotransmitter and therefore hSERT plays an important role in balancing human mood conditions. In 2016, the first 3D structures of this membrane transporter were reported in an inhibitor-bound, outward (...) -open conformation. These structures revealed valuable information about interactions of hSERT with antidepressant drugs. Nevertheless, the question remains how serotonin facilitates the specific conformational changes that open and close pathways from the synapse and to the cytoplasm as required for transport. Here, we present a serotonin-bound homology model of hSERT in an outward-occluded state, a key intermediate in the physiological cycle, in which the interactions with the substrate are likely

2019 PLoS ONE

184. Treatment-Related Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

motion. Peripheral stimuli from visceral organs and vasculature (via vagal and spinal sympathetic nerves) as a result of exogenous chemicals and endogenous substances that accumulate during inflammation, ischemia, and irritation. Neurotransmitters (including serotonin, substance P, and dopamine) found in the CTZ, the vomiting center (thought to be located in the nucleus tractus solitarius), and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract then release efferent impulses that are transmitted (...) and vomiting. Cancer Control 19 (2 Suppl): 3-9, 2012. [ ] Navari RM: Antiemetic control: toward a new standard of care for emetogenic chemotherapy. Expert Opin Pharmacother 10 (4): 629-44, 2009. [ ] Cefalo MG, Ruggiero A, Maurizi P, et al.: Pharmacological management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children with cancer. J Chemother 21 (6): 605-10, 2009. [ ] Darmani NA, Crim JL, Janoyan JJ, et al.: A re-evaluation of the neurotransmitter basis of chemotherapy-induced immediate and delayed

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

185. Harm of HPV vaccine: Latest information and examination of epidemiological studies

unaffected by haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Liver damage: Because the prolongation of the elimination half-life is reported in patients with severe liver damage, methadone use should be avoided in them. The use of methadone is restricted even in patients with mild to moderate liver disease. Elderly people: Because renal, hepatic, cardio-pulmonary, and other physiological conditions including neurological functions, are all reduced, careful management is essential, especially to prevent (...) compartments, the coupled transport of small molecules such as neurotransmitters and ATP as well as the entry of pathogenic agents, including envelope viruses and bacterial toxins. V-ATPases are present in the plasma membrane of renal cells, osteoclasts, macrophages, epididymal cells and certain tumour cells where they are important for urinary acidification, bone resorption, pH homeostasis, sperm maturation and tumour cell invasion, respectively. PPI inhibits not only the proton pump of gastric parietal

2015 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

186. Acute pain management: scientific evidence (3rd Edition)

INTRODUCTION v SUMMARY OF KEY MESSAGES xix 1. PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF ACUTE PAIN 1 1.1 Applied physiology of pain 1 1.1.1 Definition of acute pain 1 1.1.2 Pain perception and nociceptive pathways 1 1.1.3 Neuropathic pain 6 1.2 Psychological aspects of acute pain 6 1.2.1 Psychological factors 7 1.2.2 Acute pain settings 8 1.3 Progression of acute to chronic pain 9 1.3.1 Predictive factors for chronic postsurgical pain 11 1.3.2 Mechanisms for the progression from acute to chronic pain 12 1.4 Pre-emptive (...) and preventive analgesia 12 1.5 Adverse physiological and psychological effects of acute pain 15 1.5.1 Acute pain and the injury response 15 1.5.2 Adverse physiological effects 16 1.5.3 Pain and analgesia: effects on injury-induced organ dysfunction 19 1.5.4 Acute rehabilitation and ‘fast-track’ surgery 20 1.5.5 Adverse psychological effects 21 1.6 Pharmacogenomics and acute pain 21 1.6.1 Loss of pain sensation 22 1.6.2 Reduced sensitivity to pain 22 1.6.3 Drug metabolism 23 References 25 2. ASSESSMENT

2015 National Health and Medical Research Council

188. Orthostatic Hypotension Management

failure CNS=central nervous system CV=cardiovascular DHP=dihydropyridine DM=diabetes mellitus e.g.=example GI=gastrointestinal HA=headache HF=heart failure HTN=hypertension hr=hour HR=heart rate HSR=hypersensitivity hx= history i.e.=that is IM= intramuscular IR=immediate release ISA=intrinsic sympathomimetic activity IV=intravenous K + =potassium LA= long acting Na + =sodium nOH=neurogenic orthostatic hypotension NT=neurotransmitter MAOI=monoamine oxidase inhibitors MI=myocardial infraction mins (...) hypotension. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Dec15;68(12):2393-8. Review. 7. Sahni M, Lowenthal DT, Meuleman J. A clinical, physiology and pharmacologyevaluation of orthostatic hypotension in the elderly. Int Urol Nephrol. 2005;37(3):669-74. PubMed 8. Gupta D, Nair MD. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: chasing "the fall". Postgrad Med J. 2008 Jan;84(987):6-14. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2007.062075. Review. 9. Metzler M, Duerr S, Granata R, et al. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: pathophysiology, evaluation

2014 RxFiles

189. Mom doesn't care: when increased brain CRF system activity leads to maternal neglect in rodents. (PubMed)

activity has negative physiological, emotional and behavioral consequences for both mother and offspring often resulting in maternal neglect. Here, we review the knowledge of the implications of the CRF system in the maternal brain. Studies in rodents have advanced our understanding of the specific roles of brain regions like the limbic bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic area and lateral septum even in a CRF receptor subtype-specific manner. Furthermore, we discuss potential (...) interactions of the CRF system with other neurotransmitters like oxytocin and noradrenalin, and present valuable translational aspects of the recent research.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.

2019 Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

190. Marijuana will not fix the opioid epidemic

to second messenger systems, and receptor stimulation can modulate several neurotransmitters, therefore modulating pain pathways and potentially provide antinociception. Opioids and cannabinoids share pharmacologic profiles, and both can cause sedation, hypotension, hypothermia, decreased intestinal motility, drug-reward enforcement, and antinociception. There are several reasons why reported benefit will be outstripped by lack of benefit and increased risk of harm, and why cannabis is contributing (...) or accepted medical literature showing benefit for pain with dispensary cannabis in common pain conditions. Dispensary cannabis is a generic substance containing multiple components which may have physiologic activity in the body. The College of Family Physicians of Canada outlined recommendations of medical cannabinoids in primary care. They strongly recommended against use for acute pain, headache, osteoarthritis, and back pain, and discouraged smoking. There is evidence that cannabis use increases

2019 KevinMD blog

191. Circadian regulation of depression: a role for serotonin. (PubMed)

Circadian regulation of depression: a role for serotonin. Synchronizing circadian (24 h) rhythms in physiology and behavior with the environmental light-dark cycle is critical for maintaining optimal health. Dysregulation of the circadian system increases susceptibility to numerous pathological conditions including major depressive disorder. Stress is a common etiological factor in the development of depression and the circadian system is highly interconnected to stress-sensitive (...) neurotransmitter systems such as the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Thus, here we propose that stress-induced perturbation of the 5-HT system disrupts circadian processes and increases susceptibility to depression. In this review, we first provide an overview of the basic components of the circadian system. Next, we discuss evidence that circadian dysfunction is associated with changes in mood in humans and rodent models. Finally, we provide evidence that 5-HT is a critical factor linking

2019 Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

192. Isoflurane Modulates Hippocampal Cornu Ammonis Pyramidal Neuron Excitability by Inhibition of Both Transient and Persistent Sodium Currents in Mice. (PubMed)

Isoflurane Modulates Hippocampal Cornu Ammonis Pyramidal Neuron Excitability by Inhibition of Both Transient and Persistent Sodium Currents in Mice. Neurotransmitter release from presynaptic nerve terminals is hindered by volatile anesthetics through inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channelsDepression of neuronal activity by volatile anesthetics through direct inhibition of sodium currents in excitatory neurons has not been previously reported WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW (...) : Electrophysiologic studies show that isoflurane, at clinically relevant concentrations, inhibits both transient and persistent sodium currents on mouse cornu ammonis hippocampal neurons ex vivoThe isoflurane-induced inhibition of sodium channels on excitatory neurons may contribute to the reduction of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission BACKGROUND:: Volatile anesthetics inhibit presynaptic voltage-gated sodium channels to reduce neurotransmitter release, but their effects on excitatory neuron

2019 Anesthesiology

193. Genetic T-type calcium channelopathies. (PubMed)

Genetic T-type calcium channelopathies. T-type channels are low-voltage-activated calcium channels that contribute to a variety of cellular and physiological functions, including neuronal excitability, hormone and neurotransmitter release as well as developmental aspects. Several human conditions including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, motor neuron disorders and aldosteronism have been traced to variations in genes encoding T-type channels. In this short review, we present

2019 Journal of Medical Genetics

194. Xiaoyaosan exerts antidepressant-like effects by regulating the functions of astrocytes and EAATs in the prefrontal cortex of mice. (PubMed)

Xiaoyaosan exerts antidepressant-like effects by regulating the functions of astrocytes and EAATs in the prefrontal cortex of mice. Mounting evidence indicates that the cerebral cortex is an important physiological system of emotional activity, and its dysfunction may be the main cause of stress. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), which initiates rapid signal transmission in the synapse before its reuptake into the surrounding glia

2019 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

195. ameliorates scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction. (PubMed)

. Except for the vehicle control group and scopolamine groups (which received physiological saline), the doses of KXS (0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 g/kg per day) and donepezil (3 mg/kg per day) were gastrointestinally administered once daily for 2 weeks. On day 8 after intragastric treatment, the behavioral tests were carried out. Scopolamine group and intervention groups received scopolamine 3 mg/kg per day through intraperitoneal injection. The effects of KXS on spatial learning and memory, pathological changes (...) of brain tissue, expression of apoptosis factors, oxidative stress injury factors, synapse-associated protein, and cholinergic neurotransmitter were measured. The results confirmed the following. (1) KXS shortened the escape latency and increased residence time in the target quadrant and the number of platform crossings in the Morris water maze. (2) KXS increased the percentage of alternations between the labyrinth arms in the mice of KXS groups in the Y-maze. (3) Nissl and terminal deoxynucleotidyl

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2019 Neural Regeneration Research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

196. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on cortical excitability in humans: A TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG study. (PubMed)

in the nonstimulated hemisphere, while tiagabine had no effect. Findings corroborate the view that the P25 represents axonal excitability of the corticospinal system, the N100 in the nonstimulated hemisphere propagated activity suppressed by inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter release, and the P180 late activity particularly sensitive to VGSC blockade. Pharmaco-physiological characterization of TEPs will facilitate utilization of TMS-EEG in neuropsychiatric disorders with altered excitability and/or network (...) Effects of antiepileptic drugs on cortical excitability in humans: A TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG study. Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are emergent noninvasive markers of neuronal excitability and effective connectivity in humans. However, the underlying physiology of these TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) is still heavily underexplored, impeding a broad application of TEPs to study pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we

2019 Human brain mapping Controlled trial quality: uncertain

197. Dystonia and dopamine: From phenomenology to pathophysiology. (PubMed)

Dystonia and dopamine: From phenomenology to pathophysiology. A line of evidence suggests that the pathophysiology of dystonia involves the striatum, whose activity is modulated among other neurotransmitters, by the dopaminergic system. However, the link between dystonia and dopamine appears complex and remains unclear. Here, we propose a physiological approach to investigate the clinical and experimental data supporting a role of the dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of dystonic

2019 Progress in Neurobiology

198. Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

, and anxious thoughts may be enough to bring about anorexia and result in malnutrition.[ ] Anorexia is an almost-universal symptom in individuals with widely metastatic disease [ , ] because of physiologic alterations in metabolism during carcinogenesis. Anorexia can hasten the course of cachexia,[ ] a progressive wasting syndrome evidenced by weakness and a marked and progressive loss of body weight, fat, and muscle. It can develop in individuals who have adequate protein and calorie intake but have (...) be present, the energy deficit alone does not explain the pathogenesis of cachexia. The etiology of cancer cachexia is not entirely understood, but several factors have been proposed.[ ] Mediators, including cytokines, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and tumor-derived factors, are postulated to contribute to this syndrome.[ ] Products of host tissues (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and leukemia inhibitor factor) have been identified as mediators

2017 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

200. Acupuncture (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of clinical-based doctoral training. Some Western medical training, including the study of , physiology, and clean-needle technique is included in the curriculums of these schools. Postgraduate training programs in medical acupuncture for also exist. In the United States, training to be a licensed is regulated according to individual state law. Because the educational and licensing requirements for acupuncture practice vary from state to state, one should inquire from each state board of acupuncture (...) of acupuncture on chronic pain.[ , ] Evidence suggests that acupuncture operates through the to balance the and systems and suggests that the effects of acupuncture are mediated by its electrophysiologic effects on neurotransmitters, , and .[ , - ] Many studies provide evidence that peptides are released during acupuncture and that acupuncture is mediated by the opioid system.[ , ] Although the mechanism of acupuncture is not fully understood, it has been proposed that beneficial results are mediated

2017 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

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