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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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1141. Distinctive western blot antibody patterns induced by infection of mice with individual strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distinctive western blot antibody patterns induced by infection of mice with individual strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Systemic infection of mice with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) induced antibody responses, characteristic for each of the three tested individual strains. The influence of host genetic factors was reflected up to 3 months after infection by the finding of generally oligobanded and multibanded Western blot patterns in C57B1/6 and BALB/c mice (...) , respectively. Nevertheless, more bands developed at 6 months in C57BL/6 mice. The response to three antigens of 18,000, 38,000 and 24,000 MW was analysed in greater detail. Antibodies to a protease-resistant 18,000 MW band produced only by BALB/c mice were either strain specific, following infection with M. avium, strain Maa-B2, or cross-reactive within MAC, following infection with M. avium strain Maa-A6 and M. paratuberculosis, strain Map-203. Another protease-resistant antigen of 38,000 MW

1992 Immunology

1142. Azithromycin, rifabutin, and rifapentine for treatment and prophylaxis of Mycobacterium avium complex in rats treated with cyclosporine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Azithromycin, rifabutin, and rifapentine for treatment and prophylaxis of Mycobacterium avium complex in rats treated with cyclosporine. Azithromycin, rifabutin, and rifapentine were used to treat or prevent disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections produced in rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporine. Animals with bacteremic infections were treated 1 week after intravenous inoculation with 10(7) CFU of MAC with azithromycin, 100 mg/kg of body weight administered subcutaneously

1993 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1143. Effects of antimicrobial agents on survival of Mycobacterium avium complex inside alveolar macrophages obtained from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of antimicrobial agents on survival of Mycobacterium avium complex inside alveolar macrophages obtained from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Measurements of the activities of antimicrobial agents against the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) usually do not take into consideration the intracellular location of the organism. A recent study using mouse macrophage continuous cell line J774 (D. M. Yajko, P.S. Nassos, C. A. Sanders, and W. K. Hadley, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis

1991 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1144. Rifabutin and sparfloxacin but not azithromycin inhibit binding of Mycobacterium avium complex to HT-29 intestinal mucosal cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rifabutin and sparfloxacin but not azithromycin inhibit binding of Mycobacterium avium complex to HT-29 intestinal mucosal cells. Organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) cause disseminated disease in patients with AIDS, and evidence points to the gastrointestinal tract as the major route of infection. Since MAC can bind to and invade intestinal mucosal cells, we examined whether subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics which have anti-MAC activity in vitro affect the interaction

1994 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1145. Activities of roxithromycin used alone and in combination with ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine against Mycobacterium avium complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activities of roxithromycin used alone and in combination with ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine against Mycobacterium avium complex. Preliminary studies showed that roxithromycin possessed significant in vitro activity against a variety of atypical mycobacteria such as the Mycobacterium avium complex, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. malmoense, M. xenopi, M. marinum, and M. kansasii and rare pathogens such as M. chelonae and M. fortuitum. In this investigation (...) , radiometric MICs of roxithromycin, ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine for 10 clinical isolates of the M. avium complex (5 each from human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-positive and HIV-negative patients) were determined. Roxithromycin MICs against all the isolates were below the reported maximum concentration of drug in serum at the routine pH of 6.8, and the MICs were further lowered by 1 to 2 dilutions at a pH of 7.4. In vitro enhancement of roxithromycin activity against all

1994 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1146. Activities of the benzoxazinorifamycin KRM 1648 and ethambutol against Mycobacterium avium complex in vitro and in macrophages. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activities of the benzoxazinorifamycin KRM 1648 and ethambutol against Mycobacterium avium complex in vitro and in macrophages. KRM 1648 is a 4-aminobenzoxazine derivative of rifamycin S with potent in vitro activity against the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC); the MIC for 90% of 24 MAC isolates from AIDS patients was 0.25 microgram/ml as determined by a radiometric broth macrodilution assay. KRM 1648 was bactericidal for MAC isolates in Middlebrook 7H9 broth, with a reduction in viability

1994 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1147. Low-dose dexamethasone as adjunctive therapy for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infections in AIDS patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low-dose dexamethasone as adjunctive therapy for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infections in AIDS patients. Five human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection had progressive weight loss and persistent fever despite multidrug antimycobacterial therapy. These patients were given daily low-dose oral dexamethasone (typically 2 mg/day) as adjunctive therapy. All had substantial and sustained weight gain (12 to 50% of pre-steroid (...) treatment body weight [P < 0.03]), reduction in fever, and an improved sense of well-being. The serum albumin level increased during dexamethasone therapy (from 3.06 +/- 0.59 g/dl [mean +/- standard deviation] to 3.9 +/- 0.22 g/dl [P < 0.01]), while the serum alkaline phosphatase level fell (from 368 +/- 247 U/liter to 128 +/- 43.6 U/liter [P < 0.04]). Further studies of the potential role for corticosteroids in the management of disseminated M. avium complex infections in human immunodeficiency virus

1994 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1148. Morphological changes induced by beta-lactam antibiotics in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Morphological changes induced by beta-lactam antibiotics in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. In vitro activity of seven beta-lactam antibiotics against strains of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare was evaluated by the agar dilution method. The activity was influenced by the presence or absence of Tween 80 in Dubos medium, and cephazolin and cefotaxime were effective against most strains in the presence of Tween 80. beta-Lactam antibiotics at low concentrations induced long

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1149. In vitro activities of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium complex, M. chelonei, M. fortuitum, and M. kansasii. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro activities of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium complex, M. chelonei, M. fortuitum, and M. kansasii. The activities of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin against 100 mycobacteria isolates were studied in vitro by the 1% standard proportion method. Ciprofloxacin was more active against M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum with MICs of 1.0 and 0.25 microgram/ml, respectively, against 90% of isolates; norfloxacin had MICs of 8.0 and 2.0 micrograms/ml

1984 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1150. Determination of ansamycin MICs for Mycobacterium avium complex in liquid medium by radiometric and conventional methods. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determination of ansamycin MICs for Mycobacterium avium complex in liquid medium by radiometric and conventional methods. A radiometric method to determine the MIC of ansamycin (LM427) for Mycobacterium avium complex clinical isolates has been developed. It is based on a comparison of the conventional growth curve determination and the radiometric detection of growth (growth index) in the same liquid medium (7H12 broth). This new method requires less time and labor than does a conventional

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1151. In vitro synergistic activity of ethambutol, isoniazid, kanamycin, rifampin, and streptomycin against Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro synergistic activity of ethambutol, isoniazid, kanamycin, rifampin, and streptomycin against Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Strains of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex often exhibit in vitro resistance to common antimycobacterial agents. Combinations of etambutol, isoniazid, kanamycin, rifampin, and streptomycin were tested to determine if synergism occurred. Ninety-six percent of the strains were susceptible to a combination of ethambutol and rifampin

1982 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1152. Therapeutic implications of inhibition versus killing of Mycobacterium avium complex by antimicrobial agents. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Therapeutic implications of inhibition versus killing of Mycobacterium avium complex by antimicrobial agents. Patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection have responded poorly to treatment with rifabutine (Ansamycin) and clofazimine, in spite of the good in vitro response of M. avium to these antimicrobial agents. We compared the ability of these and other antimicrobial agents to kill versus the ability to inhibit the growth (...) of strains of the M. avium complex isolated from patients with AIDS. Killing curve experiments showed that the concentrations of rifabutine and clofazimine needed to kill two log units of M. avium are at least 32 times greater than the concentrations needed to inhibit growth. Little or no killing occurred at concentrations of these antimicrobial agents that are achievable in serum. In contrast, five of seven strains tested were killed by ciprofloxacin at concentrations that can be achieved in serum

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1153. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates to antimycobacterial agents by various methods. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates to antimycobacterial agents by various methods. Various methods were used to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Our results confirm the noted resistance of the M. avium complex to conventional antituberculosis agents. The procedures used were both agar dilution and broth dilution, including a commercially (...) for determining the in vitro susceptibility of the M. avium complex, and appropriate clinical correlation studies are needed to accurately assess the clinical relevance of any in vitro result.

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1154. Treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex lung disease with a macrolide, ethambutol, and clofazimine. (Abstract)

Treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex lung disease with a macrolide, ethambutol, and clofazimine. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAC) causes progressive lung disease. Recommended treatment regimens include a macrolide and a rifamycin, but drug intolerance and relapse after treatment is completed often limit successful therapy.Consecutive individuals referred for treatment of MAC lung disease were treated with a regimen that included either clarithromycin, 500 mg bid

2003 Chest

1155. Radiology of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. (Abstract)

Radiology of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Although the radiographic appearance of pulmonary MAC infection in the immunocompetent host can be varied, there are several generalizations that can be made. The classic radiographic appearance is indistinguishable from that of pulmonary tuberculosis. The classic form is seen most commonly in males and is typically associated with other predisposing diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most patients have

2002 Clinics in Chest Medicine

1156. Medical management of pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. (Abstract)

Medical management of pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The current medical therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex is controversial. American Thoracic Society recommendations advocate empiric therapy with drug susceptibility testing only for clarithromycin. At National Jewish, where we mainly see cases complicated by treatment failure and drug intolerance, we use in vitro susceptibility testing and therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize efficacy and reduce toxicity.

2002 Clinics in Chest Medicine

1157. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in patients with pre-existing lung disease. (Abstract)

Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in patients with pre-existing lung disease. Patients with MAC-PD and pre-existing lung disease are a distinct group from the more common and recently recognized group of predominantly middle- to older-aged women without pre-existing lung disease. Those with pre-existing disease are expected to have more sputum positivity and slower conversion of sputum with treatment, and they may require combined medical treatment with surgical resection

2002 Clinics in Chest Medicine

1158. Serodiagnosis of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex with an enzyme immunoassay that uses a mixture of glycopeptidolipid antigens. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serodiagnosis of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex with an enzyme immunoassay that uses a mixture of glycopeptidolipid antigens. It is difficult to distinguish pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) from that due to other mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii. We developed an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for diagnosis of MAC pulmonary diseases that uses glycopeptidolipid (GPL) antigens specific for MAC, and we used

2002 Clinical Infectious Diseases

1159. Isolated pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case reports and literature review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isolated pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case reports and literature review. We report 4 cases of isolated pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and review the 20 previously reported cases in the human immunodeficiency virus literature. All 4 patients had acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and 3 were believed to have had an immune reconstitution syndrome as a cause of MAC infection. Two patients underwent

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

1160. Sporotrichoid cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection. (Abstract)

Sporotrichoid cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Mycobacterium avium complex, a common opportunistic pathogen among patients with AIDS, usually manifests as disseminated disease involving the lung, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. Primary cutaneous infections with M avium complex are extremely rare, and most cutaneous lesions are caused by dissemination. Cutaneous manifestations thus far reported include scaling plaques, crusted ulcers, ecthyma-like lesions, verrucous (...) ulcers, inflammatory nodules, panniculitis, pustular lesions, and draining sinuses. Localized skin involvement resembling sporotrichosis is unusual and to our knowledge has been reported only once in the English-language literature. We describe an additional case of primary cutaneous M avium complex infection manifesting as sporotrichosis-like lesions on a patient with AIDS.

2002 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

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