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Neonatal Pneumonia

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1. Streptococcus pneumoniae, an unusual cause of early‐onset neonatal sepsis and necrotizing pneumonia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Streptococcus pneumoniae, an unusual cause of early‐onset neonatal sepsis and necrotizing pneumonia Vertically transmitted sepsis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae has a low incidence, and vaginal colonization among pregnant women is exceptional. Necrotizing pneumonia is uncommon in immunocompetent term neonates, and the prognosis is uncertain. At present, systematic screening does not seem warranted in pregnant women. Therefore, aggressive treatment of neonates remains the best treatment.

2018 Clinical Case Reports

2. Recurrent wheezing in neonatal pneumonia is associated with combined infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrent wheezing in neonatal pneumonia is associated with combined infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae Both viral and bacterial infections can be associated with wheezing episodes in children; however, information regarding combined infections with both viral and bacterial pathogens in full term neonates is limited. We sought to investigate the effects of viral-bacterial codetection on pneumonia severity and recurrent wheezing (...) . A retrospective cohort study was conducted on neonates admitted to our hospital with pneumonia from 2009 to 2015. Of 606 total cases, 341 were diagnosed with RSV only, and 265 were diagnosed with both RSV and a potential bacterial pathogen. The leading four species of bacteria codetected with RSV were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. Neonates with RSV and a potential bacterial pathogen were significantly more likely to have worse symptoms, higher C

2018 Scientific reports

3. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in newborns. (Abstract)

tracheal sanation on the outer surface of the intubation tube in newborns units that undergo artificial ventilation of the lungs exhibit high efficiency against the main types of microorganisms that are dangerous from the point of view of the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The use of prophylactic tracheal sanitization in newborns - patients of neonatal intensive care units, which undergoes artificial ventilation of the lungs, can significantly lower the frequency of the implementation (...) Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in newborns. The aim of the study is to optimize the prevention of the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in newborns by developing a method for tracheal rehabilitation and assessment of its effectiveness.Materials and methods: A prospective cohort randomized clinical study was organized, particularly artificial ventilation of the lungs was conducted on 90 newborns. Patients were divided into two groups. In the main group (n = 50

2018 Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4. Value of serum Mycoplasma pneumoniae immunoglobulin in the diagnosis of mycoplasma-related pneumonia in newborns Full Text available with Trip Pro

Value of serum Mycoplasma pneumoniae immunoglobulin in the diagnosis of mycoplasma-related pneumonia in newborns [This retracts the article DOI: 10.3892/etm.2017.4654.].

2018 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

5. Use of Ceftazidime-avibactam for the Treatment of Extensively drug-resistant or Pan drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Neonates and Children <5 Years of Age. (Abstract)

Use of Ceftazidime-avibactam for the Treatment of Extensively drug-resistant or Pan drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Neonates and Children <5 Years of Age. Emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) or pan drug-resistant (PDR) Enterobacteriaceae is a major public threat especially for young patients. Treatment options for these bacteria are extremely limited with no safety data existing for neonates and children. Ceftazidime-avibactam has activity against Gram-negative bacteria (...) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, but virtually no data exist on its use in neonatal and pediatric patients.We present a single-center case series of neonates and children <5 years treated with ceftazidime-avibactam for XDR or PDR K. pneumoniae infections until August 2018. Medical records of patients who received ceftazidime-avibactam for at least 2 days (6 doses) were reviewed. Clinical, laboratory and microbiologic data were collected using a prestructured form. Adverse events

2019 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

6. Budesonide Nebulization in the Treatment of Neonatal Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Budesonide Nebulization in the Treatment of Neonatal Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. To investigate the clinical effect of budesonide nebulization in the treatment of ventilator associated pneumonia of newborns and its safety.Forty-five newborns who had ventilator associated pneumonia and were admitted into the Binzhou People's Hospital between May 2014 and May 2015 were selected and included as an observation group. Moreover, another forty-five newborns who had ventilator associated pneumonia (...) and 6th month were compared to those of the control group, suggesting no significant differences (P>0.05). The cumulative death rate of the observation group in the 6th month after treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05).Treating ventilator associated pneumonia of newborns with budesonide nebulization can effectively shorten mechanical ventilation time, time for recovering from chest X-ray scan and hospitalization time

2019 Pakistan Journal Of Medical Sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7. [Clinical effect of exogenous pulmonary surfactant in the treatment of severe neonatal infectious pneumonia: a multicenter prospective clinical trial]. (Abstract)

[Clinical effect of exogenous pulmonary surfactant in the treatment of severe neonatal infectious pneumonia: a multicenter prospective clinical trial]. To study the clinical effect of calsurf, a domestic exogenous pulmonary surfactant, in the treatment of severe neonatal infectious pneumonia.A total of 208 neonates with severe infectious pneumonia who hospitalized in 5 hospitals of China were enrolled. According to their parents' wishes on admission, these neonates were administered (...) of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay than the control group, while there was no significant difference in the incidence rate of complications between the two groups. The neonates of both groups had a good prognosis.In neonates with severe infectious pneumonia, calsurf treatment can significantly improve oxygenation, reduce the degree of pulmonary consolidation, and shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. Therefore, it should be considered in neonates

2019 Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

8. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Adenoviral Pneumonia in Neonatal, Pediatric, and Adult Patients. (Abstract)

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Adenoviral Pneumonia in Neonatal, Pediatric, and Adult Patients. We examined data on patients with severe adenoviral pneumonia from the international registry of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization to identify risk factors for mortality in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.Retrospective analysis.International Registry of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization.We collected de-identified data on all patients (...) preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation variables as well as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation factors. Variables with p values of less than 0.1 were considered for logistic regression analysis that identified predictors of mortality.There were 542 patients with adenoviral pneumonia who were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Overall mortality was 58% (307/529 patients) (neonates 86.4% [108/125 patients], children 49% [158/327 patients], and adults 49% [41/83 patients]). Multivariate

2019 Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

9. Comparison of Four Days Versus Seven Days Duration of Antibiotic Therapy for Neonatal Pneumonia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (Abstract)

Comparison of Four Days Versus Seven Days Duration of Antibiotic Therapy for Neonatal Pneumonia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. To compare the effect of 4 day course (study group) with 7 day course (control group) of antibiotic treatment in neonatal pneumonia, on treatment success rate.This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital. Seventy, term and near-term neonates with pneumonia who had clinical remission by 48 h of antibiotic therapy were included (...) . The neonates were randomized to receive a total of 4 d of antibiotics (Group 1) or 7 d of antibiotics (Group 2). The outcome measure was treatment failure in each group within 3 d of discharge.The treatment success rate of both the groups was 100%. There was a significant reduction in the duration of hospital stay (p < 0.001), antibiotic usage (p < 0.001), and cost (p < 0.001) in the 4 d group. On follow up till 28 d of enrollment, no infective morbidity was found in either group.For term and near-term

2019 Indian journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10. Co-outbreak of multidrug resistance and a novel ST3006 Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit: A retrospective study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Co-outbreak of multidrug resistance and a novel ST3006 Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit: A retrospective study. The outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).Fifteen K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from 7 neonates during June 3 to 28, 2017 in an NICU. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Vitek 2 system and microbroth dilution method. Multilocus sequence (...) typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to analyze the genetic relatedness of the isolates. Whole-genome sequencing and gene function analysis were performed to investigate pathogenicity and drug resistance and screen genomic islands.Three clones of K. pneumoniae were identified from 7 neonates: 7 strains of ST37, 7 of novel ST3006, and 1 of ST1224. Gene sequencing showed that the kpn1343 (ST37) strain harbored 12 resistance genes (OXA-33, TEM-1, SHV-11, AAC (6')-IId, AAC

2019 Medicine

11. Low-dose vitamin A therapy on T lymphocyte function in neonatal pneumonia. (Abstract)

Low-dose vitamin A therapy on T lymphocyte function in neonatal pneumonia. We aimed at studying the effect of adjuvant therapy with low-dose vitamin A on the function of T lymphocytes in neonatal pneumonia.We recruited 60 cases of neonatal pneumonia which were randomly divided in two equal groups. The control group was treated with conventional anti-inflammatory therapy and aerosol inhalation. The experimental group received oral vitamin A soft capsules for 7 days.Pre-treatment levels vitamin (...) , but the experimental group showed a larger increase.Neonatal pneumonia is often accompanied by a low level of vitamin A, and adjuvant therapy can shorten its disease course, improve IgM and IgG levels, and improve anti-oxidative and cellar immune function.

2018 European review for medical and pharmacological sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. A Neonatal Murine Model of MRSA Pneumonia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Neonatal Murine Model of MRSA Pneumonia. Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants particularly following lower respiratory tract viral infections such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). However, the mechanisms by which co-infection of infants by MRSA and RSV cause increased lung pathology are unknown. Because the infant immune system is qualitatively and quantitatively different from adults we developed (...) a model of infant MRSA pneumonia which will allow us to investigate the effects of RSV co-infection on disease severity. We infected neonatal and adult mice with increasing doses of MRSA and demonstrate that neonatal mice have delayed kinetics in clearing the bacteria in comparison to adult mice. There were differences in recruitment of immune cells into the lung following infection. Adult mice exhibited an increase in neutrophil recruitment that coincided with reduced bacterial titers followed

2017 PLoS ONE

13. An integrated diagnostic device for neonatal sepsis and childhood pneumonia Full Text available with Trip Pro

An integrated diagnostic device for neonatal sepsis and childhood pneumonia 30079170 2018 11 14 2038-9922 9 1 2018 May 21 Journal of public health in Africa J Public Health Afr An integrated diagnostic device for neonatal sepsis and childhood pneumonia. 780 10.4081/jphia.2018.780 Shah Rashed R Child Health, Save the Children, Washington DC, USA. Jenda Gomezgani G Save the Children International, Lilongwe, Malawi. Lwesha Vicoria V Save the Children International, Lilongwe, Malawi. Nsona Humpreys (...) H Ministry of Health, Lilongwe, Malawi. Dadlani Pavan P Philips Research, High Tech Campus, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Swedberg Eric E Child Health, Save the Children, Washington DC, USA. eng Journal Article 2018 07 06 Italy J Public Health Afr 101586943 2038-9922 childhood pneumonia integrated device neonatal sepsis Conflict of interest: the authors declare no potential conflict of interest. 2017 09 08 2017 12 01 2018 8 7 6 0 2018 8 7 6 0 2018 8 7 6 1 epublish 30079170 10.4081/jphia.2018.780

2018 Journal of public health in Africa

14. Neonatal Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Quality Improvement Initiative Focusing on Antimicrobial Stewardship Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neonatal Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Quality Improvement Initiative Focusing on Antimicrobial Stewardship Background and Aims: Neonatal ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection and a frequent reason for empirical antibiotic therapy in NICUs. Nonetheless, there is no international consensus regarding diagnostic criteria and management. In a first step, we analyzed the used diagnostic criteria, risk factors and therapeutic management of neonatal VAP (...) by a literature review. In a second step, we aimed to compare suspected vs. confirmed neonatal VAP episodes in our unit according to different published criteria and to analyze interrater-reliability of chest x-rays. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the development of VAP incidence and antibiotic use after implementation of multifaceted quality improvement changes regarding antimicrobial stewardship and infection control (VAP-prevention-bundle, early-extubation policy, antimicrobial stewardship rounds

2018 Frontiers in pediatrics

15. Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated From Neonates With Sepsis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated From Neonates With Sepsis Introduction:Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important infectious agents in neonates. There are "classic" and hypervirulent strains of K. pneumoniae. The "classic" non-virulent strain of K. pneumoniae, producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), is associated with nosocomial infections. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains are associated with invasive infections (...) in previously healthy adult people, and most of them exhibit antimicrobial susceptibility. The role of virulent strains of K. pneumoniae (including hv-KP) in neonatal infections is unknown. The aim of the study was the assessment of the impact of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of K. pneumoniae strains on clinical features and outcomes of neonatal infection. Materials and Methods: Two groups of infants were enrolled. The first group consisted of 10 neonates with sepsis caused by K. pneumoniae

2018 Frontiers in medicine

16. Transmission Risk on a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Escherichia coli versus Klebsiella pneumoniae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transmission Risk on a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Escherichia coli versus Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolation precautions required for neonatal intensive care units are part of a bundle with the aim to prevent transmission, colonization, and infection with multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens as neonates face an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in case of infection. The following short report describes a transmission of 3MDRGN Klebsiella pneumoniae on a neonatal intensive care

2018 The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien des Maladies Infectieuses et de la Microbiologie Médicale

17. Transmission Dynamics of Hyper-Endemic Multi-Drug Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Southeast Asian Neonatal Unit: A Longitudinal Study With Whole Genome Sequencing Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transmission Dynamics of Hyper-Endemic Multi-Drug Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Southeast Asian Neonatal Unit: A Longitudinal Study With Whole Genome Sequencing Background:Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important and increasing cause of life-threatening disease in hospitalized neonates. Third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GC-R) is frequently a marker of multi-drug resistance, and can complicate management of infections. 3GC-R K. pneumoniae is hyper-endemic in many developing country (...) settings, but its epidemiology is poorly understood and prospective studies of endemic transmission are lacking. We aimed to determine the transmission dynamics of 3GC-R K. pneumoniae in a newly opened neonatal unit (NU) in Cambodia and to address the following questions: what is the diversity of 3GC-R K. pneumoniae both within- and between-host; to what extent is high carriage prevalence driven by ward-based transmission; and to what extent can environmental contamination explain patterns of patient

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

18. Antibiotic use for community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children: WHO evidence review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic use for community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children: WHO evidence review Background Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children worldwide, accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age. This review summarises the evidence for the empirical antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children and puts emphasis on publications since the release of the previous WHO Evidence Summary report published in 2014. Methods (...) A systematic search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was conducted between 1 January 2013 and 10 November 2016. Results The optimal dosing recommendation for amoxicillin remains unclear with limited pharmacological and clinical evidence. There is limited evidence from surveillance to indicate whether amoxicillin or broader spectrum antibiotics (e.g. third-generation cephalosporins) are being used most commonly for paediatric CAP in different

2018 Paediatrics and international child health

19. Factors associated with neonatal pneumonia in India: protocol for a systematic review and planned meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors associated with neonatal pneumonia in India: protocol for a systematic review and planned meta-analysis. India accounts for more neonatal deaths than any other country. There is a lack of consolidated evidence from India regarding the determining factors of pneumonia in neonates. This systematic review is aimed to consolidate and appraise the evidence on risk factors and determinants of pneumonia among neonates in India.This protocol is part of a project consisting of three reviews (two (...) systematic reviews and one scoping review) and a qualitative study on neonatal pneumonia in India. English language observational studies which report risk factors and determinants of neonatal pneumonia in India will be eligible for inclusion. Electronic searching of nine databases, and hand searching will be done. Two authors will independently conduct screening (title, abstract and full-text stages), extract data and assess risk of bias. A meta-analysis is planned to be performed with random-effects

2018 BMJ open

20. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiologic Characteristics of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection/Colonization among Neonates in China. (Abstract)

Clinical and Molecular Epidemiologic Characteristics of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection/Colonization among Neonates in China. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KPN) is a major concern, but data on CR-KPN infection/colonization in paediatric populations are limited.To analyse epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, and therapeutic options for CR-KPN infections in neonates in China.A retrospective study was performed at the Children's Hospital (...) of Fudan University, including 88 neonates with CR-KPN admitted between November 2015 and October 2016. Forty-seven CR-KPN isolates were chosen at random for further study, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing, potential β-lactamase screening and homology analysis.In total, 44.3% (39/88) of the neonates with CR-KPN were infected, and 71.8% (28/39) were nosocomial infections. Of these, pneumonia and urinary tract infection accounted for 50.0% (14/28) and 42.9% (12/28), respectively. All

2018 Journal of Hospital Infection

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