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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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101. Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the main driver of the rise in non-tuberculous mycobacteria incidence in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2007-2012. (PubMed)

Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the main driver of the rise in non-tuberculous mycobacteria incidence in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2007-2012. The incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation from humans is increasing worldwide. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EW&NI) the reported rate of NTM more than doubled between 1996 and 2006. Although NTM infection has traditionally been associated with immunosuppressed individuals or those with severe (...) culture positive isolates. Over the study period the incidence rose from 5.6/100,000 in 2007 to 7.6/100,000 in 2012 (p < 0.001). Of those with a known specimen type, 90 % were pulmonary, in whom incidence increased from 4.0/100,000 to 6.1/100,000 (p < 0.001). In extra-pulmonary specimens this fell from 0.6/100,000 to 0.4/100,000 (p < 0.001). The most frequently cultured organisms from individuals with pulmonary isolates were within the M. avium-intracellulare complex family (MAC). The incidence

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2016 BMC Infectious Diseases

102. Overexpression of RORγt Enhances Pulmonary Inflammation after Infection with Mycobacterium Avium (PubMed)

Overexpression of RORγt Enhances Pulmonary Inflammation after Infection with Mycobacterium Avium Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most common cause of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in humans. The role of Th17 immunity in the pathogenesis of intracellular bacteria, such as MAC, is not currently understood. Transcription factor RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) is known as the master regulator for Th17 cell development. Here, we investigated the role of RORγt in host

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2016 PloS one

103. Mycobacterium avium MAV2054 protein induces macrophage apoptosis by targeting mitochondria and reduces intracellular bacterial growth (PubMed)

Mycobacterium avium MAV2054 protein induces macrophage apoptosis by targeting mitochondria and reduces intracellular bacterial growth Mycobacterium avium complex induces macrophage apoptosis. However, the M. avium components that inhibit or trigger apoptosis and their regulating mechanisms remain unclear. We recently identified the immunodominant MAV2054 protein by fractionating M. avium culture filtrate protein by multistep chromatography; this protein showed strong immuno-reactivity in M (...) . avium complex pulmonary disease and in patients with tuberculosis. Here, we investigated the biological effects of MAV2054 on murine macrophages. Recombinant MAV2054 induced caspase-dependent macrophage apoptosis. Enhanced reactive oxygen species production and JNK activation were essential for MAV2054-mediated apoptosis and MAV2054-induced interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production. MAV2054 was targeted to the mitochondrial compartment of macrophages

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2016 Scientific reports

104. Mycobacterium avium Infection of Nasal Septum in a Diabetic Adult: A Case Report (PubMed)

Mycobacterium avium Infection of Nasal Septum in a Diabetic Adult: A Case Report Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is primarily a pulmonary pathogen that affects individuals who are immune deficient or immunocompromised. In this report, we describe a very rare case of MAC infection clinically presenting as a nasal polyp in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This case illustrates an atypical anatomic location for MAC, the anterior nasal septum in nasal cavity, as well as often overlooked

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2016 Head and neck pathology

105. Seroreactivity against Specific L5P Antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Children at Risk for T1D (PubMed)

Seroreactivity against Specific L5P Antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Children at Risk for T1D Although numerous environmental agents have been investigated over the years as possible triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D), its causes remain unclear. We have already demonstrated an increased prevalence of antibodies against peptides derived from Mycobacterium avuim subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) homologous to human zinc transporter 8 protein (ZnT8) and proinsulin in Italian (...) with a stable immunity against MAP antigens. The overall coincidence in positivity to L5P and the four MAP epitopes both in children at risk for T1D and HC exceeded 90%.MAP-derived homologs may cross-react with ZnT8 and proinsulin peptides inducing immune responses at a young age in subjects predisposed for T1D. Thus, L5P may have a diagnostic value to immediately indicate the presence of anti-MAP seroreactivity when evaluation of a more complex antibody status is not required. Almost complete coincidence

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2016 PloS one

106. Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection demonstrating unusual lobar caseous pneumonia (PubMed)

Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection demonstrating unusual lobar caseous pneumonia Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a major medical concern in Japan because of its increased prevalence and associated mortality. A common radiological feature in pulmonary MAC infection is a mixture of two basic patterns: fibrocavitary and nodular bronchiectatic; however, lobar consolidation is rare. We report an 83-year-old man with lobar caseous pneumonia caused by pulmonary MAC infection (...) . Radiological findings were predominantly composed of dense lobar consolidation and ground-glass opacity. A diagnosis was made in accordance with the clinical and microbiological criteria set by the American Thoracic Society. A histological examination of lung specimens obtained by using a bronchoscope revealed a caseous granulomatous inflammation with an appearance of Langhans cells. The patient was treated using combined mycobacterium chemotherapy with an initial positive response for 6 months; however

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2016 Respirology case reports

107. Characteristics of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease diagnosed later in follow-up after negative mycobacterial study including bronchoscopy. (PubMed)

Characteristics of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease diagnosed later in follow-up after negative mycobacterial study including bronchoscopy. We occasionally experience cases suspected of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease without positive bacterial cultures.To evaluate features of pulmonary MAC cases diagnosed later in the follow-up after negative intensive investigation.We defined and compared three groups; the first study negative (FSN) group, the first study

2015 Respiratory medicine

108. Clinical efficacy of anti-glycopeptidolipid-core IgA test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in lung. (PubMed)

Clinical efficacy of anti-glycopeptidolipid-core IgA test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in lung. It is difficult to verify the bacteriological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody test was recently developed as a diagnostic method for MAC pulmonary disease. Only a few studies evaluate its clinical efficacy. We conducted retrospective evaluations of clinical characteristics of patients suspected of MAC

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2015 Respirology

109. Assessing primary and secondary resistance to clarithromycin and amikacin in infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex. (PubMed)

Assessing primary and secondary resistance to clarithromycin and amikacin in infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex. 26324275 2016 08 04 2018 11 13 1098-6596 59 11 2015 Nov Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. Assessing primary and secondary resistance to clarithromycin and amikacin in infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex. 7153-5 10.1128/AAC.01027-15 Renvoisé Aurélie A Centre National de Référence des Mycobactéries et de la Résistance des (...) Clarithromycin IM Amikacin pharmacology Anti-Bacterial Agents pharmacology Clarithromycin pharmacology Drug Resistance, Bacterial genetics Microbial Sensitivity Tests Mycobacterium avium Complex drug effects genetics 2015 9 2 6 0 2015 9 2 6 0 2016 8 5 6 0 ppublish 26324275 AAC.01027-15 10.1128/AAC.01027-15 PMC4604394 Tuber Lung Dis. 2000;80(1):1-4 10897378 Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2002 Dec;2(4):355-70 12570741 J Antimicrob Chemother. 1995 Jul;36(1):129-36 8537260 Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb

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2015 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

110. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus. (PubMed)

Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus. © 2015 Asian

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2015 Respirology

111. Proton MRI for Initial Assessment of Isolated Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) Pneumonia. (PubMed)

Proton MRI for Initial Assessment of Isolated Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) Pneumonia. Computed tomographic (CT) radiography is the reference standard for imaging Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung infection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be comparable to CT for characterizing other pulmonary inflammatory conditions, but has not been rigorously tested for imaging MAC pneumonia.To determine the feasibility of pulmonary MRI for imaging MAC pneumonia and to assess

2015 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

112. Successful resumption of tocilizumab for rheumatoid arthritis after resection of a pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex lesion: a case report. (PubMed)

Successful resumption of tocilizumab for rheumatoid arthritis after resection of a pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex lesion: a case report. Biological agents inhibiting TNF-α and other molecules involved in inflammatory cascade have been increasingly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it remains controversial whether biological agents can be used safely in a patient with an underlying chronic infectious disease.A 63-year-old woman who had been treated with tocilizumab (TCZ (...) ), anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, for RA presented to our outpatient clinic due to hemoptysis. She was diagnosed with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed a single cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe. After diagnosis of pulmonary MAC disease, TCZ was discontinued and combination chemotherapy with clarithromycin, rifampicin, ethambutol and amikacin was started for MAC pulmonary disease. Since the lesion was limited

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2015 BMC pulmonary medicine

113. Long Term Follow Up Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex Lung Disease In Patients Treated With Regimens Including Clofazimine and/or Rifampin. (PubMed)

Long Term Follow Up Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex Lung Disease In Patients Treated With Regimens Including Clofazimine and/or Rifampin. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease requires prolonged treatment with multiple antibiotics. Drug intolerances and interactions are common with the current recommended treatment. There is limited information on outcomes with alternative medications.Retrospective review including adult patients with MAC lung disease who were treated and monitored

2015 Chest

114. Mycobacterium avium Complex Osteomyelitis in Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Case Series and Literature Review (PubMed)

Mycobacterium avium Complex Osteomyelitis in Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Case Series and Literature Review In persons with advanced immunosuppression, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) typically causes disseminated disease with systemic symptoms. We report 2 cases in which MAC caused localized osteomyelitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy with rising CD4 counts. We summarize 17 additional cases of HIV-associated MAC

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2015 Open forum infectious diseases

115. Characterization of mouse models of Mycobacterium avium complex infection and evaluation of drug combinations. (PubMed)

Characterization of mouse models of Mycobacterium avium complex infection and evaluation of drug combinations. The Mycobacterium avium complex is the most common cause of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease worldwide; yet, an optimal treatment regimen for M. avium complex infection has not been established. Clarithromycin is accepted as the cornerstone drug for treatment of M. avium lung disease; however, good model systems, especially animal models, are needed to evaluate the most (...) effective companion drugs. We performed a series of experiments to evaluate and use different mouse models (comparing BALB/c, C57BL/6, nude, and beige mice) of M. avium infection and to assess the anti-M. avium activity of single and combination drug regimens, in vitro, ex vivo, and in mice. In vitro, clarithromycin and moxifloxacin were most active against M. avium, and no antagonism was observed between these two drugs. Nude mice were more susceptible to M. avium infection than the other mouse strains

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2015 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

116. Variable agreement among experts regarding Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. (PubMed)

Variable agreement among experts regarding Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Data regarding many clinical aspects of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) are lacking. Guidelines rely substantially upon expert opinion, integrated through face-to-face meetings, variably weighting individual opinions. We surveyed North American non-tuberculous mycobacteria experts regarding clinical aspects of pMAC using Delphi methods. Nineteen of 26 invited experts (73%) responded, with extensive

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2015 Respirology

117. Opinions differ by expertise in Mycobacterium avium complex disease. (PubMed)

Opinions differ by expertise in Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex treatment guidelines rely largely on expert opinion. The extent to which nonexperts agree with recommendations of experts in this clinical area is unknown.We sought to compare practices and perceptions of prognosis between experts and nonexperts.We surveyed respirologists (Ontario, Canada, "nonexperts") and experts from nontuberculous mycobacterial disease centers of excellence (Canada

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2014 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

118. Efficacy of clarithromycin and ethambutol for Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. A preliminary study. (PubMed)

Efficacy of clarithromycin and ethambutol for Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. A preliminary study. Patients with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease are frequently administered a combination of clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin. However, rifampicin is known to reduce the serum levels of clarithromycin. It remains unclear whether a reduction in clarithromycin serum levels influences the clinical outcome of the Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (...) treatment regimen.To compare a three-drug regimen (clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin) to a two-drug regimen (clarithromycin and ethambutol) for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium lung disease.In a preliminary open-label study, we randomly assigned newly diagnosed, but as-yet untreated, patients with disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex without HIV infection to either the three-drug or the two-drug regimen for 12 months. The primary endpoint was the conversion of sputum cultures

2014 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

119. Monotherapy With Erythromycin for Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease. (PubMed)

Monotherapy With Erythromycin for Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease.

2014 Chest

120. Efficacy of Clarithromycin and Ethambutol for Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease. A Preliminary Study. (PubMed)

Efficacy of Clarithromycin and Ethambutol for Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease. A Preliminary Study. Patients with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease are frequently administered a combination of clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin. However, rifampicin is known to reduce the serum levels of clarithromycin. It remains unclear whether a reduction in clarithromycin serum levels influences the clinical outcome of the Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (...) treatment regimen.To compare a three-drug regimen (clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin) to a two-drug regimen (clarithromycin and ethambutol) for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium lung disease.In a preliminary open-label study, we randomly assigned newly diagnosed, but as-yet untreated, patients with disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex without HIV infection to either the three-drug or the two-drug regimen for 12 months. The primary endpoint was the conversion of sputum cultures

2014 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

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