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Neurogenic Shock

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61. Spinal cord compression

of symptoms back pain numbness or paraesthesias weakness or paralysis bladder or bowel dysfunction hyper-reflexia sensory loss muscle weakness or wasting loss of tone below level of suspected injury (spinal shock) hypotension and bradycardia (neurogenic shock) complete cord transection syndrome cauda equina syndrome central cord syndrome history of malignancy immunosuppression intravenous drug use loss of rectal sphincter reflex loss of appendicular reflexes local deformity of spine on palpation Brown

2018 BMJ Best Practice

62. Acute cervical spine trauma

tenderness male sex age 18 to 25 years intoxication numbness, tingling, or weakness of extremities bowel or bladder dysfunction motor weakness sensory loss reduced or painful cervical range of motion (ROM) loss of anorectal tone and perianal sensation spasticity hyper-reflexia Babinski's sign Hoffman's sign neurogenic shock spinal shock respiratory change cranial nerve deficit male sex female sex (whiplash injury) lack of preparation or awareness of collision head rotated at time of collision previous

2018 BMJ Best Practice

63. Assessment of respiratory alkalosis

in adults Asthma in children Hypoxaemia Cirrhosis Cardiopulmonary bypass Pneumothorax Meningitis Encephalitis Brain tumour Traumatic brain injury Mechanical ventilation High altitude-related illness Generalised anxiety disorder Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis Central sleep apnoea Hypovolaemic shock Severe anaemia Lung contusion Central neurogenic hyperventilation Hyperventilation syndrome Hyperthermic hyperpnoea Cyanotic heart disease Haemoglobinopathy (...) /6410136?tool=bestpractice.com If hypocapnia occurs with acidaemia, a primary respiratory alkalosis is present, if the degree of hypocapnia is greater than would be expected in response to the coexisting metabolic acidosis. Differentials Pulmonary embolism Sepsis and systemic inflammatory-response syndrome (SIRS) Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Pneumonia Cardiogenic shock Pulmonary oedema Ischaemic stroke Haemorrhagic stroke Salicylate overdose Pseudorespiratory alkalosis Pregnancy Asthma

2018 BMJ Best Practice

66. Adult and Pediatric Antibiotic Prophylaxis during Vascular and IR Procedures: A Society of Interventional Radiology Practice Parameter Update Endorsed by the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radological Society of Europe and the Canadian Association for

a contaminated or dirty procedure and carries a 7% risk of septic shock (147). Antibiotic prophylaxis is always recommended if the patient is not already receiving IVantibiotic therapy. On the contrary, the role of antibiotic prophylaxis before nephrostomy tube placement into an uninfected system is less clear and should be based on each patient’s risk factors. Advanced age, diabetes, bladder dysfunction, neurogenic bladder, previous ureteral manipulation (stents, ureterointestinal anastomosis (...) and systemic in?ammatory immune response, have inadequate sensitivity andspeci?city,leadingtodiscrepanciesinincidenceandobservedmortality (13). Newer de?nitions have been outlined in the Third International Consensus De?nitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (“Sepsis 3”), including the sepsis-related organ failure assessment score to describe organ dysfunction/failure (13,14). Table 1 lists the surgical wound classi?cation scheme and de?nitions of infectious adverse events, de?ning relevant terms used

2019 Society of Interventional Radiology

67. The Utility and Practice of Electrodiagnostic Testing in the Pediatric Population: An AANEM Consensus Statement

the clinical need (potential benefits) of the testing while deferring a more detailed discussion of the actual test process to the physician performing the study. This clinician can describe the proposed testing (potential risks) using optimum vocabulary: “electrical pulses” rather than “shocks”, “wire probes” rather than “needles”. While there was individual variability, a formal prospective study of pediatric patients at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London demonstrated that children over the age of 4 (...) with localizing the site of injury which can include: muscle (e.g., nemaline rod myopathy), peripheral nerve (e.g., obstetrical trauma) or brainstem nuclei (e.g., brain stem dysgenesis). Normal values for facial nerve motor NCSs are available for age ranges throughout childhood 77 . Blink reflex testing evaluates integrity of the trigeminal and facial nerves as well as the pathways between their cranial nuclei. A supramaximal shock is applied to the supraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve resulting

2019 American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

69. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

of the 2005 guideline, includes new recommendations for populations not previously addressed, and, where relevant, addresses the interpretation of nonlocalizing clinical symptoms in populations with a high prevalence of ASB. Keywords. asymptomatic bacteriuria; bacteriuria; urinary tract infection; pyelonephritis; cystitis; diabetes; pregnancy; renal transplant; endourologic surgery; urologic devices; urinary catheter; older adults; nursing home; long-term care; spinal cord injury; neurogenic bladder

2019 Infectious Diseases Society of America

70. Bladder Stones

laser cystolithotripsy in the treatment of pediatric bladder stones: a prospective randomized study. Pediatr Surg Int, 2016. 32: 609. 38. Bhatia, V., et al. A comparative study of cystolithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave therapy for bladder stones. Int Urol Nephrol, 1994. 26: 27. 39. Deswanto, I.A., et al. Management of bladder stones: The move towards non-invasive treatment. Med J Indonesia, 2017. 26: 128. 40. Philippou, P., et al. Prospective comparative study of endoscopic management (...) cystoplasty in reconstructive urology. Neurourol Urodyn, 1995. 14: 297. 51. Hayashi, Y., et al. Review of 86 Patients With Myelodysplasia and Neurogenic Bladder Who Underwent Sigmoidocolocystoplasty and Were Followed More Than 10 Years. J Urol, 2006. 176: 1806. 52. Husmann, D.A. Long-term complications following bladder augmentations in patients with spina bifida: Bladder calculi, perforation of the augmented bladder and upper tract deterioration. Transl Androl Urol, 2016. 5: 3. 53. Nurse, D.E., et al

2019 European Association of Urology

72. Urolithiasis

. Scand J Urol Nephrol, 1990. 24: 205. 33. Leusmann, D.B. Whewellite, weddellite and company: where do all the strange names originate? BJU Int, 2000. 86: 411. 34. Kim, S.C., et al. Cystine calculi: correlation of CT-visible structure, CT number, and stone morphology with fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy. Urol Res, 2007. 35: 319. 35. Wimpissinger, F., et al. The silence of the stones: asymptomatic ureteral calculi. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1341. 36. Ray, A.A., et al. Limitations to ultrasound (...) era? Clin Radiol, 2008. 63: 1131. 40. Worster, A., et al. The accuracy of noncontrast helical computed tomography versus intravenous pyelography in the diagnosis of suspected acute urolithiasis: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med, 2002. 40: 280. 41. Wu, D.S., et al. Indinavir urolithiasis. Curr Opin Urol, 2000. 10: 557. 42. El-Nahas, A.R., et al. A prospective multivariate analysis of factors predicting stone disintegration by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: the value of high-resolution

2019 European Association of Urology

73. Male Sexual Dysfunction

shock wave therapy--a novel effective treatment for erectile dysfunction in severe ED patients who respond poorly to PDE5 inhibitor therapy. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 259. 236. Olsen, A.B., et al. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile dysfunction? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Scand J Urol, 2015. 49: 329. 237. Vardi, Y., et al. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile function? A 6-month follow-up pilot study (...) in patients with organic erectile dysfunction. Eur Urol, 2010. 58: 243. 238. Kitrey, N.D., et al. Penile Low Intensity Shock Wave Treatment is Able to Shift PDE5i Nonresponders to Responders: A Double-Blind, Sham Controlled Study. J Urol, 2016. 195: 1550. 239. Hisasue, S., et al. Impact of aging and comorbidity on the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction. Int J Urol, 2016. 23: 80. 240. Clavijo, R.I., et al. Effects of Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy

2019 European Association of Urology

74. Urological Infections

, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment Guidance for Industry 2018. 11. Johansen, T.E., et al. Critical review of current definitions of urinary tract infections and proposal of an EAU/ESIU classification system. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2011. 38 Suppl: 64. 12. Singer, M., et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA, 2016. 315: 801. 13. Bell, B.G., et al. A systematic (...) controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol, 1995. 86: 560. 149. Wing, D.A., et al. A randomized trial of three antibiotic regimens for the treatment of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol, 1998. 92: 249. 150. Ulleryd, P., et al. Ciprofloxacin for 2 or 4 weeks in the treatment of febrile urinary tract infection in men: a randomized trial with a 1 year follow-up. Scand J Infect Dis, 2003. 35: 34. 151. Reyner, K., et al. Urinary obstruction is an important complicating factor in patients with septic shock due

2019 European Association of Urology

75. Urolithiasis

. Scand J Urol Nephrol, 1990. 24: 205. 33. Leusmann, D.B. Whewellite, weddellite and company: where do all the strange names originate? BJU Int, 2000. 86: 411. 34. Kim, S.C., et al. Cystine calculi: correlation of CT-visible structure, CT number, and stone morphology with fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy. Urol Res, 2007. 35: 319. 35. Wimpissinger, F., et al. The silence of the stones: asymptomatic ureteral calculi. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1341. 36. Ray, A.A., et al. Limitations to ultrasound (...) era? Clin Radiol, 2008. 63: 1131. 40. Worster, A., et al. The accuracy of noncontrast helical computed tomography versus intravenous pyelography in the diagnosis of suspected acute urolithiasis: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med, 2002. 40: 280. 41. Wu, D.S., et al. Indinavir urolithiasis. Curr Opin Urol, 2000. 10: 557. 42. El-Nahas, A.R., et al. A prospective multivariate analysis of factors predicting stone disintegration by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: the value of high-resolution

2018 European Association of Urology

77. Urological Infections

, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment Guidance for Industry 2018. 11. Johansen, T.E., et al. Critical review of current definitions of urinary tract infections and proposal of an EAU/ESIU classification system. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2011. 38 Suppl: 64. 12. Singer, M., et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA, 2016. 315: 801. 13. Bell, B.G., et al. A systematic (...) controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol, 1995. 86: 560. 149. Wing, D.A., et al. A randomized trial of three antibiotic regimens for the treatment of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol, 1998. 92: 249. 150. Ulleryd, P., et al. Ciprofloxacin for 2 or 4 weeks in the treatment of febrile urinary tract infection in men: a randomized trial with a 1 year follow-up. Scand J Infect Dis, 2003. 35: 34. 151. Reyner, K., et al. Urinary obstruction is an important complicating factor in patients with septic shock due

2018 European Association of Urology

78. Male Sexual Dysfunction

shock wave therapy--a novel effective treatment for erectile dysfunction in severe ED patients who respond poorly to PDE5 inhibitor therapy. J Sex Med, 2012. 9: 259. 236. Olsen, A.B., et al. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile dysfunction? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Scand J Urol, 2015. 49: 329. 237. Vardi, Y., et al. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile function? A 6-month follow-up pilot study (...) in patients with organic erectile dysfunction. Eur Urol, 2010. 58: 243. 238. Kitrey, N.D., et al. Penile Low Intensity Shock Wave Treatment is Able to Shift PDE5i Nonresponders to Responders: A Double-Blind, Sham Controlled Study. J Urol, 2016. 195: 1550. 239. Hisasue, S., et al. Impact of aging and comorbidity on the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction. Int J Urol, 2016. 23: 80. 240. Clavijo, R.I., et al. Effects of Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy

2018 European Association of Urology

79. Adult Urodynamics

dysfunction either early in the course of the disease or as the disease progresses. In these patients, PVR is a useful tool for assessing the possibility of significant bladder and/or outlet dysfunction. In some cases such as SCI, the neurogenic bladder condition that ensues occurs abruptly, and after an initial period of stabilization (spinal shock), the resultant bladder function tends to be fairly fixed. In other cases, there tends to be progression of bladder dysfunction as the disease progresses (e.g (...) incontinence that the absence of detrusor overactivity (DO) on a single urodynamic study does not exclude it as a causative agent for their symptoms . (Clinical Principle) Neurogenic Bladder (NGB) 9. Clinicians should perform PVR assessment, either as part of a complete urodynamic study or separately, during the initial urological evaluation of patients with relevant neurological conditions (e.g., spinal cord injury and myelomeningocele) and as part of ongoing follow-up when appropriate. ( Standard

2018 American Urological Association

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