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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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381. Evaluation of RGM Medium for Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Samples from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis in the United States Full Text available with Trip Pro

for the identification of mycobacteria in RGM medium. RGM medium offers a simple and highly effective tool for the isolation of NTM from patients with CF. Extended incubation of RGM medium for 28 days facilitates the isolation of slow-growing species, including members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAVC).Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

382. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in Denmark, incidence and clinical importance during the last quarter-century Full Text available with Trip Pro

disease and 0.88/105 for NTM colonization. The incidence rate of NTM disease was highest in children aged 0-4 years (5.36/105/year), predominantly with cervical Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) adenitis. Surprisingly, based on more than half a million clinical specimens cultured for mycobacteria in Denmark through 25 years, the NTM disease burden and trend in incidence in the Danish population has not increased opposed to numerous internationals reports.

2017 Scientific reports

383. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Opening Pandora's Box Full Text available with Trip Pro

toxoplasmosis was identified, as well as hemophagocytic syndrome, systemic candidiasis, and Mycobacterium avium complex infection. IRIS remains a concern and eventually a barrier to ART. Male gender, young age, low TCD4 cell count, and high viral load are risk factors. The high prevalence of subclinical opportunistic diseases highlights the need for new strategies to reduce IRIS incidence.

2017 Case reports in infectious diseases

384. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a single-center experience in South Korea Full Text available with Trip Pro

analysis of NTM infection cases in our RA registry at a tertiary referral center from January 1995 to December 2013. The clinical features of them were compared to those of 52 TB infection patients from same registry.Among 1,397 patients with RA, NTM infection was newly developed in 26 patients and the incidence of NTM infection was 164.8 per 100,000 patient-years. The Mycobacterium avium complex was the most frequent isolate (76.9%). None of the NTM infections had extrapulmonary involvement, which

2017 The Korean journal of internal medicine

385. cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3/7 induced interferon-β contributes to the clearing of non tuberculous mycobacterial infection in mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3/7 induced interferon-β contributes to the clearing of non tuberculous mycobacterial infection in mice Type I interferons (IFN-I), such as IFN-α and IFN-β are important messengers in the host response against bacterial infections. Knowledge about the role of IFN-I in infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is limited. Here we show that macrophages infected with pathogens of the Mycobacterium avium complex produced significantly lower amounts of IFN-β than (...) macrophages infected with the opportunistic pathogen M. smegmatis. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we focused on the obligate pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) and the opportunistic M. smegmatis. Viability of both bacteria was required for induction of IFN-β in macrophages. Both bacteria induced IFN-β via the cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3/7-pathway of IFN-β activation. Stronger phosphorylation of TBK1 and higher amounts of extracellular bacterial DNA in the macrophage

2017 Virulence

386. Invasive Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections among Cardiothoracic Surgical Patients Exposed to Heater-Cooler Devices<sup>1</sup>. Full Text available with Trip Pro

at 1 hospital. We conducted a case-control study to identify exposures causing infection, examining 11 case-patients and 48 control-patients. Eight (73%) case-patients had a clinical specimen identified as Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). HCD exposure was associated with increased odds of invasive NTM infection; laboratory testing identified patient isolates and HCD samples as closely related strains of M. chimaera, a MAC species. This investigation confirmed a large US outbreak of invasive MAC

2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

387. Long-term Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort with Respiratory Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

radiographically as infiltrate, nodules, or cavities and microbiologically as a positive respiratory mycobacterial culture. We used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with evidence of persistence.The study included 172 patients (62% of 278 eligible); those not included either refused consent (n = 47) or were not located (n = 56). One hundred two (59%) included patients met case criteria at baseline. Mycobacterium avium complex was commonly isolated among baseline cases (n = 91 [89

2017 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

388. Nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections at a specialized tuberculosis treatment centre in the Republic of Korea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and incidence of Tb using National statistics data.The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of NTM infection per 100,000 population increased between 2009 (9.4) and 2016 (36.1). However, the prevalence and incidence of Tb per 100,000 population decreased from 106.5 to 74.4, and 81.2 to 61.8, respectively. In total, 64 patients (37 [57.8%] men) were enrolled in the study. Among 33 (51.6%) patients with slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SGM) infection, 29 were detected with Mycobacterium avium complex (...) (n = 13, M. avium; n = 16, M. intracellulare), and 4 with M. kansasii. Among 31 (48.4%) patients with rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGM) infection, 27 and 4 patients were detected with M. abscessus complex and M. fortuitum complex, respectively. RGM patients were more likely to have current Tb (P = 0.041), cough (P < 0.05), and sputum (P < 0.01) than SGM patients in the univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate analysis.Given the increasing prevalence of NTM infections

2017 BMC Infectious Diseases

389. Mortality after Respiratory Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: A Comparison of Patients Who Did and Did Not Meet Disease Criteria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

factors with death.Of 368 subjects with respiratory NTM isolates in 2005-2006, 316 were included in the survival analysis. Most (84%) of their cultures isolated Mycobacterium avium complex. 35.1% died in the 5 years following respiratory isolation. Five-year age-adjusted mortality rates were slightly higher for those meeting (28.7/1,000) versus not meeting (23.4/1,000) ATS/IDSA criteria. In multivariate analysis, older age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.07 (...) ) diagnostic criteria identify those at higher risk of death after NTM isolation.We linked vital records registries with a previously identified Oregon population-based cohort of patients with NTM respiratory isolation. We excluded patients with Mycobacterium gordonae (n = 33) and those who died (n = 21) at the time of first isolation. We calculated 5-year age-adjusted mortality rates. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis to examine the association of ATS/IDSA criteria and other risk

2017 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

390. Evaluation of the new GenoType NTM-DR kit for the molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance in non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the new GenoType NTM-DR kit for the molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance in non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens causing difficult-to-treat infections. We tested a new assay (GenoType NTM-DR) that detects natural and acquired resistance mechanisms to macrolides and aminoglycosides in frequently isolated NTM species.Performance was assessed on 102 isolates including reference strains [16 Mycobacterium avium , 10 (...) with Sanger sequencing for 100/102 (98%) isolates. The erm(41) genotypic pattern was accurately identified for M. abscessus isolates . Mutations in rrl were detected in 15 isolates (7 M. avium complex, 5 M. abscessus and 3 M. chelonae ) with acquired clarithromycin resistance harbouring rrl mutations (a2057c, a2058g, a2058t or a2059c). Mutations in rrs were detected in five isolates with amikacin resistance harbouring the rrs mutation a1408g. In two isolates, the NTM-DR test revealed an rrl mutation

2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

391. Safety and Effectiveness of Clofazimine for Primary and Refractory Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection. (Abstract)

, 41 (37%) had Mycobacterium avium complex, and 16 (14%) had two NTM species. The median duration of clofazimine use was 383 days (range, 3-2,419 days). Sixteen patients (14%) stopped clofazimine due to an ADR after a median of 101 days (95% CI, 63-119). Forty-one of 82 patients (50%) with pulmonary disease converted to negative NTM cultures within 12 months.Clofazimine was a safe, reasonably tolerated, and active oral drug for NTM infection in our heterogeneous population of pediatric and adult CF (...) observational-cohort study assessed clofazimine as used for pediatric and adult cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary NTM infection as part of a multidrug regimen from 2006 to 2014. Treatment regimens and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were captured.A total of 112 patients were included (median age, 62 years); 24 patients (21%) had CF. Eighty-seven (78%) had refractory disease with failure of previous therapy. Fifty-four patients (48%) had Mycobacterium abscessus complex

2017 Chest

392. Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria-Associated Deaths, Ontario, Canada, 2001-2013. Full Text available with Trip Pro

matching and Cox proportional hazards models to compare survival. Among 9,681 NTM-PD patients and 10,936 NTM-PI patients, 87% and 91%, respectively, were successfully matched with unexposed controls. Both NTM-PD and NTM-PI were associated with higher rates of death for all species combined and for most individual species. Compared with NTM-PI, NTM-PD was associated with higher death rates for all species combined, Mycobacterium avium complex, and M. xenopi. NTM-PD and NTM-PI were significantly

2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

394. Chronic Mycobacterium abscessus infection and lung function decline in cystic fibrosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

(AFB) cultures grew NTM, with Mycobacterium abscessus (n=298, 55.6%) and Mycobacterium avium complex (n=190, 35.4%) most common. Associated bacterial cultures grew Stenotrophomonas or Aspergillus species more often when NTM were isolated (18.2% vs. 8.4% and 13.9% vs. 7.2%, respectively, p<0.01). After controlling for confounders, patients with chronic M. abscessus infection had greater rates of lung function decline than those with no NTM infection (-2.52 vs. -1.64% predicted FEV(1)/year, p<0.05 (...) Chronic Mycobacterium abscessus infection and lung function decline in cystic fibrosis Although nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are recognized pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF), associations with clinical outcomes remain unclear.Microbiological data was obtained from 1216 CF patients over 8years (481+/-55patients/year). Relationships to clinical outcomes were examined in the subset (n=271, 203+/-23 patients/year) with longitudinal data.Five hundred thirty-six of 4862 (11%) acid-fast bacilli

2010 Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society

395. In vitro activity of a new Isothiazoloquinolone (ACH-702) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

/ml in both cases; Mycobacterium avium complex isolates showed MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of 0.25 and 4 microg/ml, respectively. (...) In vitro activity of a new Isothiazoloquinolone (ACH-702) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria. In this work, we describe the activity of ACH-702 against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and six different nontuberculous mycobacteria. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of both susceptible and drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains tested were 0.0625 and 0.125 microg/ml, respectively. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for Mycobacterium fortuitum isolates were 0.0625 microg

2010 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

396. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing and Sequencing Combined with Acid-Fast Staining in Needle Biopsy Lung Tissues for the Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

% [165/181]) than histological acid-fast staining (71.8% [130/181]), P < 0.001. Parallel testing of histological AFB staining and PCR showed the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy to be 94.0% (125/133), 95.8% (46/48), 98.4% (125/127), 85.2% (46/54), and 94.5% (171/181), respectively. Among patients with positive AFB and negative PCR results in lung tissue specimens, two were diagnosed with NTM infections (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex and Mycobacterium kansasii).Nucleic

2016 PLoS ONE

397. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Children - A Focus on Bloodstream Infections. (Abstract)

patients were considered clinically significant. Of the 54 children who met criteria for NTM disease, 25 (46.3%) had lymphadenitis, 13 (24.1%) lung disease, 8 (14.8%) had soft tissue infection or osteomyelitis and 8 (14.8%) had bacteremia. All children with bacteremia had a central venous catheter; those with pulmonary infection had underlying lung disease and all children with soft tissue infection or osteomyelitis had a history of recent penetrating injury. Disease caused by Mycobacterium avium (...) -intracellulare complex was most common, accounting for 19 (76.0%) and 7 (53.8%) lymph node and lung infections, respectively. The most frequently isolated rapid growing mycobacteria were Mycobacterium fortuitum (8; 15%) and Mycobacterium abscessus (6; 11%), with M. fortuitum accounting for the majority (6; 75%) of bloodstream infections. Six (75%) patients with bacteremia had their intravenous catheter removed and all had a favorable outcome. A single disease relapse was reported in 1 of 2 patients

2016 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

398. Randomized Trial of Liposomal Amikacin for Inhalation in Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomized Trial of Liposomal Amikacin for Inhalation in Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease. Lengthy, multidrug, toxic, and low-efficacy regimens limit management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.In this phase II study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) in treatment-refractory pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] or Mycobacterium abscessus) disease.During the double-blind phase

2016 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

399. Real time PCR for the rapid identification and drug susceptibility of Mycobacteria present in Bronchial washings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

mediated multiplex real-time PCR assay was able to identify the presence of genus Mycobacterium in 25 out of 26 AFB positive isolates, two M. tuberculosis complex, three M. avium complex and two isolates belonging to M. chelonae-M. abscessus group. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of M. tuberculosis, M. chelonae-M. abscessus, M. intracellulare, M. avium, Rhodococcus sp. and M. celatum. Remaining isolates were identified as Mycobacterium sp. All the NTM isolates were sensitive to amikacin and seven (...) Real time PCR for the rapid identification and drug susceptibility of Mycobacteria present in Bronchial washings. Mycobacteria have a spectrum of virulence and different susceptibilities to antibiotics. Distinguishing mycobacterial species is vital as patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections present clinical features that are similar to those of patients with tuberculosis. Thus, rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from NTM is critical to administer

2016 BMC Infectious Diseases

400. A Laboratory-Based Analysis of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease in Japan from 2012 to 2013. (Abstract)

the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria for NTM lung disease, resulting in a 2-year prevalence rate of 24.0 per 100,000. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was the most commonly isolated species (93.3%), and 29.0% of the patients from whom MAC was isolated satisfied the criteria for NTM lung disease. Individuals older than 70 years of age accounted for the majority of cases, and 65.5% of cases involved females. After MAC, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium (...) abscessus exhibited the highest (43.6%) and second-highest (37.1%) incidence per isolation, respectively. The prevalence of M. kansasii was highest in the Kinki region (P < 0.05), and M. abscessus had the greatest prevalence in the Kyushu-Okinawa region (P < 0.005). The proportion of Mycobacterium intracellulare in MAC cases was higher in the southwestern part of Japan than in other regions. The period prevalence was highest in the southwestern part of Japan, and the standardized prevalence ratio

2016 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

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