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Neurotransmitter Physiology

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1. Neurotransmitter Physiology

Neurotransmitter Physiology Neurotransmitter Physiology Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Neurotransmitter Physiology (...) Neurotransmitter Physiology Aka: Neurotransmitter Physiology II. Neurotransmitter Physiology at Synapse Medications affecting Precursor Uptake L-Phenylalanine L-Tyrosine L-Dopa (DA) (NE) (E) L-Tryptophan 5-Hydroxytryptophan, ( ) = Choline/lecithin + AcetylCoA => Acetylcholine (Ach) Medications affecting Synthetic Enzymes Metyrosine (Demser) blocks Tyrosine hydroxylase Decrease DA, NE, E, 5HT ( ) blocks decarboxylation Decrease DA, NE, E, 5HT Medications affecting Transfer into No clinically available drugs

2018 FP Notebook

2. Neurotransmitter Physiology

Neurotransmitter Physiology Neurotransmitter Physiology Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Neurotransmitter Physiology (...) Neurotransmitter Physiology Aka: Neurotransmitter Physiology II. Physiology: GABA and NMDA N-methyl-D- ate (NMDA) receptor Glutamate binds NMDA receptors and results in excitation NMDA receptors are up regulated in chronic NMDA Antagoists include Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor GABA Agonists bind GABA receptors and resul in inhibition GABA Receptors are down regulated in chronic III. Physiology: Neurotransmitter at Synapse Medications affecting Precursor Uptake L-Phenylalanine L-Tyrosine L-Dopa (DA

2018 FP Notebook

3. Effects of deoxynivalenol exposure on cerebral lipid peroxidation, neurotransmitter and calcium homeostasis of chicks in vivo. (PubMed)

Effects of deoxynivalenol exposure on cerebral lipid peroxidation, neurotransmitter and calcium homeostasis of chicks in vivo. During current research, the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure on cerebral lipid peroxidation, neurotransmitter secretion and calcium homeostasis in chicks were evaluated. One hundred and twenty Hailan chicks (male, 1-day-old) were randomly divided into four groups. Chicks in low, medium and high dose groups were fed with 0.27, 1.68 and 12.21 mg/kg-1 DON (...) respectively by gavage according to feed intake. Chicks in control group were fed with physiological saline by gavage. The trials were conducted for 36 d. At the end of the trials, twenty chicks per group were sacrificed, and the cerebra were collected for measuring the brain indices. Compared with the control group, the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase were significantly decreased in treatment groups (P < 0.05), the contents of malondialdehyde in high dose group

2018 Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology

4. General Pathways of Pain Sensation and the Major Neurotransmitters Involved in Pain Regulation (PubMed)

General Pathways of Pain Sensation and the Major Neurotransmitters Involved in Pain Regulation Pain has been considered as a concept of sensation that we feel as a reaction to the stimulus of our surrounding, putting us in harm's way and acting as a form of defense mechanism that our body has permanently installed into its system. However, pain leads to a huge chunk of finances within the healthcare system with continuous rehabilitation of patients with adverse pain sensations, which might (...) reduce not only their quality of life but also their productivity at work setting back the pace of our economy. It may not look like a huge deal but factor in pain as an issue for majority of us, it becomes an economical burden. Although pain has been researched into and understood by numerous researches, from its definition, mechanism of action to its inhibition in hopes of finding an absolute solution for victims of pain, the pathways of pain sensation, neurotransmitters involved in producing

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2018 International journal of molecular sciences

5. Towards a theory of functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS): A meta-analysis and discussion of using MRS to measure changes in neurotransmitters in real time.

Towards a theory of functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS): A meta-analysis and discussion of using MRS to measure changes in neurotransmitters in real time. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate neurochemistry and physiology in vivo. Recently researchers have started to use MRS to measure neurotransmitter changes related to neural activity, so called functional MRS (fMRS). Particular interest has been placed on measuring glutamate changes (...) in block studies compared to an increase of 13.429% (±3.59) in studies using event related paradigms. The stimulus being investigated also seems to play a role with prolonged visual stimuli showing a small mean increase in glutamate of 2.318% (±1.227%) while at the other extreme, pain stimuli show a mean stimulation effect of 14.458% (±3.736%). These differences are discussed with regards to possible physiologic interpretations, as well experimental design implications.© 2018 Scandinavian Psychological

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2018 Scandinavian journal of psychology

6. Nitric oxide-mediated posttranslational modifications control neurotransmitter release by modulating complexin farnesylation and enhancing its clamping ability (PubMed)

Nitric oxide-mediated posttranslational modifications control neurotransmitter release by modulating complexin farnesylation and enhancing its clamping ability Nitric oxide (NO) regulates neuronal function and thus is critical for tuning neuronal communication. Mechanisms by which NO modulates protein function and interaction include posttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as S-nitrosylation. Importantly, cross signaling between S-nitrosylation and prenylation can have major regulatory (...) glutamate-cysteine-ligase and S-nitroso-glutathione reductase activities. Enhanced nitrergic activity led to S-nitrosylation of the fusion-clamp protein complexin (cpx) and altered its membrane association and interactions with active zone (AZ) and soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein Attachment Protein Receptor (SNARE) proteins. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological suppression of farnesylation and a nitrosylation mimetic mutant of cpx induced identical physiological and localization

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2018 PLoS biology

7. Palmitoylation as a Functional Regulator of Neurotransmitter Receptors (PubMed)

. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the palmitoylation of neurotransmitter receptors and its role in the regulation of receptors functions as well as in the control of different kinds of physiological and pathological behavior. (...) Palmitoylation as a Functional Regulator of Neurotransmitter Receptors The majority of neuronal proteins involved in cellular signaling undergo different posttranslational modifications significantly affecting their functions. One of these modifications is a covalent attachment of a 16-C palmitic acid to one or more cysteine residues (S-palmitoylation) within the target protein. Palmitoylation is a reversible modification, and repeated cycles of palmitoylation/depalmitoylation might

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2018 Neural plasticity

8. Direct neurotransmitter activation of voltage-gated potassium channels (PubMed)

Direct neurotransmitter activation of voltage-gated potassium channels Voltage-gated potassium channels KCNQ2-5 generate the M-current, which controls neuronal excitability. KCNQ2-5 subunits each harbor a high-affinity anticonvulsant drug-binding pocket containing an essential tryptophan (W265 in human KCNQ3) conserved for >500 million years, yet lacking a known physiological function. Here, phylogenetic analysis, electrostatic potential mapping, in silico docking, electrophysiology (...) , and radioligand binding assays reveal that the anticonvulsant binding pocket evolved to accommodate endogenous neurotransmitters including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which directly activates KCNQ5 and KCNQ3 via W265. GABA, and endogenous metabolites β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) and γ-amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), competitively and differentially shift the voltage dependence of KCNQ3 activation. Our results uncover a novel paradigm: direct neurotransmitter activation of voltage-gated ion channels

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2018 Nature communications

9. New Insights Into Interactions of Presynaptic Calcium Channel Subtypes and SNARE Proteins in Neurotransmitter Release (PubMed)

regulate the release of neurotransmitters within 200 μs of the AP arriving at the active zone of synaptic terminal. In this mini review, we provide a brief overview of the structure and physiological function of Ca2+ channel subtypes, interactions of Ca2+ channels and SNAREs in neurotransmitter release, and dynamic fine-tune Ca2+ channel activities by G proteins (Gβγ), multiple protein kinases and Ca2+ sensor (CaS) proteins. (...) New Insights Into Interactions of Presynaptic Calcium Channel Subtypes and SNARE Proteins in Neurotransmitter Release Action potential (AP) induces presynaptic membrane depolarization and subsequent opening of Ca2+ channels, and then triggers neurotransmitter release at the active zone of presynaptic terminal. Presynaptic Ca2+ channels and SNARE proteins (SNAREs) interactions form a large signal transfer complex, which are core components for exocytosis. Ca2+ channels serve to regulate

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

10. Adult spinal motoneurons change their neurotransmitter phenotype to control locomotion (PubMed)

functional role in animals' behavior. Here we describe the expression and dynamics of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the adult zebrafish spinal motoneuron circuit assembly. We demonstrate that part of the fast motoneurons retain the ability to switch their neurotransmitter phenotype under physiological (exercise/training) and pathophysiological (spinal cord injury) conditions to corelease glutamate in the neuromuscular junctions to enhance animals' motor output. Our findings suggest that motoneuron (...) Adult spinal motoneurons change their neurotransmitter phenotype to control locomotion A particularly essential determinant of a neuron's functionality is its neurotransmitter phenotype. While the prevailing view is that neurotransmitter phenotypes are fixed and determined early during development, a growing body of evidence suggests that neurons retain the ability to switch between different neurotransmitters. However, such changes are considered unlikely in motoneurons due to their crucial

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2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

11. Differences in Small Molecule Neurotransmitter Profiles From the Crown-of-Thorns Seastar Radial Nerve Revealed Between Sexes and Following Food-Deprivation (PubMed)

Differences in Small Molecule Neurotransmitter Profiles From the Crown-of-Thorns Seastar Radial Nerve Revealed Between Sexes and Following Food-Deprivation Neurotransmitters serve as chemical mediators of cell communication, and are known to have important roles in regulating numerous physiological and metabolic events in eumetazoans. The Crown-of-Thorns Seastar (COTS) is an asteroid echinoderm that has been the focus of numerous ecological studies due to its negative impact on coral reefs when (...) in large numbers. Research devoted to its neural signaling, from basic anatomy to the key small neurotransmitters, would expand our current understanding of neural-driven biological processes, such as growth and reproduction, and offers a new approach to exploring the propensity for COTS population explosions and subsequent collapse. In this study we investigated the metabolomic profiles of small molecule neurotransmitters in the COTS radial nerve cord. Multivariate analysis shows differential

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2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

12. HMGB1-Mediated Differential Response on Hippocampal Neurotransmitter Disorder and Neuroinflammation in Adolescent Male and Female Mice following Cold Exposure. (PubMed)

HMGB1-Mediated Differential Response on Hippocampal Neurotransmitter Disorder and Neuroinflammation in Adolescent Male and Female Mice following Cold Exposure. Stress induces many different sex-specific physiological and psychological responses during adolescence. Although the impact of certain brain stressors has been reported in the literature, the influence of cold stress on the mechanisms underlying hippocampal neurotransmitter disorder and neuroinflammation remain unstudied. Adolescent (...) -inflammatory cytokine release, neuronal apoptosis and neurotransmitter disorder were demonstrated in mouse hippocampal tissue following cold exposure. We believe that these phenomena are mediated by the HMGB1/TLR4/NFκB pathway. Finally, the male inflammatory response in hippocampal tissue was more severe and the influence of cold exposure on neurotransmitter was greater in females.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Brain, behavior, and immunity

13. A phenomenological model of the synapse between the inner hair cell and auditory nerve: Implications of limited neurotransmitter release sites. (PubMed)

A phenomenological model of the synapse between the inner hair cell and auditory nerve: Implications of limited neurotransmitter release sites. Peterson and Heil [Hear. Res., In Press] have argued that the statistics of spontaneous spiking in auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) can be best explained by a model with a limited number of synaptic vesicle docking (release) sites (∼4) and a relatively-long average redocking time (∼16-17 ms) for each of the sites. In this paper we demonstrate how (...) their model can be: i) generalized to also describe sound-driven ANF responses and ii) incorporated into a well-established and widely-used model of the entire auditory periphery [Zilany et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 283-286, 2014]. The responses of the new model exhibit substantial improvement in several measures of ANF spiking statistics, and predicted physiological forward-masking and rate-level functions from the new model structure are shown to also better match published physiological

2017 Hearing Research

14. Neuropeptides and Neurotransmitters That Modulate Thalamo-Cortical Pathways Relevant to Migraine Headache. (PubMed)

Neuropeptides and Neurotransmitters That Modulate Thalamo-Cortical Pathways Relevant to Migraine Headache. Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological, and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective, and cognitive functions. This review (...) nociceptive signals from the thalamus to the cortex is modulated by potentially opposing forces and that the so-called 'decision' of which system (neuropeptide/neurotransmitter) will dominate the firing of a trigeminovascular thalamic neuron at any given time is determined by the constantly changing physiological (sleep, wakefulness, food intake, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure), behavioral (addiction, isolation), cognitive (attention, learning, memory use), and affective (stress, anxiety

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2017 Headache

15. Computational and structural evidence for neurotransmitter-mediated modulation of the oligomeric states of human insulin in storage granules (PubMed)

Computational and structural evidence for neurotransmitter-mediated modulation of the oligomeric states of human insulin in storage granules Human insulin is a pivotal protein hormone controlling metabolism, growth, and aging and whose malfunctioning underlies diabetes, some cancers, and neurodegeneration. Despite its central position in human physiology, the in vivo oligomeric state and conformation of insulin in its storage granules in the pancreas are not known. In contrast, many in vitro (...) structures of hexamers of this hormone are available and fall into three conformational states: T6, T3Rf3, and R6 As there is strong evidence for accumulation of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, in insulin storage granules in pancreatic β-cells, we probed by molecular dynamics (MD) and protein crystallography (PC) if these endogenous ligands affect and stabilize insulin oligomers. Parallel studies independently converged on the observation that serotonin binds well within the insulin

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2017 The Journal of biological chemistry

16. Neurotransmitters: The critical modulators regulating gut-brain axis (PubMed)

in the gastrointestinal (GI) physiology. Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), dopamine (DA), and serotonin have recently been a topic of interest because of their roles in the gut physiology and their potential roles in GI and central nervous system pathophysiology. These neurotransmitters are able to regulate and control not only blood flow, but also affect gut motility, nutrient absorption, GI innate immune system, and the microbiome. Furthermore, in pathological states, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (...) ) and Parkinson's disease, the levels of these neurotransmitters are dysregulated, therefore causing a variety of GI symptoms. Research in this field has shown that exogenous manipulation of catecholamine serum concentrations can help in decreasing symptomology and/or disease progression. In this review article, we discuss the current state-of-the-art research and literature regarding the role of neurotransmitters in regulation of normal GI physiology, their impact on several disease processes, and novel work

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2017 Journal of cellular physiology

17. Peripheral Nerve Fibers and Their Neurotransmitters in Osteoarthritis Pathology (PubMed)

Peripheral Nerve Fibers and Their Neurotransmitters in Osteoarthritis Pathology The importance of the nociceptive nervous system for maintaining tissue homeostasis has been known for some time, and it has also been suggested that organogenesis and tissue repair are under neuronal control. Changes in peripheral joint innervation are supposed to be partly responsible for degenerative alterations in joint tissues which contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Various resident cell types (...) of the musculoskeletal system express receptors for sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters, allowing response to peripheral neuronal stimuli. Among them are mesenchymal stem cells, synovial fibroblasts, bone cells and chondrocytes of different origin, which express distinct subtypes of adrenoceptors (AR), receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Some of these cell types synthesize and secrete neuropeptides such as SP, and they are positive

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

18. Kv3 Channels: Enablers of Rapid Firing, Neurotransmitter Release, and Neuronal Endurance (PubMed)

Kv3 Channels: Enablers of Rapid Firing, Neurotransmitter Release, and Neuronal Endurance The intrinsic electrical characteristics of different types of neurons are shaped by the K+ channels they express. From among the more than 70 different K+ channel genes expressed in neurons, Kv3 family voltage-dependent K+ channels are uniquely associated with the ability of certain neurons to fire action potentials and to release neurotransmitter at high rates of up to 1,000 Hz. In general, the four Kv3 (...) channels Kv3.1-Kv3.4 share the property of activating and deactivating rapidly at potentials more positive than other channels. Each Kv3 channel gene can generate multiple protein isoforms, which contribute to the high-frequency firing of neurons such as auditory brain stem neurons, fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and to regulation of neurotransmitter release at the terminals of many neurons. The different Kv3 channels have unique expression patterns

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2017 Physiological reviews

19. Corelease of Inhibitory Neurotransmitters in the Mouse Auditory Midbrain (PubMed)

neurotransmitters involved in fast synaptic transmission, so we explored differences between the currents to establish a physiological foundation for functional differences in vivo In contrast to the auditory brainstem, coreleased GABAergic and glycinergic currents in the midbrain are strikingly similar. This apparent redundancy may ensure homeostasis if one neurotransmitter system is compromised.Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/379453-12$15.00/0. (...) Corelease of Inhibitory Neurotransmitters in the Mouse Auditory Midbrain The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of the auditory midbrain, which integrates most ascending auditory information from lower brainstem regions, receives prominent long-range inhibitory input from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL), a region thought to be important for temporal pattern discrimination. Histological evidence suggests that neurons in the VNLL release both glycine and GABA

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2017 The Journal of Neuroscience

20. Loss of nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of purine neurotransmitter release in the colon in the absence of interstitial cells of Cajal (PubMed)

Loss of nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of purine neurotransmitter release in the colon in the absence of interstitial cells of Cajal Regulation of colonic motility depends on the integrity of enteric inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by nitric oxide (NO), purine neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides. Intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFRα+) cells are involved in generating responses to NO and purine (...) neurotransmitters, respectively. Previous studies have suggested a decreased nitrergic and increased purinergic neurotransmission in KitW/KitW-v (W/Wv ) mice that display lesions in ICC-IM along the gastrointestinal tract. However, contributions of NO to these phenotypes have not been evaluated. We used small-chamber superfusion assays and HPLC to measure the spontaneous and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked release of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)/ADP-ribose, uridine adenosine tetraphosphate

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2017 American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

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