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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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961. Serological test and chest computed tomography findings in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serological test and chest computed tomography findings in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. The present authors have previously reported the usefulness of a serodiagnostic test to detect serum glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antibody in diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease in immunocompetent patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate correlations between the levels of antibody against GPL core and chest computed tomography (CCT) findings (...) correlation between the extent of the disease and the level of GPL core immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibody. The levels of GPL core IgA antibody were significantly elevated in patients who had nodular shadows (10-30 mm) compared with patients who had small nodular shadows (<10 mm). The present results document that the levels of immunoglobulin A antibody against glycopeptidolipid core correlate with the chest computed tomography findings of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease.

2007 European Respiratory Journal

962. High rates of primary Mycobacterium avium complex and Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis in the United States. (Abstract)

High rates of primary Mycobacterium avium complex and Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis in the United States. National data from the mid-1990s demonstrated that many eligible patients with HIV infection do not receive prophylaxis for opportunistic infections (OIs) and that racial and gender disparities existed in OI prophylaxis receipt.We examined whether demographic disparities in use of OI prophylaxis persist in 2001 and if outpatient care is associated with OI prophylaxis (...) utilization.Demographic, clinical, and pharmacy utilization data were collected from 10 U.S. HIV primary care sites in the HIV Research Network.This study consisted of adult patients (>or=18 years old) in longitudinal HIV primary care.Indications for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) or Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis were 2 or more CD4 counts less than 200 or 50 cells/mm(3) during calendar year (CY) 2001, respectively. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined demographic and clinical

2005 Medical Care

963. Environmental risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium avium complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Environmental risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium avium complex. Infection with Mycobacterium avium complex is acquired from the environment, but risk factors for M. avium complex infection and disease are poorly understood. To identify risk factors for infection, the authors performed a 1998-2000 cross-sectional study in western Palm Beach County, Florida, using a population-based random household survey. M. avium complex infection was identified by use of the M. avium sensitin skin (...) test. Of 447 participants, 147 (32.9%) had a positive test reaction, 186 (41.6%) had a negative test reaction, and, for 114 (25.5%), test results were indeterminate. Among the 333 participants with positive or negative M. avium sensitin skin tests, age-adjusted independent predictors of M. avium complex infection in a multivariate model included Black race (odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 2.2, 6.6), birth outside the United States (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.9

2006 American Journal of Epidemiology

964. Mycobacterium avium complex infection after alemtuzumab therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Abstract)

Mycobacterium avium complex infection after alemtuzumab therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Alemtuzumab is a humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody indicated for treatment of fludarabine-refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Severe lymphopenia is one of the most profound hematologic effects of alemtuzumab, often predisposing patients to infectious complications such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Opportunistic infections (...) secondary to mycobacterial sources have been documented less frequently. We describe the case of a 46-year-old man who developed a 40-mm lymph node mass 4 months after completing alemtuzumab therapy. After a thorough evaluation, he began treatment for tuberculosis with a four-drug combination regimen. The patient's final biopsy report indicated the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex. All clinical signs of the infection resolved with no recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first published

2008 Pharmacotherapy

965. Cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection as a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected child. (Abstract)

Cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection as a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected child. We report a 13-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection 2 months after commencing highly active antiretroviral therapy. The case illustrates that cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex may present as a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome in human

2007 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

966. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates recovered from southern California. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates recovered from southern California. Fine-scale genotyping methods are necessary in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was evaluated for fingerprinting 159 patient and environmental MAC isolates from southern California. AFLP analysis accurately (...) identified strains belonging to M. avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare and differentiated between strains within each species. The method was also able to differentiate strains that were presumed to be genetically identical in two previous studies using large RFLP analysis with PFGE, or PCR-amplification of DNA segments located between insertion sequences IS1245 and IS1311. For M. avium, drinking-water isolates clustered more closely with each other than with patient or food isolates. Patient isolates

2007 Journal of Medical Microbiology

967. The recovery of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) from the residential bathrooms of patients with pulmonary MAC. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The recovery of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) from the residential bathrooms of patients with pulmonary MAC. The distribution of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in residences was examined. MAC was only recovered from bathrooms but not from other sites of residences. The appearance ratio in the bathrooms of patients with pulmonary MAC was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers' bathrooms (P=.01). For 2 patients, the genotypes of environmental

2007 Clinical Infectious Diseases

968. Conventional and molecular epidemiology of macrolide resistance among new Mycobacterium avium complex isolates recovered from HIV-infected patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conventional and molecular epidemiology of macrolide resistance among new Mycobacterium avium complex isolates recovered from HIV-infected patients. We performed a retrospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection during 1997-2004 to assess for factors associated with initial macrolide resistance. Of 52 HIV-associated sterile-site MAC isolates, 9 (17%) were initially macrolide resistant. Prior MAC treatment and prolonged MAC

2005 Clinical Infectious Diseases

969. Discontinuation of primary prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy: observations from a large national cohort in the United States, 1992-2002. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Discontinuation of primary prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy: observations from a large national cohort in the United States, 1992-2002. In a large, diverse cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons receiving routine care, the proportion of eligible persons who discontinued primary prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, according to guidelines of the US Public Health

2005 Clinical Infectious Diseases

970. Effective combination therapy using interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a pediatric patient with AIDS. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effective combination therapy using interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a pediatric patient with AIDS. A 5-year-old girl presented with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection during advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Interferon-gamma or interleukin-2 monotherapy showed only limited effects. Use of a combination of interferon-gamma and interferon-2 resulted in a remarkable improvement in the patient's condition

2005 Clinical Infectious Diseases

971. Antimicrobial activity of picolinic acid against extracellular and intracellular Mycobacterium avium complex and its combined activity with clarithromycin, rifampicin and fluoroquinolones. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial activity of picolinic acid against extracellular and intracellular Mycobacterium avium complex and its combined activity with clarithromycin, rifampicin and fluoroquinolones. A natural metal ion chelator, picolinic acid (PA), is known to potentiate macrophage antimycobacterial activity. Here, we studied the antimicrobial activity of PA against extracellular and intramacrophage Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms.MAC organisms, MAC-infected macrophages or MAC-infected type

2006 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

972. Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (Abstract)

Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a common complication of late-stage HIV-1 infection. Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the rate of MAC infection has declined substantially, but patients with low CD4 cell counts remain at risk. Among patients in the Johns Hopkins cohort with advanced HIV disease, the proportion developing MAC

2004 Lancet infectious diseases

973. Concentrations of clarithromycin and active metabolite in the epithelial lining fluid of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. (Abstract)

Concentrations of clarithromycin and active metabolite in the epithelial lining fluid of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Clarithromycin (CAM) is widely accepted for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary diseases. This study measured (a) the concentrations of CAM and its active metabolite (14OH-CAM) in bronchial epithelial lining fluid (ELF) obtained by bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS), and (b) the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC (...) in the 400mg/day group (7.48+/-2.58 microg/ml and 9.63+/-2.99 microg/ml, respectively; both p<0.05), while the serum concentrations were similar in both groups. In both treatment groups, the mean ELF concentrations sampled from diseased and normal segments were higher than the MIC against MAC isolates. The mean ELF concentration of CAM in the 400mg/day treatment group was <8 mircog/ml (the breakpoint concentration of CAM against M. avium recommended by the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute), while

2008 Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

974. Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease: Prognostic Implication of High-Resolution CT findings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease: Prognostic Implication of High-Resolution CT findings. To evaluate the prognostic implications of computed tomography (CT) findings in assessing responses to treatment in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease without underlying lung disease, high-resolution (HR)CT findings were correlated based on the results of sputum conversion after anti-MAC therapy. A total of 59 patients underwent HRCT before treatment and the therapeutic efficacy (...) are good predictors of response to treatment in Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease.

2008 European Respiratory Journal

975. Change in T-lymphocyte count after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with history of Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Change in T-lymphocyte count after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with history of Mycobacterium avium complex infection. To compare changes in CD4+, CD8+ and total lymphocyte counts after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between HIV-infected patients with and without a recent history of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection.Matched exposed-non-exposed retrospective cohort study.Fifty-one patients with a recent history

2006 Antiviral Therapy

976. SRI-286, a thiosemicarbazole, in combination with mefloquine and moxifloxacin for treatment of murine Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

SRI-286, a thiosemicarbazole, in combination with mefloquine and moxifloxacin for treatment of murine Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Treatment of Mycobacterium avium disease remains challenging when macrolide resistance develops. We infected C57 beige mice and treated them with mefloquine, SRI-286, and moxifloxacin. SRI-286 (80 mg/kg) was bactericidal in the liver. Mefloquine plus moxifloxacin or mefloquine plus SRI-286 were better than mefloquine alone.

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

977. Interaction of antimycobacterial drugs with the anti-Mycobacterium avium complex effects of antimicrobial effectors, reactive oxygen intermediates, reactive nitrogen intermediates, and free fatty acids produced by macrophages. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interaction of antimycobacterial drugs with the anti-Mycobacterium avium complex effects of antimicrobial effectors, reactive oxygen intermediates, reactive nitrogen intermediates, and free fatty acids produced by macrophages. The profiles of the interaction of antimycobacterial drugs with macrophage (MPhi) antimicrobial mechanisms have yet to be elucidated in detail. We examined the effects of various antimycobacterial drugs on the anti-Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) antimicrobial activity

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

978. Discordant molecular characterization results in a Mycobacterium avium complex strain isolated from an AIDS patient. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Discordant molecular characterization results in a Mycobacterium avium complex strain isolated from an AIDS patient. This report describes an unusual strain of Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from the sputum of an immunocompromised AIDS patient, which did not react with the MAC probe of the BDProbe Tec system, but was identified as Mycobacterium intracellulare by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Its PCR restriction-enzyme analysis pattern was compatible with an allelic variant of M. avium (...) . It was scotochromogenic, slow-growing and phenotypically identified as Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Its clinical significance is not certain.

2005 Journal of Medical Microbiology

979. Alterations in expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in the simian immunodeficiency virus model of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alterations in expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in the simian immunodeficiency virus model of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is the most common disseminated bacterial infection in untreated patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We investigated the potential role of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the pathogenesis of disseminated MAC, using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model of AIDS (...) . Macaques were inoculated with SIV, followed by challenge with a pathogenic AIDS isolate of M. avium 14 days later. After challenge with M. avium, marked increases in serum MCP-1 levels were detected in SIV-infected macaques, a finding that was duplicated in coinoculated bronchoalveolar macrophages. MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in SIV-infected macaques than in non-SIV-infected controls (327.1 vs. 151.5 pg/mL, respectively; P=.04), suggesting that up-regulation of MCP-1 contributes

2004 Journal of Infectious Diseases

980. Hospital water as a source of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates in respiratory specimens. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hospital water as a source of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates in respiratory specimens. The clinical significance of recovery of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms from respiratory specimens is poorly understood. One hundred sixty-one respiratory MAC isolates from 131 patients at Grady Memorial Hospital (Atlanta) and 13 MAC isolates from the hospital's hot water system were examined. Of the 131 patients, 35 (27%) had MAC disease, and 96 (73%) did not; 94 (72%) were human

2004 Journal of Infectious Diseases

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