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1,178 results for

Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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1121. Therapeutic efficacy of liposome-entrapped rifampin against Mycobacterium avium complex infection induced in mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Therapeutic efficacy of liposome-entrapped rifampin against Mycobacterium avium complex infection induced in mice. Liposome-entrapped rifampin (RFP) was examined for therapeutic efficacy against experimental infection induced in mice by the Mycobacterium avium complex. Intraperitoneal injections (once daily, six times weekly) of liposome-entrapped RFP led to a greater reduction in bacterial growth in the lungs and spleen of infected mice than did free RFP alone. Liposome-entrapped RFP given (...) to mice via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route failed to show such an increased therapeutic efficacy. RFP entrapped in the lipid layer of liposomal vesicles exhibited a level of therapeutic activity similar to that seen with RFP encapsulated in the inner solute of the vesicles. Entrapment of RFP in liposomal vesicles increased incorporation of the drug into host peritoneal macrophages and increased the activity of the agent against M. avium complex phagocytosed into the macrophages.

1989 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1122. Liposome-encapsulated-amikacin therapy of Mycobacterium avium complex infection in beige mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Liposome-encapsulated-amikacin therapy of Mycobacterium avium complex infection in beige mice. Efficacy of liposome-encapsulated amikacin and free amikacin against Mycobacterium avium complex was evaluated in the beige mouse (C57BL/6J-bgJ/bgJ) acute infection model. Approximately 10(7) viable M. avium complex serotype 1 cells for which the MIC of amikacin was 8 micrograms/ml were given intravenously. Treatment was started with encapsulated or free amikacin at approximately 110 or 40 mg/kg (...) in each of the organs compared with counts in the control group. Compared with free amikacin, encapsulated amikacin significantly reduced viable cell counts in the liver and spleen. Liposome encapsulation of an active agent appears to be a promising therapeutic approach to M. avium complex infection.

1989 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1123. In vitro activities of several new macrolide antibiotics against Mycobacterium avium complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro activities of several new macrolide antibiotics against Mycobacterium avium complex. The in vitro activities of 12 macrolide compounds against 28 Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were determined by the conventional proportion method and by the BACTEC method. Clarithromycin (A-56268; TE-031), a new macrolide compound, was the most active agent tested, inhibiting 90% of strains at an MIC of 4 micrograms/ml by the BACTEC

1989 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1124. Amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem treatment for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection of beige mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem treatment for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection of beige mice. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a common cause of disseminated infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and is increasingly seen as a cause of infection in other immunocompromised patients. Traditional antimycobacterial therapy often is ineffective, and there is a clear need for antibiotics with proven activity against the MAC. Three agents

1989 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1125. Treatment of pulmonary infections caused by mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment of pulmonary infections caused by mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Sixty-four patients with pulmonary infection caused by mycobacteria of the M avium-intracellulare complex have been reviewed. Patients who were asymptomatic on presentation often had a benign course but some developed progressive disease. Symptomatic patients who were not treated usually deteriorated. Various treatment regimens were used. Successful treatment was achieved in the majority

1981 Thorax

1126. Increase in Mycobacterium avium complex isolations among patients admitted to a general hospital. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increase in Mycobacterium avium complex isolations among patients admitted to a general hospital. In early 1979, an official of an Illinois hospital reported an increase in the number of patients from whom Mycobacterium avium complex recently had been recovered. Over the preceding 3 years specimens from a total of 51 patients were culture positive for M. avium complex: 7 in 1976, 8 in 1977, and 36 in 1978. Nine of 10 serotyped isolated were serotype 8. The increase was not attributable (...) to an increase in the number of mycobacterial cultures performed. No other area hospitals had similar increases in rates of recovery of M. avium complex. Patients with M. avium complex were significantly more likely than patients with other mycobacteria to have been residents of the city where the hospital is located. The distribution of abnormalities in patients' chest films differed significantly between patients with M. avium complex in 1978 and patients with M. avium complex in 1976-77; in 1978, patients

1982 Public Health Reports

1127. Action of 1-isonicotinyl-2-palmitoyl hydrazine against the Mycobacterium avium complex and enhancement of its activity by m-fluorophenylalanine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Action of 1-isonicotinyl-2-palmitoyl hydrazine against the Mycobacterium avium complex and enhancement of its activity by m-fluorophenylalanine. In the present work, we investigated whether resistance to isoniazid (INH) of organisms belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex was caused by the bacterial cell envelope, with the cell wall and the outer layer acting as an exclusion barrier. We observed that this exclusion barrier was most efficient in excluding the hydrophilic drug INH (...) , as this drug could not penetrate a wall matrix formed of various polymethylated lipidic or amphipathic substances. Two main strategies were proposed for circumventing this drug resistance: (i) synthesis of amphipathic derivatives of otherwise highly hydrophilic drugs and (ii) inhibition of synthesis of the bacterial outer layer. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that attaching a palmitic acid side chain to INH rendered it growth inhibitory against M. avium complex bacteria

1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1128. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex to the new fluoroquinolone sparfloxacin (CI-978; AT-4140) and comparison with ciprofloxacin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex to the new fluoroquinolone sparfloxacin (CI-978; AT-4140) and comparison with ciprofloxacin. We tested the activity of the new fluoroquinolone sparfloxacin (CI-978; AT 4140) against 30 strains of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) isolated from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. MICs of sparfloxacin (range, less than or equal to 0.06 to 4 micrograms/ml) were lower than MICs of ciprofloxacin for all 30 strains, and MBCs

1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1129. Antimicrobial synergism against Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial synergism against Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Pairs of 11 antimicrobial agents were tested in vitro for their ability to act synergistically against three strains of Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. From the combinations tested, four drugs (ethambutol, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin) were selected for more extensive study against 20 (...) strains of M. avium complex. The inhibitory and killing synergism obtained with combinations of two, three, or four drugs was assessed by determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index and fractional bactericidal concentration index. Inhibitory synergism occurred against 90 to 100% of the strains for all drug combinations in which ethambutol was included. Killing synergism occurred against 85 to 95% of the strains when ethambutol was used in combinations which included either rifampin

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1130. In vivo activity of amikacin alone or in combination with clofazimine or rifabutin or both against acute experimental Mycobacterium avium complex infections in beige mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vivo activity of amikacin alone or in combination with clofazimine or rifabutin or both against acute experimental Mycobacterium avium complex infections in beige mice. The in vivo activity of amikacin, used alone or in combination with rifabutin or clofazimine or both, was assessed in the treatment of early and established Mycobacterium avium complex infections in beige mice. Amikacin given alone at a dose of 50 mg/kg, in one, two, or three divided doses, showed remarkable activity (...) . Addition of clofazimine increased the activity significantly, but addition of the third drug, rifabutin, did not further improve the results. Amikacin-containing regimens are worthy of consideration for investigations in patients with M. avium complex infections.

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1131. Enhanced effect of liposome-encapsulated amikacin on Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex infection in beige mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enhanced effect of liposome-encapsulated amikacin on Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex infection in beige mice. We examined the therapeutic effects of free and liposome-encapsulated amikacin on Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex infection by using the beige-mouse model of the disease. In the first series of studies, intravenous administration of four weekly doses of 5 mg of amikacin per kg encapsulated in large (approximately 0.4-micron diameter), unilamellar liposomes (...) arrested the growth of M. avium-M. intracellulare complex organisms in the liver, as measured by CFU counts. M. avium-M. intracellulare complex levels in untreated animals and in those treated with the same dose of free amikacin increased by several orders of magnitude over 8 weeks. Liposome-encapsulated amikacin was also effective against M. avium-M. intracellulare complex organisms in the spleen and kidneys, reducing the CFU counts by about 1,000-fold compared with those of both untreated controls

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1132. Activities of amikacin, roxithromycin, and azithromycin alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor against Mycobacterium avium complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activities of amikacin, roxithromycin, and azithromycin alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor against Mycobacterium avium complex. The effect of amikacin and two new macrolides (roxithromycin and azithromycin) used either alone or in combination with recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to inhibit or kill Mycobacterium avium complex in human macrophages was examined in vitro. Macrophage monolayers infected with M. avium complex (strain 101, serotype 1) were treated (...) associated with 62 +/- 3% killing with TNF-azithromycin, 73 +/- 6% killing with TNF-roxithromycin, and 56 +/- 4% killing of intracellular M. avium complex with TNF-amikacin after 4 days. The mycobactericidal effect was enhanced (91 +/- 4% killing by roxithromycinamikacin). Combinations of antimicrobial agents with immunomodulators like TNF may be useful for treatment of M. avium complex infection.

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1133. Susceptibilities of transparent, opaque, and rough colonial variants of Mycobacterium avium complex to various fatty acids. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Susceptibilities of transparent, opaque, and rough colonial variants of Mycobacterium avium complex to various fatty acids. Three different colonial variants of Mycobacterium avium complex were studied for their susceptibilities to capric, lauric, oleic, and linolenic acids. Smooth T variants with transparent and irregularly shaped colonies were much more resistant to all the fatty acids than were the smooth D variants with opaque and dome-shaped colonies. Rough variants with granular

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1134. Liposome-encapsulated-gentamicin therapy of Mycobacterium avium complex infection in beige mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Liposome-encapsulated-gentamicin therapy of Mycobacterium avium complex infection in beige mice. The efficacy of liposome-encapsulated gentamicin and free gentamicin was evaluated with the beige (C57BL/6J-bgj/bgj) mouse model of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Approximately 10(7) viable M. avium complex cells were given intravenously. Seven days later, treatment with either encapsulated or free gentamicin at 20 mg/kg of body weight was started. Treatment was given daily (...) with the free gentamicin. A dose-response experiment was performed with a daily dose of 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg. Dose-related reductions in viable cell counts were observed for spleens and livers, although none of the regimens resulted in sterilization of these organs. Liposome-encapsulated gentamicin should be considered for further evaluation in the treatment of M. avium complex infection in humans.

1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1135. Extracellular and intracellular activities of clarithromycin used alone and in association with ethambutol and rifampin against Mycobacterium avium complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Extracellular and intracellular activities of clarithromycin used alone and in association with ethambutol and rifampin against Mycobacterium avium complex. Mycobacterium avium complex bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens, and their chemotherapy remains a challenge since these organisms are resistant to a majority of routine antituberculous drugs. Recently, a wide range of new macrolide antibiotics has been developed, among which the drug clarithromycin appears to have a selective action (...) against M. avium bacteria. In the present study, we have investigated the action of clarithromycin alone (MIC and MBC determinations) and in association with the routine antimycobacterial drugs ethambutol and rifampin at sublethal concentrations (1 micrograms/ml; below concentrations obtainable in human serum) against M. avium. Our viable count data showed that clarithromycin was bactericidal against all 10 strains of M. avium studied and that its activity was enhanced by ethambutol (in 8 of 9 strains

1991 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1136. Activities of sparfloxacin, azithromycin, temafloxacin, and rifapentine compared with that of clarithromycin against multiplication of Mycobacterium avium complex within human macrophages. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activities of sparfloxacin, azithromycin, temafloxacin, and rifapentine compared with that of clarithromycin against multiplication of Mycobacterium avium complex within human macrophages. The activities of sparfloxacin, azithromycin, temafloxacin, and rifapentine against two virulent strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from patients with AIDS were evaluated in a model of intracellular infection and were compared with that of clarithromycin. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (...) were infected with the M. avium complex at day 6 of culture. The intracellular CFU was counted 60 min after inoculation. The intracellular and supernatant CFU was counted on days 4 and 7 after inoculation. The concentrations used, which were equal to peak levels in serum, were 10 micrograms of rifapentine per ml (MICs for the two strains, 4 and 16 micrograms/ml), 4 micrograms of clarithromycin per ml (MICs, 8 and 4 micrograms/ml), 1 microgram of azithromycin per ml (MICs, 32 and 16 micrograms/ml

1991 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1137. Comparative in vivo activities of rifabutin and rifapentine against Mycobacterium avium complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative in vivo activities of rifabutin and rifapentine against Mycobacterium avium complex. The dose-response activity of rifabutin and the comparative activities of rifabutin and rifapentine were evaluated in the beige mouse model of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. In the dose-response study, mice were infected intravenously with approximately 10(7) viable M. avium ATCC 49601. Treatment with rifabutin at 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg of body weight was started 7 days

1994 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1138. Activity of clarithromycin against Mycobacterium avium complex infection in beige mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activity of clarithromycin against Mycobacterium avium complex infection in beige mice. The activity of clarithromycin alone and in combination with other antimycobacterial agents was evaluated in the beige (C57BL/6J bgj/bgj) mouse model of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. A dose-response experiment was performed with clarithromycin at 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg of body weight administered daily by gavage to mice infected with approximately 10(7) viable MAC. A dose

1992 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1139. In vitro antimicrobial activity of benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium complex, determined by the radiometric method. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro antimicrobial activity of benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium complex, determined by the radiometric method. MICs of a newly developed benzoxazinorifamycin derivative, KRM-1648, for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were determined by the BACTEC 460 TB system and compared with those of other known antimicrobial agents. The radiometric method gave a fast, accurate, and reproducible MIC for each antimicrobial agent. MICs of KRM-1648 for 30 strains of MAC (10 (...) strains each of M. avium isolated from AIDS and non-AIDS patients and of Mycobacterium intracellulare isolated from non-AIDS patients) were measured. The MICs, ranging from 0.004 to 0.0625 microgram/ml, were the lowest of all tested drugs, including rifampin, rifabutin, streptomycin, kanamycin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and clarithromycin. The MICs were 2 to 512 and 1 to 32 times lower than those of rifampin and rifabutin, respectively. With rifampin and ethambutol

1993 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1140. Chemotherapeutic efficacy of a newly synthesized benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium complex infection induced in mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chemotherapeutic efficacy of a newly synthesized benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium complex infection induced in mice. Newly synthesized benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, was studied for its in vivo anti-Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) activities. When the MICs were determined by the agar dilution method with Middlebrook 7H11 agar medium, KRM-1648 exhibited similarly potent in vitro antimicrobial activities against the MAC isolated from AIDS and non-AIDS patients

1992 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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