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Neonatal Chlamydia Pneumonia

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1. Neonatal Chlamydia Pneumonia

Neonatal Chlamydia Pneumonia Aka: Neonatal Chlamydia Pneumonia II. Epidemiology : 12,000 cases per year in United States Occurs in <10% of vaginal deliveries from mothers with active genitourinary III. Pathophysiology infection in the newborn acquired via vertical transmission during delivery from a mother with chlamydia Not the same as the of ( ) seen in the elderly and to a lesser extent in young adults IV. Symptoms: Onset 1-3 months after delivery Staccato cough (coughing in short bursts) No fever V (...) Database) Ontology: Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia (C0339960) Concepts Disease or Syndrome ( T047 ) SnomedCT 233610007 English Neonatal chlam lung infection , Neonatal chlam pneumonitis , neonatal pneumonia chlamydial , Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia (diagnosis) , Neonatal chlamydial lung infection , Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia , Neonatal chlamydial pneumonitis , Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia (disorder) , pneumonia; chlamydial, neonatal Dutch pneumonie; Chlamydia, neonataal Spanish infección pulmonar

2018 FP Notebook

2. Care around stillbirth and neonatal death

and the NHMRC Stillbirth Centre of Research Excellence in Stillbirth. For further assistance and clarification in this section of the PSANZ Clinical Practice Guideline for Care Around Stillbirth and Neonatal Death, see Appendices A – Y. Objective of the guideline The overarching objective of the PSANZ Clinical Practice Guideline for Care Around Stillbirth and Neonatal Death is to ensure best practice across Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) around the time of a perinatal death to improve maternity and newborn (...) in the medical record by obstetric staff. A comprehensive neonatal history including death scene analysis is always required. 2 A detailed external examination of the baby must be performed by a perinatal pathologist, neonatologist or paediatrician where possible. (Please see Appendix D – Clinical examination of baby checklist). 3 Accurate anthropometric parameters of birth weight, length and head circumference plotted on appropriate gender specific birth growth charts. 4 A newborn screening blood sample

2019 Centre of Research Excellence in Stillbirth

3. Overview of pneumonia

resulting in death. Treatment is mainly supportive. Atypical bacterial pneumonia is caused by atypical organisms that are not detectable on Gram stain and cannot be cultured using standard methods. The most common organisms are Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Chlamydophila pneumoniae ( Chlamydia pneumoniae ), and Legionella pneumophila . Waites KB, Talkington DF. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its role as a human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:697-728. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15489344?tool (...) respiratory illness. Occurs mainly in children and young adults, and is often seen in close community settings (e.g., boarding schools, army bases, and universities). Chlamydia pneumoniae is a frequent respiratory pathogen in humans that occurs worldwide and in all age groups. It is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia due to C pneumoniae cannot be differentiated clinically from other atypical pneumonia-causing organisms, especially Mycoplasma pneumoniae . Hammerschlag MR. Pneumonia

2018 BMJ Best Practice

4. Neonatal Chlamydia Pneumonia

Neonatal Chlamydia Pneumonia Aka: Neonatal Chlamydia Pneumonia II. Epidemiology : 12,000 cases per year in United States Occurs in <10% of vaginal deliveries from mothers with active genitourinary III. Pathophysiology infection in the newborn acquired via vertical transmission during delivery from a mother with chlamydia Not the same as the of ( ) seen in the elderly and to a lesser extent in young adults IV. Symptoms: Onset 1-3 months after delivery Staccato cough (coughing in short bursts) No fever V (...) Database) Ontology: Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia (C0339960) Concepts Disease or Syndrome ( T047 ) SnomedCT 233610007 English Neonatal chlam lung infection , Neonatal chlam pneumonitis , neonatal pneumonia chlamydial , Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia (diagnosis) , Neonatal chlamydial lung infection , Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia , Neonatal chlamydial pneumonitis , Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia (disorder) , pneumonia; chlamydial, neonatal Dutch pneumonie; Chlamydia, neonataal Spanish infección pulmonar

2015 FP Notebook

5. Public health guidance on chlamydia control in Europe

be transmitted from mother to baby during labour leading to disease in the neonate. Early clinical studies demonstrated that treating chlamydia reduced women’s risk of pelvic inflammatory disease [7-9]. Ecological studies from the 1990s reported a decline in the hospitalisation rates for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ectopic pregnancy following the introduction of chlamydia control [10-12]. This led many settings to introduce widespread chlamydia testing for asymptomatic people [4]. The rationale (...) Public health guidance on chlamydia control in Europe SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Guidance on chlamydia control in Europe 2015 www.ecdc.europa.eu SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Guidance on chlamydia control in Europe 2015 ii This guidance document was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and coordinated by Otilia Mårdh and Andrew J. Amato-Gauci. Technical input was received from Gianfranco Spiteri and Helena de Carvalho Gomes. This guidance document was written by Bethan

2016 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

6. UK National Guidelines on the Management of infection with Chlamydia Trachomatis

are ophthalmia neonatorum and pneumonia. Transmission to the neonate is by direct contact with the infected maternal genital tract and infection may involve the eyes, oropharynx, urogenital tract or rectum. 147 Infection may be asymptomatic. Conjunctivitis generally develops 5-12 days after birth and pneumonia between the ages of 1 and 3 months. Neonatal chlamydial infection is much less common nowadays because of increased screening and treatment of pregnant women. However chlamydial infection should (...) Helens, UK 10. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Clinical Effectiveness Group, London, UK New in the 2015 Guidelines Use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and point of care testing Advice on repeat chlamydia testing Discussion of adequacy of single dose azithromycin treatment Treatment of individuals co-infected with chlamydia and gonorrhoea Treatment of rectal chlamydia Vertical transmission and management of the neonate 3 Introduction and Methodology Scope and purpose

2015 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

7. Klebsiella pneumonia: An unusual cause of ophthalmia neonatorum in a healthy newborn. (Abstract)

Klebsiella pneumonia: An unusual cause of ophthalmia neonatorum in a healthy newborn. Ophthalmia neonatorum is one of the most common infections during the neonatal period. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea must be ruled out, given their high virulence and systemic complications. We describe a case of ophthalmia neonatroum from Klebsiella pneumonia. Gram-negative organisms have been reported in hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC), but we are unaware of any published reports of K (...) . pneumonia conjunctivitis in an otherwise healthy full-term infant born in the United States who has received prophylaxis. It is important to promptly identify and treat Klebsiella conjunctivitis because it can lead to severe complications. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2015 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

8. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: Screening

, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain. Newborns of women with untreated infection may develop neonatal chlamydial pneumonia or gonococcal or chlamydial ophthalmia. Infection may lead to symptomatic urethritis and epididymitis in men, although gonorrhea is more likely than chlamydia to be symptomatic in men compared with women. Both types of infection may facilitate HIV transmission , , . Detection The USPSTF found convincing evidence that screening tests can accurately detect chlamydia. The USPSTF also (...) after treatment is recommended. Pregnant women diagnosed with a chlamydial or gonococcal infection in the first trimester should be retested 3 months after treatment. Gonococcal neonatal ophthalmia, which can be transmitted from an untreated woman to her newborn, may be prevented with routine topical prophylaxis at delivery. However, prevention of chlamydial neonatal pneumonia and ophthalmia requires prenatal detection and treatment. Suggestions for Practice Regarding the I Statement Potential

2014 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

9. Treatment and Recommendations for Homeless Patients with Chlamydial or Gonococcal Infections

history of mother Ask mother about her sexual behaviors and partner(s) in a nonjudgmental way. ? Access to care Inquire about parental/partner treatment for STIs. ? Prenatal/neonatal care Ask mother how many prenatal care visits she had and where child was delivered. Physical Examination ? Confine interview to history. Defer physical exam; refer to pediatric specialist with expertise in evidentiary and post-assault evaluation. Diagnostic Tests For chlamydial/gonococcal conjunctivitis or pneumonia (...) . ADAPTING YOUR PRACTICE Treatment & Recommendations for Homeless Patients with Chlamydial/Gonococcal Infections Health Care for the Homeless Clinicians’ Network 7 Table of Contents Summary of recommended practice adaptations 9 Introduction 14 CHLAMYDIAL OR GONOCOCCAL INFECTIONS IN ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS Case Study: Homeless Adolescent with Chlamydia 18 Case Study: Homeless Young Adult with Gonorrhea 19 Diagnosis and Evaluation History 20 Physical examination 21 Diagnostic tests 22 Plan and Management

2013 National Health Care for the Homeless Council

10. Chlamydial Pneumonias (Overview)

27, 2015 Author: Yuji Oba, MD, FCCP; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Chlamydial Pneumonias Overview Overview Three chlamydial organisms are pathogenic to humans: Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydia trachomatis . These are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular organisms. All three species can cause pneumonia in humans. C pneumoniae causes mild pneumonia or bronchitis in adolescents and young adults (...) . The tendency to chronic inflammation is typical, and chronic persistent infection may occur if a neonatal infection remains untreated. Immunity to chlamydial organisms is usually not persistent, leading to repeated and chronic infections, particularly in the ocular and urogenital systems. Previous Next: Epidemiology The incidence and prevalence of the chlamydial pneumonias vary with the causative organism. C pneumoniae pneumonia Accurate epidemiologic data on C pneumoniae is limited due to multiple factors

2014 eMedicine.com

11. Chlamydial Pneumonias (Treatment)

27, 2015 Author: Yuji Oba, MD, FCCP; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Chlamydial Pneumonias Overview Overview Three chlamydial organisms are pathogenic to humans: Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydia trachomatis . These are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular organisms. All three species can cause pneumonia in humans. C pneumoniae causes mild pneumonia or bronchitis in adolescents and young adults (...) . The tendency to chronic inflammation is typical, and chronic persistent infection may occur if a neonatal infection remains untreated. Immunity to chlamydial organisms is usually not persistent, leading to repeated and chronic infections, particularly in the ocular and urogenital systems. Previous Next: Epidemiology The incidence and prevalence of the chlamydial pneumonias vary with the causative organism. C pneumoniae pneumonia Accurate epidemiologic data on C pneumoniae is limited due to multiple factors

2014 eMedicine.com

12. Chlamydial Pneumonias (Follow-up)

27, 2015 Author: Yuji Oba, MD, FCCP; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Chlamydial Pneumonias Overview Overview Three chlamydial organisms are pathogenic to humans: Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydia trachomatis . These are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular organisms. All three species can cause pneumonia in humans. C pneumoniae causes mild pneumonia or bronchitis in adolescents and young adults (...) . The tendency to chronic inflammation is typical, and chronic persistent infection may occur if a neonatal infection remains untreated. Immunity to chlamydial organisms is usually not persistent, leading to repeated and chronic infections, particularly in the ocular and urogenital systems. Previous Next: Epidemiology The incidence and prevalence of the chlamydial pneumonias vary with the causative organism. C pneumoniae pneumonia Accurate epidemiologic data on C pneumoniae is limited due to multiple factors

2014 eMedicine.com

13. Chlamydial Pneumonias (Diagnosis)

27, 2015 Author: Yuji Oba, MD, FCCP; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Chlamydial Pneumonias Overview Overview Three chlamydial organisms are pathogenic to humans: Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydia trachomatis . These are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular organisms. All three species can cause pneumonia in humans. C pneumoniae causes mild pneumonia or bronchitis in adolescents and young adults (...) . The tendency to chronic inflammation is typical, and chronic persistent infection may occur if a neonatal infection remains untreated. Immunity to chlamydial organisms is usually not persistent, leading to repeated and chronic infections, particularly in the ocular and urogenital systems. Previous Next: Epidemiology The incidence and prevalence of the chlamydial pneumonias vary with the causative organism. C pneumoniae pneumonia Accurate epidemiologic data on C pneumoniae is limited due to multiple factors

2014 eMedicine.com

14. Chlamydial pneumonia and human sexuality. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chlamydial pneumonia and human sexuality. 581749 1979 05 26 2018 11 13 0008-4409 119 10 1978 Nov 18 Canadian Medical Association journal Can Med Assoc J Chlamydial pneumonia and human sexuality. 1153-4 Goldbloom R B RB eng Editorial Canada Can Med Assoc J 0414110 0008-4409 AIM IM Adult Chlamydia Infections transmission Chlamydia trachomatis Female Humans Infant Infant, Newborn Infant, Newborn, Diseases etiology Male Pneumonia etiology Pregnancy Pregnancy Complications, Infectious transmission

1978 Canadian Medical Association Journal

15. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia Full Text available with Trip Pro

literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited (...) Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current

2016 BioMed research international

16. Prevention of bacterial infections in the newborn by pre-delivery administration of azithromycin: Study protocol of a randomized efficacy trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevention of bacterial infections in the newborn by pre-delivery administration of azithromycin: Study protocol of a randomized efficacy trial. Neonatal deaths, estimated at approximately 4 million annually, now account for almost 40% of global mortality in children aged under-five. Bacterial sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Assuming the mother is the main source for bacterial transmission to newborns, the primary objective of the trial is to determine the impact of one oral (...) from the study samples. For bacterial isolates, susceptibility pattern to azithromycin was determined using disk diffusion and E-test. Eye swabs were collected from newborns with eye discharge during the follow up period, and Chlamydial infection was assessed using molecular methods.This is a proof-of-concept study to assess the impact of antibiotic preventive treatment of women during labour on bacterial infections in the newborn. If the trial confirms this hypothesis, the next step

2015 BMC pregnancy and childbirth Controlled trial quality: predicted high

17. Conjunctivitis, Neonatal (Treatment)

results are available; the treatment is altered according to the laboratory results. In cases of chlamydial conjunctivitis, systemic treatment is necessary because of the significant risk for life-threatening pneumonia. Infants with a potentially sexually transmitted disease, such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, should undergo evaluation for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis and HIV, [ ] as should the mother and her sexual partner(s). Newborns with conjunctivitis are at risk (...) erythromycin therapy is approximately 80%, a second course sometimes is required. Systemic treatment is important in cases of chlamydial conjunctivitis since topical therapy is ineffective in eradicating the bacteria in the nasopharynx of the infant, which could cause a life-threatening pneumonia if left untreated. Previous Next: Treatment of Neonatal Herpetic Conjunctivitis Neonates with a suspected herpes simplex infection should be treated with systemic acyclovir to reduce the risk of a systemic

2014 eMedicine.com

18. Conjunctivitis, Neonatal (Overview)

the , as well as . Next: Etiology The etiology of neonatal conjunctivitis can be chemical or microbial. Although several noninfectious and infectious agents can inflame the conjunctiva, the most common causes of neonatal conjunctivitis are silver nitrate solution and chlamydial, gonococcal, staphylococcal, and herpetic infections. Silver nitrate solution Crede's method of instilling a drop of 2% aqueous solution of silver nitrate into a newborn's eyes was first published in 1881 and significantly advanced (...) the prevention of neonatal conjunctivitis. [ ] Silver nitrate is a surface-active chemical that facilitates agglutination and inactivation of gonococci. Ironically, silver nitrate was later found to be toxic to the conjunctiva, particularly in higher concentrations, potentially causing a sterile neonatal conjunctivitis. Chlamydial conjunctivitis Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular parasite and has been identified as the most common infectious cause of neonatal conjunctivitis. [ ] The reservoir

2014 eMedicine.com

19. Conjunctivitis, Neonatal (Follow-up)

results are available; the treatment is altered according to the laboratory results. In cases of chlamydial conjunctivitis, systemic treatment is necessary because of the significant risk for life-threatening pneumonia. Infants with a potentially sexually transmitted disease, such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, should undergo evaluation for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis and HIV, [ ] as should the mother and her sexual partner(s). Newborns with conjunctivitis are at risk (...) erythromycin therapy is approximately 80%, a second course sometimes is required. Systemic treatment is important in cases of chlamydial conjunctivitis since topical therapy is ineffective in eradicating the bacteria in the nasopharynx of the infant, which could cause a life-threatening pneumonia if left untreated. Previous Next: Treatment of Neonatal Herpetic Conjunctivitis Neonates with a suspected herpes simplex infection should be treated with systemic acyclovir to reduce the risk of a systemic

2014 eMedicine.com

20. Conjunctivitis, Neonatal (Diagnosis)

information, see the , as well as . Next: Etiology The etiology of neonatal conjunctivitis can be chemical or microbial. Although several noninfectious and infectious agents can inflame the conjunctiva, the most common causes of neonatal conjunctivitis are silver nitrate solution and chlamydial, gonococcal, staphylococcal, and herpetic infections. Silver nitrate solution Crede's method of instilling a drop of 2% aqueous solution of silver nitrate into a newborn's eyes was first published in 1881 (...) and significantly advanced the prevention of neonatal conjunctivitis. [ ] Silver nitrate is a surface-active chemical that facilitates agglutination and inactivation of gonococci. Ironically, silver nitrate was later found to be toxic to the conjunctiva, particularly in higher concentrations, potentially causing a sterile neonatal conjunctivitis. Chlamydial conjunctivitis Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular parasite and has been identified as the most common infectious cause of neonatal

2014 eMedicine.com

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