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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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321. Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Southeast Asian and African Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children With Suspected Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Southeast Asian and African Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children With Suspected Tuberculosis. We enrolled 427 human immunodeficiency virus-infected children (median age, 7.3 years), 59.2% severely immunodeficient, with suspected tuberculosis in Southeast Asian and African settings. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were isolated in 46 children (10.8%); 45.7% of isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex. Southeast Asian origin, age 5-9 years

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

322. Long-term natural history of non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease. (Abstract)

patients with newly diagnosed non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic NTM-PD caused by Mycobacterium avium complex or M. abscessus between 2003 and 2013.Of 1,021 patients, 562 (55%) initiated antibiotic treatment and 459 (45%) did not. Young age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-0.99), low body mass index (aHR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93-0.99), previous history of tuberculosis (aHR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.50), respiratory complaints such as cough (aHR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.05

2019 Respiratory medicine

323. Novel external quality assurance scheme for drug susceptibility testing of non-tuberculous mycobacteria: a multicentre pilot study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

using identical panels of 10 Mycobacterium avium (MAV) and Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) isolates. EQA results were received from 16 laboratories utilizing the broth microdilution method. Consensus modal MIC values were determined, and essential and categorical agreement rates were calculated.Twenty-four out of 31 laboratories (77.4%) reported DST for NTM routinely. Essential agreement ranged from 78.8% (amikacin) to 96.2% (linezolid) for MAV and from 76.0% (amikacin) to 100% (doxycycline) for MAB (...) . Categorical agreement ranged from 56.8% (moxifloxacin) to 100% (clarithromycin) for MAV and from 53.6% (linezolid) to 100% (doxycycline) for MAB.Our results show that interlaboratory reproducibility of DST for NTM is insufficient, highlighting the need for expanding EQA schemes. As EQAs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have led to more reliable and reproducible DST, we propose to follow a similar approach for clinically relevant NTM.

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

324. Non-traumatic perforation of the jejunum in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient receiving combination antiretroviral therapy: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Non-traumatic perforation of the jejunum in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient receiving combination antiretroviral therapy: A case report. Non-traumatic bowel perforation caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections has become rare among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART); however, CMV-associated and MAC-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has

2019 Medicine

325. Clinical relevance of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial isolates in three reference centres in Belgium: a multicentre retrospective analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

analysis of all patients identified from the laboratory database with > 1 respiratory sample growing NTM from January 2010 through December 2017. We collected clinical, radiological and microbiological data through medical record review and assessed clinical relevance according to ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD).Of the 384 unique patients, 60% were male, 56% had a smoking history and 61% had pre-existing lung disease. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), M. gordonae and M. xenopi

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

326. Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial comparing intermittent versus daily treatment for non-cavitary nodular/bronchiectatic Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial comparing intermittent versus daily treatment for non-cavitary nodular/bronchiectatic Standard treatment for nodular/bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (NB MAC-LD), excluding severe-status cases, differs between Japan and other countries. Internationally, three-drug combination intermittent treatment (three times a week administration) with macrolide, ethambutol and rifampicin is recommended, but a daily treatment regimen

2019 BMJ open respiratory research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

327. Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from specimens of pulmonary tuberculosis suspects, Northern Tunisia: 2002-2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

species were M. fortuitum (16.6%), M. novocastrense (16.6%), M. chelonae (10.0%), M. gordonae (6.6%), M. gadium (6.6%), M. peregrinum (3.3%), M. porcinum (3.3%), and M. flavescens (3.3%). There were no bacteria of the M. avium complex, the most frequently isolated NTM globally, and the main driver of the rise of NTM-lung diseases.This study uncovered an exceptional low prevalence of PNTM isolation among HIV-negative TB suspects in Northern Tunisia, suggesting a very low burden of NTM pulmonary disease (...) /100,000 was estimated. As far as could be ascertained, this isolation rate accounts amongst the lowest reported hitherto throughout the world. Among the 30 NTM isolates that were available for culture, 27 (90.0%) have been identified to the species level. The most commonly encountered species was Mycobacterium kansasii (23.3%) subtype 1. Strikingly, all M. kansasii cases were male patients originating from Bizerte, an industrialized region particularly known for iron industry. The remaining NTM

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

328. Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are mycobacteria, other than those in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and are commonly found in the environment. Nontuberculous mycobacteria species (most commonly Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus) are isolated from the respiratory tract of approximately 5% to 20% of individuals with cystic fibrosis; they can cause lung disease in people (...) available, it is reasonable for clinicians to follow the American Thoracic Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nodular or bronchiectatic pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium abscessus in patients with cystic fibrosis.

2012 Cochrane

329. Adjuvant lung resection in the management of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection: A retrospective matched cohort study. (Abstract)

surgically treated patients, matched 1:1 for age, sex, NTM species, and radiologic pattern of disease, with control patients treated exclusively with antibiotics.In the surgical group, the median (IQR) age was 55 (49-61) years and 74.1% were female. Eighteen patients had Mycobacterium avium complex, and 9 had M. xenopi. Operations included 8 pneumonectomies, 20 lobectomies, one segmentectomy and one lobectomy plus segmentectomy. Post-surgical complications occurred in 6 patients (20%), including 2 acute

2018 Respiratory medicine

330. Prolonged-Use of Inhaled Gaseous Nitric Oxide (gNO) for Adult With Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Infection

. Has been previously diagnosed with NTM. [NTM defined as positive culture(s) of at least one species of Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium abscessus Complex (MABSC)] Has been previously treated with gNO for 15 days without complete eradication of NTM but with a decrease of at least 1-2 points on cultures. Male or female ≥19 years of age. Female not pregnant at time of study. Oxygen saturation on room air ≥92% at screening. (able to breathe without supplemental oxygen for 60 minutes (...) drug resistance Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Pneumonia Mycobacterium Infections Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous Lung Diseases Respiratory Tract Diseases Respiratory Tract Infections Actinomycetales Infections Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections Bacterial Infections Nitric Oxide Bronchodilator Agents Autonomic Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Physiological Effects of Drugs Anti-Asthmatic Agents Respiratory System Agents Free Radical Scavengers

2018 Clinical Trials

331. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of a Novel Benzimidazole, SPR719, Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of a Novel Benzimidazole, SPR719, Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) infections are increasing globally. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium abscessus are the most frequently encountered NTM among clinical laboratories, and treatment options are extremely limited. In this study, the in vitro potency of a novel benzimidazole, SPR719, the microbiologically active form of the orally available prodrug SPR720 (...) , was tested against several species of NTM. MICs were determined for 161 isolates of NTM of 13 taxa (seven species, three subspecies, and three groups/complexes) in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton Broth, as described and recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M24-A2). Comparator antimicrobials included amikacin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, imipenem, linezolid, minocycline, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

332. MmpL3 as a Target for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

MmpL3 as a Target for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infections are emerging as a global health problem and pose a threat to susceptible individuals with structural or functional lung conditions such as cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) species account for 70-95% of the pulmonary NTM (...) in the export of the building blocks of the outer membrane of all mycobacteria known as the mycolic acids. This perspective reflects on the therapeutic potential of MmpL3 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and NTM and the possible reasons underlying the outstanding promiscuity of this target. It further analyzes the physiological and structural factors that may account for the apparent looser structure-activity relationship of some of these compound series against M. tuberculosis compared to NTM.

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

333. Sputum Detection of Predisposing Genetic Mutations in Women with Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sputum Detection of Predisposing Genetic Mutations in Women with Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM), including Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), is a growing health problem in North America and worldwide. Little is known about the molecular alterations occurring in the tissue microenvironment during NTM pathogenesis. Utilizing next generation sequencing, we sequenced sputum and matched lymphocyte DNA in 15 MAC patients for a panel

2018 Scientific reports

334. Occam’s razor need not apply: Advanced HIV infection presenting with five simultaneous opportunistic infections and central nervous system lymphoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

(ART) for several years developed advanced HIV infection (CD4 count 19 cells/uL) and presented with five simultaneous opportunistic infections including Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bloodstream infection, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia. Simultaneously, he was found to have primary central nervous system (CNS) B-cell lymphoma. Treatment decisions for such patients are often complex

2018 IDCases

335. Epidemiology of and risk factors for extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Northeast Thailand Full Text available with Trip Pro

retrieved from medical records, reviewed and analyzed. A diagnosis of true NTM infection was accepted in 150 cases. Risk factor analyses were done for extrapulmonary NTM infections compared to pulmonary NTM infections and for Mycobacterium abscessus compared to members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Trend analysis among NTM species causing NTM infections was performed.The most common species of NTMs causing extrapulmonary (n = 114) and pulmonary (n = 36) NTM infections in Northeast Thailand

2018 PeerJ

336. The Many Lives of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Many Lives of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include species that colonize human epithelia, as well as species that are ubiquitous in soil and aquatic environments. NTM that primarily inhabit soil and aquatic environments include the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, M. avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare) and the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC, M. abscessus subspecies abscessus, massiliense, and bolletii), and can be free-living, biofilm-associated (...) , or amoeba-associated. Although NTM are rarely pathogenic in immunocompetent individuals, those who are immunocompromised - due to either an inherited or acquired immunodeficiency - are highly susceptible to NTM infection (NTMI). Several characteristics such as biofilm formation and the ability of select NTM species to form distinct colony morphotypes all may play a role in pathogenesis not observed in the related, well-characterized pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis The recognition of different

2018 Journal of bacteriology

337. Two cases of cavitary lung cancer with concomitant chronic infectious disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

lung cancer with concomitant chronic infectious disease. One patient showed pulmonary aspergillosis and lung adenocarcinoma, the other patient showed Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease and lung adenocarcinoma. These chronic infectious diseases develop slowly, and clinicians often follow up over several months. To reduce the delay in diagnosis of malignancy, clinicians should aggressively collect the specimens from cavitary lesions and make a correct diagnosis when encountering lung cavity

2018 Respiratory Medicine Case Reports

338. Tubercular Mycobacterial Spindle Cell Pseudotumour: A Case Report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tubercular Mycobacterial Spindle Cell Pseudotumour: A Case Report Pseudotumour is a benign inflammatory lesion. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumour (MSP) is a rare pseudotumour. It is a benign proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes containing acid-fast mycobacterium, commonly reported in immunocompromised patients. MSP is usually associated with mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Here, we present the case of a 38-year-old gentleman with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who (...) antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was continued and anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) was started. The fever resolved within two weeks and there was a resolution of lymph nodal swelling by 6 weeks. The diagnosis of MSP associated with mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) makes our case interesting. It is of utmost importance to differentiate MSP from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and other pseudotumours and to know whether it is of tubercular or non-tubercular origin, as the treatment is entirely different.

2018 Iranian journal of medical sciences

339. Identification of sero-reactive antigens for the early diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identification of sero-reactive antigens for the early diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease of cattle and other ruminants. JD has a high herd prevalence and causes serious animal health problems and significant economic loss in domesticated ruminants throughout the world. Since serological detection of MAP infected animals during the early stages (...) of infection remains challenging due to the low sensitivity of extant assays, we screened 180 well-characterized serum samples using a whole proteome microarray from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), a close relative of MAP. Based on extensive testing of serum and milk samples, fecal culture and qPCR for direct detection of MAP, the samples were previously assigned to one of 4 groups: negative low exposure (n = 30, NL); negative high exposure (n = 30, NH); fecal positive, ELISA negative (n = 60, F+E

2017 PLoS ONE

340. Higher-than-expected prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in HIV setting in Botswana: Implications for diagnostic algorithms using Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Higher-than-expected prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in HIV setting in Botswana: Implications for diagnostic algorithms using Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause pulmonary infection and disease especially among people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV with NTM disease may clinically present with one of the four symptoms consistent with tuberculosis (TB). We describe the prevalence of NTM and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolated among PLHIV who (...) % confidence interval, 46-66%) with NTM. M. intracellulare was the most common isolated (47.8%). Other NTMs commonly associated with pulmonary disease included M. malmoense (3.9%), M. avium (2.2%), M. abscessus (0.9%) and M. kansasii (0.4%). After excluding NTM isolates that were non-speciated and M. gordonae 154 (67.5%) of the NTM isolates were potential pathogens.In the setting of HIV care and treatment, over-half (56%) of a positive sputum culture among PLHIV with TB symptoms was NTM. Though we were

2017 PLoS ONE

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