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Pulmonary Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Catalonia, Spain, 1994-2014. In Spain, systematic reporting of pulmonary infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria is not mandatory. Therefore, to determine trends, we retrospectively identified cases for January 1994-December 2014 in Catalonia. Over the 21 years, prevalence increased and was associated with being male. Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex and M. abscessus prevalence increased; M. kansasii prevalence decreased.
this cohort. Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) (38.4%) was most frequently isolated followed by Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum) (16.6%), Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex (MAC) (16.3%), Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) (15.4%), and Mycobacterium gordonae (M. gordonae) (6.8%). Most (91%) NTM was isolated from the respiratory tract. The three most common non-pulmonary sites were; blood (2.7%), skin wounds and abscesses (2.1%), and gastric aspirates (1.1%). A third (34.4%) of the study population
longitudinal trends.The positive rate of NTM specimens increased from 8.2 per 100,000 persons in 1994 to 16 per 100,000 persons in 2014 (or 13.3 per 100,000 after excluding Mycobacterium gordonae). Changes in NTM diversity were observed in complex/groups known to be clinically significant. Between 1994 and 2014 the rate implicating M. abscesses-chelonae group and M. aviumcomplex increased by 322 and 149%, respectively.Based on public health data supplied by the four State's Health Departments and the 2014 (...) Increasing nontuberculous mycobacteria reporting rates and species diversity identified in clinical laboratory reports. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental microorganisms that can affect human health. A 2009-2010 occurrence survey of NTM in potable tap water samples indicated an increased recovery rate for many clinically significant species such as M. avium (30%) and M. abscessus (12%). To determine if these trends by species were mirrored in human infections, isolation rates
Amikacin Inhalation as Salvage Therapy for Refractory Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease. Although guidelines recommend amikacin (AMK) inhalation therapy for difficult-to-treat nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM-LD), data are limited regarding the safety and clinical efficacy of this salvage therapy. We retrospectively evaluated the treatment outcomes of 77 patients with refractory NTM-LD caused by Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) or M. aviumcomplex (MAC) who initiated
. A previously unreported stem cell transplant recipient from our institution diagnosed with MSP was also included. Demographics, comorbidities, site of infection, treatment and clinical outcomes were analysed.Fifty-one patients were analysed. Twenty-six (51%) had HIV infection. Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex was the most frequent organism isolated in 24 (47.1%) followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in eight (16%) cases. Lymph nodes were the most common site of infection (45.1%). Twenty (39.2
Chest Hospital with positive mycobacterial cultures during 2013-2016. We described sex, age, residence, treatment history, laboratory examination results and comorbidities of pulmonary NTM patients.Among the 607 NTM cases, the most prevalent species were Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex (44.5%), Mycobacterium abscessus complex (40.5%), Mycobacterium kansasii (10.0%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum (2.8%). The male:female ratio was significantly lower among patients infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria (...) that the M. aviumcomplex is the most predominant causative agent of pulmonary NTM disease in Southern China. Female, migrant population, the presence of bronchiectasis are independent risk factors for pulmonary diseases due to RGM. In addition, the prevalence of SGM increases significantly with advancing age.
sequencing. M. aviumcomplex and M. fortuitum were the most common NTM identified. (...) Increasing Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Specimens from US-Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions1. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) respiratory infections represent a growing public health problem in many countries. However, there are limited published epidemiologic studies for the Western Pacific region. We reviewed respiratory specimens submitted to Diagnostic Laboratory Services in Hawaii, USA, for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during August
the results of 288 patients, 29.5% (85/288; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.3-35.1) had PDH. The sensitivity of ALPHA-HUAg was 67.1% (95% CI, 56-76.8%) and the specificity was 97.5% (95% CI, 94.3%-99.1%). The positive likelihood ratio was 27.2 (95% CI; 11.6-74.4). In 10.5% of the PDH-proven patients, a co-existing opportunistic infection was diagnosed, mostly disseminated Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex infection.We observed a high specificity but low sensitivity of IMMY-HUAg. The test may be useful to start
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: No Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: Yes Device Product Not Approved or Cleared by U.S. FDA: No Keywords provided by Savara Inc.: Non-tuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infection Cystic Fibrosis (CF) M. aviumcomplex (MAC) M. abscessus complex (MABSC) Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table (...) of CF according to CFF 2017 consensus guidelines. History of chronic pulmonary infection with M. aviumcomplex (MAC) or M. abscessus complex (MABSC) with at least 3 positive samples within the previous 2 years. Subject is either on a chronic multidrug NTM guideline based chronic antimycobacterial regimen, stopped such a regimen due to intolerability or lack of effect, or failed to fulfil the criteria for starting such a regimen. Ability to produce sputum or be willing to undergo sputum induction
, USA. Tarnasky Paul P Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. Kedia Prashant P Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. eng Journal Article 2018 02 01 United States VideoGIE 101719677 2468-4481 CMV, cytomegalovirus LAMS, lumen-apposing metal stent MAC, Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex SBO, small-bowel obstruction 2018 6 20 6 0 2018 6 20 6 0 2018 6 20 6 1 epublish 29916480 10.1016/j.vgie.2017.12.001 S2468-4481(17)30251-5 PMC6004025 Colorectal Dis. 2014 Apr;16(4):O150-3 24206040
, Legionella, Pseudomonas, Cryptosporidium, Enterococci, Giardia, Aeromonas, and MycobacteriumaviumComplex (MAC) have been detected in rainwater collected in Australia. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that drinking rainwater does not increase the risk of gastrointestinal disease. It was also identified that there is a need for further research investigating the potential for rainwater to be a source of infection for opportunistic pathogens.
. Geographic patterns were described and mapped.Of 16,153 included persons with CF, 3,211 (20%) had a pathogenic NTM species isolated at least once over the 5-year period; 1,949 (61%) had Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex (MAC), and 1,249 (39%) had M. abscessus. The period prevalence was 12% for MAC (confidence interval [CI], 12-13%), 8% for M. abscessus (CI, 7-8%), and 4% for other NTM species (CI, 3.8-4.3%). The period prevalence for MAC was nearly three times greater among patients ≥60 years old with a body
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: an Italian National survey. The incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is increasing in Europe. However, a picture of Italian epidemiology and clinical practice is missing. We performed a national Italian survey involving 42 respiratory medicine departments. The NTM species more frequently isolated were Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex, followed by M. xenopi and M. kansasii. Patients with NTM were more frequently female (57
antiretroviral therapy has transformed the course of the disease, extending the life expectancy of individuals with HIV by many years. ? STIs have a complex synergistic relationship with HIV. Most STIs play an enhancing role in the acquisition and transmission of HIV, while HIV may alter the natural history and response to treatment of some STIs. ? HBV is transmitted through mucous membrane contact (including unprotected sexual contact), blood-to-blood contact, mother-to-child transmission and intrafamilial (...) of the new viral RNA occurs in a structured replication complex that includes: nonstructural (NS)3,/NS4A, (protease complex), NS4B, NS5A NS5B (polymerase). The viral polymerase/replicase (NS5B) copies the viral RNA in the cytoplasm and, as soon as a pool of progeny RNA molecules and core proteins is present, assembly of the nucleocapsids occurs. Mature HCV virions then develop and bud through the plasma membrane. The new direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are specifically focused
to drug resistance and malnourished infants are highly susceptible. TB can be very complex and this post will hopefully give you the backbone to TB management, its diagnosis and a starter guide to treatment. All TB patients should be discussed with an expert. Q1. What is Tuberculosis (TB)? Answer and interpretation A disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is an acid-fast fungus-like bacterium. Slow generation time – approx 17hrs which is why it can take weeks to culture. Q2 (...) protein derivative (PPD) is derived from human strains of M. tuberculosis, and consists of several antigenic components. All available tuberculins are subject to significant cross-reactivity with other species of mycobacteria, including BCG-bovis, and environmental mycobacteria, M. aviumcomplex (MAC). This results in a significant reduction of both sensitivity and specificity. A positive response on skin testing is therefore a measure of previous exposure/infection potentially to several
, or their associated fomites (Table 4). However, the true burden of illness associated with zoonoses is difficult to determine, due to the complex dynamic relationship between the host pathogen and the environment. Overall, it is estimated that there are approximately 1.4 million cases of Salmonella infections, including 400 deaths in the U.S., annually for all causes. 10 In Canada, approximately 5,500 cases of Salmonella infections are reported annually. 11 A population survey, conducted by Thomas et al (...) generate innovative solutions to these complex problems. Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following individuals for their valuable input and review of the draft document: Andrew Papadopoulos, Scott Weese, Malcolm Weir, Grant Maxie, Rita Finley, Erin Leonard, James Flint, Mark Samadhin, Lisa Landry, Andrea Nesbitt, Andenye- Chablitt-Clark, Allison McArthur, Louise Sharpe, Adrienne Kong, Davendra Sharma, Kelly Bunzeluk, Elsabé du Plessis, and Nelson Fok. References 1. Chomel BB, Belotto
, disseminated presentation of an OI or marked worsening of a previously diagnosed OI. IRIS was first described in 1998, with the identification of five HIV+ patients with CD4 counts less than 50 cells/microliter who developed the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) shortly after treatment with the protease inhibitor indinavir; subsequent lymph node biopsies revealed a massive immune response to disseminated Mycobacteriumaviumcomplex (MAC) infection . IRIS has been described in response (...) . J Immunol, 1988. 141(8): p. 2749-54. 7. Orme, I.M., et al., Cytokine secretion by CD4 T lymphocytes acquired in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol, 1993. 151(1): p. 518-25. 8. Hansch, H.C., et al., Mechanisms of granuloma formation in murine Mycobacteriumavium infection: the contribution of CD4+ T cells. Int Immunol, 1996. 8(8): p. 1299-310. 9. Geldmacher, C., et al., Early depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T helper 1 cell responses after HIV-1 infection