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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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1061. Rifabutin prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with AIDS. (Abstract)

Rifabutin prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with AIDS. Rifabutin, a macrophage-penetrating lipophilic rifamycin, has a long half-life and activity in vitro against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Preliminary studies of patients with AIDS and those with AIDS-related complex defined dose-limiting toxic effects (arthralgia/arthritis and uveitis) and suggested that rifabutin alone might reduce the incidence of MAC infections. Two double-blind, randomized, placebo

1996 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

1062. Rifabutin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infection: experience in Europe. (Abstract)

Rifabutin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infection: experience in Europe. Several European clinical trials of rifabutin alone or in multidrug regimens for treatment of infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in patients with AIDS are discussed. A prospective open study in France assessed 50 patients treated with the combination rifabutin/ isoniazid/ethambutol/clofazimine. Treatment was well tolerated, and the rate of conversion of cultures (from positive to negative

1996 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

1063. Effectiveness of the macrolide clarithromycin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-infected patients. (Abstract)

Effectiveness of the macrolide clarithromycin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-infected patients. In a randomized double-blind study, nine mycobacteremic patients with AIDS-related disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection received clarithromycin or placebo in addition to a basic regimen that included isoniazid, ethambutol and clofazimine. All four patients receiving clarithromycin showed blood culture conversion and clinical response. Of the five

1992 Infection Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1064. Randomized, open-label trial of azithromycin plus ethambutol vs. clarithromycin plus ethambutol as therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Veterans Affairs HIV Research Consortium. (Abstract)

Randomized, open-label trial of azithromycin plus ethambutol vs. clarithromycin plus ethambutol as therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Veterans Affairs HIV Research Consortium. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection continues to be a common opportunistic infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The optimal therapy for disseminated MAC infection is unclear. We compared

1998 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1065. Does in vitro susceptibility to rifabutin and ethambutol predict the response to treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia with rifabutin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin? Canadian HIV Trials Network Protocol 010 Study Group. (Abstract)

Does in vitro susceptibility to rifabutin and ethambutol predict the response to treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia with rifabutin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin? Canadian HIV Trials Network Protocol 010 Study Group. The in vitro susceptibilities of baseline Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) blood isolates from 86 patients with AIDS who were treated with clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifabutin were determined to examine whether these results predict bacteriologic response

1998 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1066. Clofazimine as prophylaxis for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in AIDS. (Abstract)

Clofazimine as prophylaxis for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in AIDS. A randomized, prospective, open-label, treatment versus no treatment community-based clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of clofazimine as prophylaxis for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Subjects were 110 patients with a first episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia 2-4 months before

1993 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1067. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rifampin, ethambutol, and ciprofloxacin for AIDS patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. (Abstract)

Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rifampin, ethambutol, and ciprofloxacin for AIDS patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Patients with AIDS and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection received rifampin (600 mg) plus ethambutol (25 mg/kg) plus ciprofloxacin (750 mg) or matching placebos daily for 8 weeks. Patients were monitored every 2 weeks clinically and by quantitating MAC colony-forming units (cfu) per milliliter of blood. Analysis

1993 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1068. Predictors of survival and eradication of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia (MAC) in AIDS patients in the Canadian randomized MAC treatment trial. Canadian HIV Trials Network Protocol 010 Study Group. (Abstract)

Predictors of survival and eradication of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia (MAC) in AIDS patients in the Canadian randomized MAC treatment trial. Canadian HIV Trials Network Protocol 010 Study Group. To assess the importance of baseline characteristics including medical history, indicators of current disease status, therapeutic drug use, in vitro drug susceptibility, immune status and mycobacterial load on bacteriologic response and survival in HIV-positive patients with Mycobacterium (...) avium complex (MAC) bacteremia.An observational substudy of an open-label randomized controlled trial of two alternative therapeutic regimens for MAC.Twenty-four hospital-based HIV clinics in 16 Canadian cities.The main outcome measures were survival and bacteriologic response, defined by consecutive negative blood cultures for MAC at least 2 weeks apart within 16 weeks of study entry.Prior AIDS diagnosis, low Karnofsky score, active unstable AIDS-related conditions, absence of antiretroviral

1999 AIDS Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1069. Transient bacteremia due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS. (Abstract)

Transient bacteremia due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS. It is generally assumed that Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, once it develops, is unremitting. On the basis of this presumption, changes in the level of mycobacteremia are used to gauge therapeutic response. In 7 (12%) of 60 patients enrolled in a prospective trial of MAC bacteremia and AIDS, bacteremia became undetectable before the initiation of antimycobacterial therapy. Patients with transient

1994 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1070. Efficacy of rifabutin in the treatment of disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium avium complex. The Rifabutin Treatment Group. (Abstract)

Efficacy of rifabutin in the treatment of disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium avium complex. The Rifabutin Treatment Group. The incidence of infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is increasing among patients with AIDS. Although numerous antimicrobial regimens have been proposed as treatment for this infection, it is unclear which therapy is most effective. For this reason, we prospectively evaluated rifabutin (600 mg/d) vs. a placebo, each in combination with clofazimine

1994 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1071. The individual microbiologic effect of three antimycobacterial agents, clofazimine, ethambutol, and rifampin, on Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with AIDS. (Abstract)

The individual microbiologic effect of three antimycobacterial agents, clofazimine, ethambutol, and rifampin, on Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with AIDS. The individual antibacterial activities of clofazimine, ethambutol, and rifampin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with AIDS were determined. Sixty human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected patients who had at least one blood culture positive for M. avium complex were randomized (...) greater antibacterial activity, as determined by changes in the level of mycobacteremia, than either rifampin or clofazimine, supporting its continued use in combination with other agents in the treatment of M. avium infection.

1994 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1072. Clarithromycin therapy for bacteremic Mycobacterium avium complex disease. A randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study in patients with AIDS. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 157 Study Team. (Abstract)

Clarithromycin therapy for bacteremic Mycobacterium avium complex disease. A randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study in patients with AIDS. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 157 Study Team. To determine the antimicrobial activity and tolerability of clarithromycin for treating bacteremic Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).A randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study.Outpatient clinics.154 patients with human (...) immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and blood cultures positive for M. avium complex who had symptomatic disease.Random assignment to clarithromycin at dosages of 500 mg, 1000 mg, or 2000 mg twice daily for 12 weeks.Median number of colony-forming units of M. avium complex per milliliter of blood.Clarithromycin decreased mycobacterial CFUs from 2.7 to 2.8 log 10/mL of blood at baseline to less than 0 log 10/mL during follow-up (P < 0.0001). After 2 weeks, patients receiving 500 mg twice daily were less

1994 Annals of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1073. Evaluating the quality of life associated with rifabutin prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium complex in persons with AIDS: combining Q-TWiST and multiattribute utility techniques. (Abstract)

Evaluating the quality of life associated with rifabutin prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium complex in persons with AIDS: combining Q-TWiST and multiattribute utility techniques. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of rifabutin prophylaxis in patients with AIDS and CD4 counts of less than 200 per cubic millimetre using a combination of Q-TWiST (quality-adjusted time without symptoms and toxicity) and multiattribute health utility assessment. The design consisted of a secondary analysis

1995 Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1074. Survival analysis of two controlled trials of rifabutin prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex in AIDS. (Abstract)

Survival analysis of two controlled trials of rifabutin prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex in AIDS. Rifabutin prophylaxis has been shown to significantly decrease the incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia in two randomized controlled clinical trials, but a survival benefit has not been observed. An analysis of complete follow-up of these patients through August 1992 was performed to assess subsequent survival, because although follow-up in the previous trials

1995 AIDS Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1075. Treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infection: do the results of in vitro susceptibility tests predict therapeutic outcome in humans? (Abstract)

Treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infection: do the results of in vitro susceptibility tests predict therapeutic outcome in humans? The ability of various in vitro methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing to predict therapeutic outcome in patients infected with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was evaluated. Pretreatment bloodstream MAC isolates from 38 patients with AIDS, previously treated in a randomized fashion with either ethambutol, rifampin, or clofazimine, were tested

1996 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1076. Early bactericidal activity of rifabutin versus that of placebo in treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS patients. (Full text)

Early bactericidal activity of rifabutin versus that of placebo in treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS patients. Rifabutin, 600 mg/day, was compared with a placebo in the early treatment of culture-proven Mycobacterium avium bacteremia in patients with AIDS. Following 14 days' treatment, bacteriological success, defined as a negative culture or a reduction in the number of CFU of M. avium organisms per milliliter of blood by a factor of > or = 0.5 log from (...) the baseline, was observed in 7 of 10 (70%) evaluable rifabutin patients and in 1 of 13 (8%) evaluable placebo patients (P = 0.002). Rifabutin is active against M. avium as a single agent and can make a significant contribution to combination regimens for the treatment of disseminated M. avium infection in AIDS patients.

1996 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

1077. A prospective randomized trial of four three-drug regimens in the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in AIDS patients: excess mortality associated with high-dose clarithromycin. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Resear (Full text)

A prospective randomized trial of four three-drug regimens in the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in AIDS patients: excess mortality associated with high-dose clarithromycin. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Resear The optimal regimen for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease has not been established. Eighty-five AIDS patients with disseminated MAC disease were randomized to receive a three-drug regimen of clarithromycin, rifabutin

1999 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

1078. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of rifabutin added to a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol for treatment of disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium complex. (Full text)

A randomized, placebo-controlled study of rifabutin added to a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol for treatment of disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium complex. Current guidelines suggest that disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection be treated with a macrolide plus ethambutol or rifabutin or both. From 1993 to 1996, 198 AIDS patients with MAC bacteremia participated in a prospective, placebo-controlled trial of clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) plus ethambutol

1999 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

1079. Cost-effectiveness of azithromycin for preventing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. (Abstract)

Cost-effectiveness of azithromycin for preventing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine the clinical and economic consequences of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a health care system with access unrestricted by financial barriers

1999 The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1080. Azithromycin as treatment for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex in AIDS patients. (Full text)

Azithromycin as treatment for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex in AIDS patients. This multicenter, randomized, dose-ranging study was performed to determine the safety and efficacy of two different doses of azithromycin for treating disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in patients with AIDS. Eighty-eight AIDS patients with symptoms and blood cultures consistent with disseminated MAC were treated with 600 or 1,200 mg of azithromycin daily for 6 weeks; 62 patients completed

1999 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

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