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181. Prospective randomized controlled comparison of posterior vs. posterior-anterior stabilization of thoracolumbar incomplete cranial burst fractures in neurological intact patients: the RASPUTHINE pilot study. (Abstract)

Prospective randomized controlled comparison of posterior vs. posterior-anterior stabilization of thoracolumbar incomplete cranial burst fractures in neurological intact patients: the RASPUTHINE pilot study. If surgery for thoracolumbar incomplete cranial burst fractures (Magerl A3.1.1) is necessary, the ideal stabilization strategy still remains undetermined. To justify posterior-anterior stabilization, which generates higher costs and potentially higher morbidity vs. posterior-only (...) endpoint showed less but insignificant (p = 0.67) disability for the interventional group over the control group (13.3 vs. 19.3%). Comparison of preoperative bisegmental kyphosis in supine position with the bisegmental kyphosis at 24-month FU in upright position showed a worsened kyphosis for the control group (10.7° → 15.6°), whereas an improved kyphosis (11° → 8.3°) was detectable for the interventional group.The results of this pilot RCT showed less disability for the posterior-anterior group linked

2017 European Spine Journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

182. Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Genome-Wide Transcriptomic, Methylomic, and Network Perturbations in Brain and Blood Predicting Neurological Disorders Full Text available with Trip Pro

and brain elicited by TBI provides proof of concept information for development of biomarkers of TBI based on composite genomic patterns. By intersecting with human genome-wide association studies, many TBI signature genes and network regulators identified in our rodent model were causally associated with brain disorders with relevant link to TBI. The overall results show that concussive brain injury reprograms genes which could lead to predisposition to neurological and psychiatric disorders (...) Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Genome-Wide Transcriptomic, Methylomic, and Network Perturbations in Brain and Blood Predicting Neurological Disorders The complexity of the traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathology, particularly concussive injury, is a serious obstacle for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term prognosis. Here we utilize modern systems biology in a rodent model of concussive injury to gain a thorough view of the impact of TBI on fundamental aspects of gene regulation, which have

2017 EBioMedicine

183. DYNC1H1 mutations associated with neurological diseases compromise processivity of dynein–dynactin–cargo adaptor complexes Full Text available with Trip Pro

DYNC1H1 mutations associated with neurological diseases compromise processivity of dynein–dynactin–cargo adaptor complexes Mutations in the human DYNC1H1 gene are associated with neurological diseases. DYNC1H1 encodes the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein-1, a 1.4-MDa motor complex that traffics organelles, vesicles, and macromolecules toward microtubule minus ends. The effects of the DYNC1H1 mutations on dynein motility, and consequently their links to neuropathology, are not understood (...) defective long-range motility. This observation offers an explanation for the dominant effects of DYNC1H1 mutations in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that compromised processivity of cargo-motor assemblies contributes to human neurological disease and provide insight into the influence of different regions of the heavy chain on dynein motility.

2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

184. Peptide Regulation of Cofilin Activity in the CNS: A Novel Therapeutic Approach for Treatment of Multiple Neurological Disorders Full Text available with Trip Pro

plasticity essential for learning and memory. Cofilin's phosphoregulation is a downstream target of many transmembrane signaling processes, and its misregulation in neurons has been linked in rodent models to many different neurodegenerative and neurological disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD), aggression due to neonatal isolation, autism, manic/bipolar disorder, and sleep deprivation. Cognitive and behavioral deficits of these rodent models have been largely abrogated by modulation of cofilin (...) Peptide Regulation of Cofilin Activity in the CNS: A Novel Therapeutic Approach for Treatment of Multiple Neurological Disorders Cofilin is a ubiquitous protein which cooperates with many other actin-binding proteins in regulating actin dynamics. Cofilin has essential functions in nervous system development including neuritogenesis, neurite elongation, growth cone pathfinding, dendritic spine formation, and the regulation of neurotransmission and spine function, components of synaptic

2017 Pharmacology & therapeutics

185. Botulinum Toxin Is Effective in the Management of Neurogenic Dysphagia. Clinical-Electrophysiological Findings and Tips on Safety in Different Neurological Disorders Full Text available with Trip Pro

Botulinum Toxin Is Effective in the Management of Neurogenic Dysphagia. Clinical-Electrophysiological Findings and Tips on Safety in Different Neurological Disorders Background and Aims: Neurogenic dysphagia linked to failed relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) can be treated by injecting botulinum toxin (BTX) into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle. We compared the effects of this treatment in different neurological disorders with dysphagia, to evaluate its efficacy over time

2017 Frontiers in pharmacology

186. Emerging Synaptic Molecules as Candidates in the Etiology of Neurological Disorders Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emerging Synaptic Molecules as Candidates in the Etiology of Neurological Disorders Synapses are complex structures that allow communication between neurons in the central nervous system. Studies conducted in vertebrate and invertebrate models have contributed to the knowledge of the function of synaptic proteins. The functional synapse requires numerous protein complexes with specialized functions that are regulated in space and time to allow synaptic plasticity. However, their interplay (...) during neuronal development, learning, and memory is poorly understood. Accumulating evidence links synapse proteins to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we describe the way in which several proteins that participate in cell adhesion, scaffolding, exocytosis, and neurotransmitter reception from presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments, mainly from excitatory synapses, have been associated with several synaptopathies, and we relate their functions

2017 Neural plasticity

187. The PRRT2 knockout mouse recapitulates the neurological diseases associated with PRRT2 mutations Full Text available with Trip Pro

The PRRT2 knockout mouse recapitulates the neurological diseases associated with PRRT2 mutations Heterozygous and rare homozygous mutations in PRoline-Rich Transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia episodic ataxia and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression and/or function. Recently, an important role for PRTT2 in the neurotransmitter release machinery, brain development and synapse formation has (...) . The results show that the PRRT2 KO mouse reproduces the motor paroxysms present in the human PRRT2-linked pathology and can be proposed as an experimental model for the study of the pathogenesis of the disease as well as for testing personalized therapeutic approaches.Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 Neurobiology of disease

188. Long-Term Kinetics of Immunologic Components and Neurological Deficits in Rats Following Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neurological functions were assessed by modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) and Morris Water Maze (MWM), immunologic components from brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM), and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 were measure by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS Neurological functions of rmTBI rats were seriously impaired. In the brain, T cells were up-regulated and peaked at week (...) Long-Term Kinetics of Immunologic Components and Neurological Deficits in Rats Following Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury BACKGROUND Despite growing awareness of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI), understanding of the involvement of long-term kinetics of immunologic components in the central and peripheral immune system took part remains incomplete. The present study aimed to provide a quantitative assay for certain immune system parameters in rmTBI rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS

2017 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

189. Olfactory Function in Latino Farmworkers over Two Years: Longitudinal Exploration of Subclinical Neurological Effects of Pesticide Exposure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Olfactory Function in Latino Farmworkers over Two Years: Longitudinal Exploration of Subclinical Neurological Effects of Pesticide Exposure We compared patterns of olfactory function over 2 years in pesticide-exposed male Latino farmworkers and male Latino workers in industries without pesticide exposure.At five points over 2 years, workers completed tests of odor threshold (16 concentrations of n-butanol) using a well-established methodology. Tests at two or more time points were completed (...) by 156 farmworkers and 118 non-farmworkers.Farmworkers required significantly higher odorant concentrations at Contact 1 and across the 2-year follow-up to detect the odor. When adjusted for Contact 1, between-group differences persisted, but odor threshold performance did not worsen over time.Pesticide exposure has been linked to neurodegenerative disease, as has declining olfactory function. Persistently poorer olfactory function among pesticide-exposed workers suggests the need to monitor

2017 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

190. Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus Differentiate in Functional Pathways and Differentially Associate with Neurological Disease-Related Genes during Postnatal Development Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus Differentiate in Functional Pathways and Differentially Associate with Neurological Disease-Related Genes during Postnatal Development The dorsal and ventral regions of the hippocampus are important in cognitive and emotional processing, respectively. Various approaches have revealed the differential molecular and structural characteristics, and functional roles of the hippocampus. Recent RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology has enriched our understanding (...) developmental ages representing the postnatally maturing hippocampus. Genes associated with particular functional pathways and marker genes for particular neurological diseases were found to be distinctively segregated within either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus at specific or at all developmental ages examined. We also report novel molecular markers enriched in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Taken together, this study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological

2017 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

191. Is Beauty in the Hand of the Writer? Influences of Aesthetic Preferences through Script Directions, Cultural, and Neurological Factors: A Literature Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Is Beauty in the Hand of the Writer? Influences of Aesthetic Preferences through Script Directions, Cultural, and Neurological Factors: A Literature Review Human experience surrounding the appreciation of beauty is not static. Many factors such as script direction and cultural differences directly impact whether, how and why we consider images beautiful. In an earlier study, Pérez González showed that 19th-century Iranian and Spanish professional photographers manifest lateral biases linked

2017 Frontiers in psychology

192. Lost in Translation: Defects in Transfer RNA Modifications and Neurological Disorders Full Text available with Trip Pro

, etc. Several recent studies have pointed to a link between defects in tRNA modifications and human diseases including neurological disorders. Therefore, defects in tRNA modifications in humans need intensive characterization at the enzymatic and mechanistic level in order to pave the way to understand how lack of such modifications are associated with neurological disorders with the ultimate goal of gaining insights into therapeutic interventions. (...) Lost in Translation: Defects in Transfer RNA Modifications and Neurological Disorders Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are key molecules participating in protein synthesis. To augment their functionality they undergo extensive post-transcriptional modifications and, as such, are subject to regulation at multiple levels including transcription, transcript processing, localization and ribonucleoside base modification. Post-transcriptional enzyme-catalyzed modification of tRNA occurs at a number of base

2017 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

193. Effects of mTOR on Neurological Deficits after Transient Global Ischemia Full Text available with Trip Pro

growth factor (VEGF) and its subtype receptor VEGFR-2 in the hippocampus. Moreover, the effects of rapamycin were linked to improvement of neurological deficits and increased brain water content observed in CA rats. In conclusion, activation of mTOR signal is engaged in pathophysiological process during CA-induced transient global ischemia and blocking mTOR pathway plays a beneficial role in regulating injured neuronal tissues and neurological deficits via PIC, apoptotic Caspase-3 and VEGF mechanisms (...) Effects of mTOR on Neurological Deficits after Transient Global Ischemia Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase and activation of its signal pathway plays an important role in regulating protein growth and synthesis as well as cell proliferation and survival. In the present study, we examined the contribution of mTOR and its downstream products to brain injuries and neurological deficiencies after cardiac arrest (CA) induced-transient global ischemia. CA

2017 Translational neuroscience

194. Host genetic background influences diverse neurological responses to viral infection in mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

the phenotypic consequences of TMEV infection in the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse population. We evaluated 5 different CC strains for outcomes of long-term infection (3 months) and acute vs. early chronic infection (7 vs. 28 days post-infection), using neurological and behavioral phenotyping tests and histology. We correlated phenotypic observations with haplotypes of genomic regions previously linked to TMEV susceptibility to test the hypothesis that genomic diversity within CC mice results in variable (...) Host genetic background influences diverse neurological responses to viral infection in mice Infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is a model for neurological outcomes caused by virus infection because it leads to diverse neurological conditions in mice, depending on the strain infected. To extend knowledge on the heterogeneous neurological outcomes caused by TMEV and identify new models of human neurological diseases associated with antecedent infections, we analyzed

2017 Scientific reports

195. Multifractality, interactivity, and the adaptive capacity of the human movement system: a perspective for advancing the conceptual basis of neurologic physical therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multifractality, interactivity, and the adaptive capacity of the human movement system: a perspective for advancing the conceptual basis of neurologic physical therapy Physical therapists seek to optimize movement as a means of reducing disability and improving health. The short-term effects of interventions designed to optimize movement ultimately are intended to be adapted for use across various future patterns of behavior, in potentially unpredictable ways, with varying frequency (...) support for the idea that patterns of motor behavior occurring in the moment are inextricably linked in complex, physiologic ways to patterns of motor behavior occurring over much longer periods. The human movement system appears to be particularly tuned to multifractal fluctuation patterns and exhibits the ability to reorganize its output in response to external stimulation embedded with multifractal features.As a fundamental feature of human movement, multifractality opens new avenues

2017 Journal of neurologic physical therapy : JNPT

196. Radically truncated MeCP2 rescues Rett syndrome-like neurological defects Full Text available with Trip Pro

Radically truncated MeCP2 rescues Rett syndrome-like neurological defects Heterozygous mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene cause the neurological disorder Rett syndrome. The methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) protein is an epigenetic reader whose binding to chromatin primarily depends on 5-methylcytosine. Functionally, MeCP2 has been implicated in several cellular processes on the basis of its reported interaction with more than 40 binding partners, including transcriptional co-repressors (...) domain survive for over one year with only mild symptoms. This minimal protein is able to prevent or reverse neurological symptoms when introduced into MeCP2-deficient mice by genetic activation or virus-mediated delivery to the brain. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of the entire MeCP2 protein sequence, the DNA and co-repressor binding domains alone are sufficient to avoid Rett syndrome-like defects and may therefore have therapeutic utility.

2017 Nature

197. Sphingolipids: membrane microdomains in brain development, function and neurological diseases Full Text available with Trip Pro

broadly from being involved in differentiation of neurons and synaptic transmission to neuronal-glial interactions and myelin stability. Thus, perturbations of the sphingolipid metabolism can lead to rearrangements in the plasma membrane, which has been linked to the development of various neurological diseases. Studying microdomains and their functions has for a long time been synonymous with studying the role of cholesterol. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that microdomains are very (...) Sphingolipids: membrane microdomains in brain development, function and neurological diseases Sphingolipids are highly enriched in the nervous system where they are pivotal constituents of the plasma membranes and are important for proper brain development and functions. Sphingolipids are not merely structural elements, but are also recognized as regulators of cellular events by their ability to form microdomains in the plasma membrane. The significance of such compartmentalization spans

2017 Open biology

198. Sarcopenia: Neurological Point of View Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sarcopenia: Neurological Point of View Sarcopenia is an age-related geriatric syndrome which is characterized by the gradual loss of muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality. There are a lot of neurologic insults on sarcopenia at various levels from the brain to the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) to generate a volitional task. Dopaminergic downregulation, inadequate motor programming and motor coordination impairment lead to decline of supraspinal drive. Motor unit reorganization (...) and inflammatory changes in motor neuron decrease conduction velocity and amplitude of compound muscle action potential. Furthermore, NMJ remodeling and age related neurophysiological alterations may contribute to neuromuscular impairment. Sarcopenia is an age-associated, lifelong process which links to multiple etiological factors. Although not all the causes are completely understood, we suggest that compromised nervous system function may be one of the important contributors to the sarcopenia.

2017 Journal of bone metabolism

199. A missense mutation in Katnal1 underlies behavioural, neurological and ciliary anomalies Full Text available with Trip Pro

A missense mutation in Katnal1 underlies behavioural, neurological and ciliary anomalies Microtubule severing enzymes implement a diverse range of tissue-specific molecular functions throughout development and into adulthood. Although microtubule severing is fundamental to many dynamic neural processes, little is known regarding the role of the family member Katanin p60 subunit A-like 1, KATNAL1, in central nervous system (CNS) function. Recent studies reporting that microdeletions (...) incorporating the KATNAL1 locus in humans result in intellectual disability and microcephaly suggest that KATNAL1 may play a prominent role in the CNS; however, such associations lack the functional data required to highlight potential mechanisms which link the gene to disease symptoms. Here we identify and characterise a mouse line carrying a loss of function allele in Katnal1. We show that mutants express behavioural deficits including in circadian rhythms, sleep, anxiety and learning/memory. Furthermore

2017 Molecular psychiatry

200. Cyberinfrastructure for Open Science at the Montreal Neurological Institute Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cyberinfrastructure for Open Science at the Montreal Neurological Institute Data sharing is becoming more of a requirement as technologies mature and as global research and communications diversify. As a result, researchers are looking for practical solutions, not only to enhance scientific collaborations, but also to acquire larger amounts of data, and to access specialized datasets. In many cases, the realities of data acquisition present a significant burden, therefore gaining access (...) to public datasets allows for more robust analyses and broadly enriched data exploration. To answer this demand, the Montreal Neurological Institute has announced its commitment to Open Science, harnessing the power of making both clinical and research data available to the world (Owens, 2016a,b). As such, the LORIS and CBRAIN (Das et al., 2016) platforms have been tasked with the technical challenges specific to the institutional-level implementation of open data sharing, including: Comprehensive

2017 Frontiers in neuroinformatics

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