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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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1161. Low-dose dexamethasone as adjunctive therapy for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infections in AIDS patients. (Full text)

Low-dose dexamethasone as adjunctive therapy for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infections in AIDS patients. Five human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection had progressive weight loss and persistent fever despite multidrug antimycobacterial therapy. These patients were given daily low-dose oral dexamethasone (typically 2 mg/day) as adjunctive therapy. All had substantial and sustained weight gain (12 to 50% of pre-steroid (...) treatment body weight [P < 0.03]), reduction in fever, and an improved sense of well-being. The serum albumin level increased during dexamethasone therapy (from 3.06 +/- 0.59 g/dl [mean +/- standard deviation] to 3.9 +/- 0.22 g/dl [P < 0.01]), while the serum alkaline phosphatase level fell (from 368 +/- 247 U/liter to 128 +/- 43.6 U/liter [P < 0.04]). Further studies of the potential role for corticosteroids in the management of disseminated M. avium complex infections in human immunodeficiency virus

1994 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

1162. Morphological changes induced by beta-lactam antibiotics in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. (Full text)

Morphological changes induced by beta-lactam antibiotics in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. In vitro activity of seven beta-lactam antibiotics against strains of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare was evaluated by the agar dilution method. The activity was influenced by the presence or absence of Tween 80 in Dubos medium, and cephazolin and cefotaxime were effective against most strains in the presence of Tween 80. beta-Lactam antibiotics at low concentrations induced long

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

1163. In vitro activities of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium complex, M. chelonei, M. fortuitum, and M. kansasii. (Full text)

In vitro activities of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium complex, M. chelonei, M. fortuitum, and M. kansasii. The activities of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin against 100 mycobacteria isolates were studied in vitro by the 1% standard proportion method. Ciprofloxacin was more active against M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum with MICs of 1.0 and 0.25 microgram/ml, respectively, against 90% of isolates; norfloxacin had MICs of 8.0 and 2.0 micrograms/ml

1984 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

1164. Determination of ansamycin MICs for Mycobacterium avium complex in liquid medium by radiometric and conventional methods. (Full text)

Determination of ansamycin MICs for Mycobacterium avium complex in liquid medium by radiometric and conventional methods. A radiometric method to determine the MIC of ansamycin (LM427) for Mycobacterium avium complex clinical isolates has been developed. It is based on a comparison of the conventional growth curve determination and the radiometric detection of growth (growth index) in the same liquid medium (7H12 broth). This new method requires less time and labor than does a conventional

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

1165. In vitro synergistic activity of ethambutol, isoniazid, kanamycin, rifampin, and streptomycin against Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. (Full text)

In vitro synergistic activity of ethambutol, isoniazid, kanamycin, rifampin, and streptomycin against Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Strains of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex often exhibit in vitro resistance to common antimycobacterial agents. Combinations of etambutol, isoniazid, kanamycin, rifampin, and streptomycin were tested to determine if synergism occurred. Ninety-six percent of the strains were susceptible to a combination of ethambutol and rifampin

1982 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

1166. Therapeutic implications of inhibition versus killing of Mycobacterium avium complex by antimicrobial agents. (Full text)

Therapeutic implications of inhibition versus killing of Mycobacterium avium complex by antimicrobial agents. Patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection have responded poorly to treatment with rifabutine (Ansamycin) and clofazimine, in spite of the good in vitro response of M. avium to these antimicrobial agents. We compared the ability of these and other antimicrobial agents to kill versus the ability to inhibit the growth (...) of strains of the M. avium complex isolated from patients with AIDS. Killing curve experiments showed that the concentrations of rifabutine and clofazimine needed to kill two log units of M. avium are at least 32 times greater than the concentrations needed to inhibit growth. Little or no killing occurred at concentrations of these antimicrobial agents that are achievable in serum. In contrast, five of seven strains tested were killed by ciprofloxacin at concentrations that can be achieved in serum

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

1167. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates to antimycobacterial agents by various methods. (Full text)

Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates to antimycobacterial agents by various methods. Various methods were used to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Our results confirm the noted resistance of the M. avium complex to conventional antituberculosis agents. The procedures used were both agar dilution and broth dilution, including a commercially (...) for determining the in vitro susceptibility of the M. avium complex, and appropriate clinical correlation studies are needed to accurately assess the clinical relevance of any in vitro result.

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

1168. Treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex lung disease with a macrolide, ethambutol, and clofazimine. (Abstract)

Treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex lung disease with a macrolide, ethambutol, and clofazimine. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAC) causes progressive lung disease. Recommended treatment regimens include a macrolide and a rifamycin, but drug intolerance and relapse after treatment is completed often limit successful therapy.Consecutive individuals referred for treatment of MAC lung disease were treated with a regimen that included either clarithromycin, 500 mg bid

2003 Chest

1169. Radiology of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. (Abstract)

Radiology of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Although the radiographic appearance of pulmonary MAC infection in the immunocompetent host can be varied, there are several generalizations that can be made. The classic radiographic appearance is indistinguishable from that of pulmonary tuberculosis. The classic form is seen most commonly in males and is typically associated with other predisposing diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most patients have

2002 Clinics in Chest Medicine

1170. Medical management of pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. (Abstract)

Medical management of pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The current medical therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex is controversial. American Thoracic Society recommendations advocate empiric therapy with drug susceptibility testing only for clarithromycin. At National Jewish, where we mainly see cases complicated by treatment failure and drug intolerance, we use in vitro susceptibility testing and therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize efficacy and reduce toxicity.

2002 Clinics in Chest Medicine

1171. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in patients with pre-existing lung disease. (Abstract)

Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in patients with pre-existing lung disease. Patients with MAC-PD and pre-existing lung disease are a distinct group from the more common and recently recognized group of predominantly middle- to older-aged women without pre-existing lung disease. Those with pre-existing disease are expected to have more sputum positivity and slower conversion of sputum with treatment, and they may require combined medical treatment with surgical resection

2002 Clinics in Chest Medicine

1172. Serodiagnosis of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex with an enzyme immunoassay that uses a mixture of glycopeptidolipid antigens. (Full text)

Serodiagnosis of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex with an enzyme immunoassay that uses a mixture of glycopeptidolipid antigens. It is difficult to distinguish pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) from that due to other mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii. We developed an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for diagnosis of MAC pulmonary diseases that uses glycopeptidolipid (GPL) antigens specific for MAC, and we used

2002 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

1173. Isolated pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case reports and literature review. (Full text)

Isolated pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case reports and literature review. We report 4 cases of isolated pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and review the 20 previously reported cases in the human immunodeficiency virus literature. All 4 patients had acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and 3 were believed to have had an immune reconstitution syndrome as a cause of MAC infection. Two patients underwent

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

1174. Sporotrichoid cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection. (Abstract)

Sporotrichoid cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Mycobacterium avium complex, a common opportunistic pathogen among patients with AIDS, usually manifests as disseminated disease involving the lung, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. Primary cutaneous infections with M avium complex are extremely rare, and most cutaneous lesions are caused by dissemination. Cutaneous manifestations thus far reported include scaling plaques, crusted ulcers, ecthyma-like lesions, verrucous (...) ulcers, inflammatory nodules, panniculitis, pustular lesions, and draining sinuses. Localized skin involvement resembling sporotrichosis is unusual and to our knowledge has been reported only once in the English-language literature. We describe an additional case of primary cutaneous M avium complex infection manifesting as sporotrichosis-like lesions on a patient with AIDS.

2002 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

1175. Latent infection as a source of disseminated disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. (Full text)

Latent infection as a source of disseminated disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. Whether infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome results from recent exposure to virulent strains or reactivation of latent infection acquired years earlier is unknown. To address this question, tissue samples from 47 simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected

2003 Journal of Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

1176. Comparative Genomic Hybridizations Reveal Genetic Regions within the Mycobacterium avium Complex That Are Divergent from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates (Full text)

Comparative Genomic Hybridizations Reveal Genetic Regions within the Mycobacterium avium Complex That Are Divergent from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is genetically similar to other members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), some of which are nonpathogenic and widespread in the environment. We have utilized an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis whole-genome microarray representing over 95% of the predicted coding sequences (...) to examine the genetic conservation among 10 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, two isolates each of Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, and a single isolate each of both Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Genomic DNA from each isolate was competitively hybridized with DNA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10, and open reading frames (ORFs) were classified as present, divergent, or intermediate. None of the M. avium subsp

2005 Journal of bacteriology PubMed abstract

1177. Activation of macrophages and interference with CD4+ T-cell stimulation by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium (Full text)

Activation of macrophages and interference with CD4+ T-cell stimulation by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ptb) and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium) are closely related but exhibit significant differences in their interaction with the host immune system. The macrophage line, J774, was infected with M. ptb and M. avium and analysed for cytokine production and stimulatory capacity (...) towards antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Under all conditions J774 cells were activated to produce proinflammatory cytokines. No influence on the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), B7.1, B7.2 or CD40 was found. However, the antigen-specific stimulatory capacity of J774 cells for a CD4+ T-cell line was significantly inhibited after infection with M. ptb, but not with M. avium. When a T-cell hybridoma expressing a T-cell receptor

2003 Immunology PubMed abstract

1178. Cellular Immune Responses to ESAT-6 Discriminate between Patients with Pulmonary Disease Due to Mycobacterium avium Complex and Those with Pulmonary Disease Due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Full text)

Cellular Immune Responses to ESAT-6 Discriminate between Patients with Pulmonary Disease Due to Mycobacterium avium Complex and Those with Pulmonary Disease Due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 (for 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target) is a secreted antigen found almost exclusively in organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We compared in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells to this antigen in patients with pulmonary disease due (...) to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0 (0%) of 8 controls. Significant IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative were detected in 23 (85%) of 27 M. tuberculosis disease patients, 2 (25%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 5 (63

1999 Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology PubMed abstract

1179. Comparative In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of the Newly Synthesized Quinolone HSR-903, Sitafloxacin (DU-6859a), Gatifloxacin (AM-1155), and Levofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium Complex (Full text)

Comparative In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of the Newly Synthesized Quinolone HSR-903, Sitafloxacin (DU-6859a), Gatifloxacin (AM-1155), and Levofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium Complex We compared the in vitro antimycobacterial activity of a new fluoroquinolone, HSR-903, with strong activity against gram-positive cocci with those of levofloxacin (LVFX), sitafloxacin (STFX), and gatifloxacin (GFLX). The MICs of the quinolones for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (...) and Mycobacterium avium complex were in the order STFX approximately GFLX < LVFX <== HSR-903 and STFX <== GFLX <== HSR-903 <== LVFX, respectively. HSR-903 effectively eliminated intramacrophagial M. tuberculosis, as did LVFX, and exhibited bacteriostatic effects against M. tuberculosis replicating in type II alveolar cells.

1999 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

1180. Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of the Newly Synthesized Quinolone WQ-3034, Levofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, and Ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium Complex (Full text)

Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of the Newly Synthesized Quinolone WQ-3034, Levofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, and Ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium Complex WQ-3034 is a newly synthesized acidic fluoroquinolone. We assessed its in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex using levofloxacin (LVFX), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), sparfloxacin (SPFX), and KRM-1648 (KRM) as reference drugs. The MICs of these agents were determined (...) ) of KRM for RMP-resistant M. tuberculosis strains was higher than those of the quinolones. The MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s of the test drugs for M. avium were in the order KRM < SPFX < CPFX

2000 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

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