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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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301. The impact of adjuvant surgical treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease on prognosis and outcome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with antibiotics who were matched statistically 1:1 using a propensity score calculated from age, sex, body mass index, and radiologic features of disease.In the surgically treated patients, the median age was 58 (interquartile range, 47-65) years and 65.7% were female. Twenty-eight patients had Mycobacterium avium complex. Operations comprised four pneumonectomies, two bilobectomies, one bilobectomy plus segmentectomy, 17 lobectomies, two segmentectomies, and nine lobectomies plus segmentectomies

2020 Respiratory research

302. Preliminary validation of the NTM Module: a patient-reported outcome measure for patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. (Abstract)

Preliminary validation of the NTM Module: a patient-reported outcome measure for patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause chronic, debilitating pulmonary disease. Patient-reported outcomes provide measures of symptoms, functioning and treatment response. Here we describe the preliminary validation of the recently developed NTM Module.The study population included Northwest NTM Biobank patients in whom Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC

2020 European Respiratory Journal

303. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of Clofazimine among Clinical Isolates of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria and Its Impact on Treatment Outcome. (Abstract)

for clofazimine were measured in clinical isolates from NTM-PD patients who participated in a prospective study at Seoul National University Hospital. The MIC was determined by using the broth microdilution concentration method. Correlation between MIC and conversion to negative of sputum culture with clofazimine was determined.Of a total 189 isolates, 133 strains were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and 40 strains were M abscessus. Although the clofazimine MICs for MAC ranged from 0.031 mg/L to 8 mg/L

2020 Chest

304. Urine lipoarabinomannan as a marker for low-risk of NTM infection in the CF airway. Full Text available with Trip Pro

developed NTM disease 657 days after the initial urine LAM testing. Repeat urine LAM testing turned positive, correlating to her positive NTM status. Subjects infected with subspecies of M. abscessus had greater LAM quantities than those infected with M. avium complex (MAC). There was no correlation with disease activity or treatment status and LAM quantity. A TB Capture ELISA using anti-LAM antibodies demonstrated very poor sensitivity in identifying individuals with positive NTM sputum cultures.These (...) species, and has been validated as a biomarker in urine for active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.Urine from a CF cohort (n = 44) well-characterized for NTM infection status by airway cultures was analyzed for LAM by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All subjects with positive sputum cultures for NTM had varying amounts of LAM in their urine. No LAM was detected in subjects who never had a positive culture (14/45). One individual initially classified as NTM sputum negative subsequently

2020 Journal of Cystic Fibrosis

305. Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are mycobacteria, other than those in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and are commonly found in the environment. Nontuberculous mycobacteria species (most commonly Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus) are isolated from the respiratory tract of approximately 5% to 20% of individuals with cystic fibrosis; they can cause lung disease in people (...) available, it is reasonable for clinicians to follow the American Thoracic Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nodular or bronchiectatic pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium abscessus in patients with cystic fibrosis.

2014 Cochrane

306. Tuberculosis (TB): care of the child and protection of staff and patients

in October 2015. Update of Clinical Guideline 117 Tuberculosis- clinical diagnosis, and measures for its prevention and control, incorporating PH37 Tuberculosis - Hard to reach Groups. Topics included Diagnostic procedures, Infectious diseases, Mental health/ behavioural conditions, Public health and, Respiratory. M.TB is usually caused by an organism in the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, usually mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB) or mycobacterium Bovis (M. Bovis). M.TB will now be referred to as TB (...) (Tuberculosis) in this document. There are other environmental or atypical mycobacterial species (for example, mycobacterium avium or mycobacterium maimoense), which do not have the same degree of infectivity and are therefore not covered by this guideline. This guideline does not cover BCG vaccination, as this is not currently performed routinely within the Trust. If necessary, please refer to NICE guideline ( ); refer to GP or local TB team. Please also note that staff pre-employment screening

2015 Publication 1593

307. U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of nontuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

% but with considerable variation between individual states (0–28%). The NTM species most commonly identified in individuals with CF from North America and Europe are the slow-growing Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (including M. avium , M. intracellulare and M. chimaera ), which can be found in up to 72% of NTM-positive sputum cultures, and the rapid-growing M. abscessus complex (MABSC) (comprising the subspecies M. abscessus subsp abscessus ( M. a. abscessus ), M. a. bolletii and M. a. massiliense , (the latter (...) are listed in with important side effects/toxicities described in . View this table: Table 2 Antibiotic-dosing regimens used to treat Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus complex pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis View this table: Table 3 Important side effects/toxicities of antibiotics and advisable monitoring procedures for MAC and MABSC in CF Figure 2 Typical treatment schedules for individuals with CF with Mycobacterium abscessus or MAC pulmonary disease. (A) M. abscessus

2016 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

308. NASPGHAN Clinical Report: Surveillance, Diagnosis, and Prevention of Infectious Diseases in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Receiving Tumor Necrosis Factor - alpha Inhibitors

with IBD treated with anti-TNFa agents are at increased risk of developing NTM infections (77). It is unknown if pediatric patients with IBD receiving anti-TNFa therapy are similarly at increased risk of NTM infections and whether risk is impacted by anti-TNFa therapy. One case of systemic Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection was reported in an 11-year-old girl with CD who presented with generalized lymphadenopathy after receipt of infliximab followed by adalimumab (96). Epidemiology. NTM (...) and Canadian pediatric (16,17) and adult position statements (18,19) provide some ID screening guidance, summarized in supplementary Table 1 ( A637). In general, the adult literature, both in rheumatology and gastroenterology patients, recommends testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) before initiating anti-TNFa (19–21). There are, how- ever, no US consensus statements to guide practices for the screen- ing

2016 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

309. Second line molecular diagnosis for bovine tuberculosis to improve diagnostic schemes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

respectively is additionally employed in France, partially compensating for the weaknesses of classical diagnostic methods. We analysed a collection of bTB-like lesions from cattle presenting positive histological results albeit with negative PCR results. We present here the results of these samples, recovered from 292 animals culled between 2013 and 2016, analysed with a second line molecular diagnosis approach that consists in a combination of PCRs targeting the M. tuberculosis-M. avium complexes as well (...) Second line molecular diagnosis for bovine tuberculosis to improve diagnostic schemes. Surveillance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is partly based on the sanitary inspection of carcasses at the abattoir to detect bTB-like lesions which, in compliance with EU recommendations, are analysed by bacteriology and histopathology to disclose Mycobacterium bovis (or M. caprae) infection. Moreover, since 2012, a PCR method with similar sensitivity and specificity values of histopathology and bacteriology

2018 PLoS ONE

310. Care of the Hospitalized Patient with Acute Exacerbation of COPD

) staining, which would detect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). A Pulmonary consult is also appropriate to assist with patients that are refractory to standard treatment. Supportive Care Patients hospitalized with AECOPD require additional supportive care, often including supplemental oxygen and sometimes ventilatory support. Supplemental oxygen. Oxygen should be provided to treat hypoxemia. The usual pulse-ox target is 88-92%, to prevent hypercapnea that can be seen with high-doses of oxygen. 3,4

2016 University of Michigan Health System

312. Deltyba - delamanid

Investigational medicinal product MDR TB Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis MedDRA Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities MGIT Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT®) MIC Minimum inhibitory concentration M. tb Mycobacterium tuberculosis OBR Optimized background regimen OPDC Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization O By mouth K Pharmacokinetics QTc Corrected QT interval QTcB Individually corrected QT interval using Bazett’s formula QTcF Individually corrected QT interval using Fridericia’s (...) opinion, the CHMP assessment report and the translation timetable were re-adopted via written procedure on 5 December 2013. 2. Scientific discussion 2.1. Introduction Problem statement Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Approximately 500,000 cases of MDR-TB occur globally every year which corresponds to approximately 5% of the world’s annual burden of tuberculosis. In Europe, Japan

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

313. Clofazimine inhalation suspension for the aerosol treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. (Abstract)

the tolerability and efficacy of a novel inhaled therapeutic in various mouse models of NTM disease.We developed clofazimine inhalation suspension (CIS), a novel formulation of clofazimine developed for inhaled administration. To determine the efficacy, minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated in vitro, and tolerability of CIS was determined in naïve mouse models over various durations. After establishing tolerability, CIS efficacy was tested in in vivo infection models of both Mycobacterium avium (...) and M. abscessus. Lung and plasma clofazimine levels after chronic treatments were evaluated.Clofazimine inhalation suspension demonstrated antimycobacterial activity in vitro, with MIC values between 0.125 and 2 μg/ml for M. avium complex and M. abscessus. Administration into naïve mice showed that CIS was well tolerated at doses up to 28 mg/kg over 28 consecutive treatments. In vivo, CIS was shown to significantly improve bacterial elimination from the lungs of both acute and chronic NTM-infected

2019 Journal of Cystic Fibrosis

314. Interrelational changes in the epidemiology and clinical features of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease and tuberculosis in a referral hospital in Japan. (Abstract)

changes in the epidemiology and clinical features of NTM-PD in relation to those of TB at a nationally-designated TB center in Japan.We reviewed all mycobacterial examination records at Fukujuji Hospital between 2006 and 2016. Cases of NTM-PD were defined according to the 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America microbiologic criteria. The current characteristics of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) were compared with those in the 1980s and circa 2000 (...) and in patients 50-74 years for NTM. The most common causative organism for NTM was Mycobacterium avium complex (87.3%), M. abscessus complex (5.5%) and M. kansasii (3.9%). Among patients with MAC-PD, the proportion of the nodular bronchiectatic (NB) form increased significantly from 60.0% to 84.4% between circa 2000 and 2016 (P < 0.01). Significant increases in the NB form were observed in both males (33.3%-70.7%, P < 0.01) and females (71.3%-89.2%, P < 0.01).The annual number of incident NTM-PD cases

2019 Respiratory medicine

315. Hemoptysis requiring bronchial artery embolization in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and analyzed.Among 183 patients with NTM lung disease, Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 64, 35%) was the major cause of NTM infection, followed by M. avium (n = 59, 32.2%) and M. abscessus complex (n = 40, 21.9%). Hemoptysis developed in 78 patients (42.6%), among whom 33 (42.3%) required bronchial artery embolization (BAE). Between patients with and without hemoptysis, there were no significant differences with respect to sex, radiographic manifestations, distribution over 3 lobes on chest computed tomography

2019 BMC pulmonary medicine

316. <i>In Vitro</i> Activity of Bedaquiline and Delamanid Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Including Macrolide-Resistant Clinical Isolates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Activity of Bedaquiline and Delamanid Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Including Macrolide-Resistant Clinical Isolates. We evaluated the in vitro activities of the antimicrobial drugs bedaquiline and delamanid against the major pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Delamanid showed high MIC values for all NTM except Mycobacterium kansasii However, bedaquiline showed low MIC values for the major pathogenic NTM, including M. avium complex, M. abscessus, M. massiliense

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

317. Strong increase of true and false positive mycobacterial cultures sent to the National Reference Centre in Belgium, 2007 to 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the numbers of analyses at the NRC and false positive cultures (interpreted as containing mycobacteria at referring clinical laboratories, but with no mycobacterial DNA detected by PCR in the NRC). We reviewed mycobacterial species identified and assessed trends over time of proportions of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) vs Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc), and false positive cultures vs NTM.ResultsFrom 2007 to 2016, analyses requests to the NRC doubled from 12.6 to 25.3 per 100,000 inhabitants (...) . A small but significant increase occurred in NTM vs MTBc proportions, from 57.9% (587/1,014) to 60.3% (867/1,437) (p < 0.001). Although NTM infection notification is not mandatory in Belgium, we annually received up to 8.6 NTM per 100,000 inhabitants. M. avium predominated (ca 20% of NTM cultures), but M. intracellulare culture numbers rose significantly, from 13.0% (74/587) of NTM cultures in 2007 to 21.0% (178/867) in 2016 (RR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.07). The number of false positive cultures also

2019 Euro Surveillance

318. A bedaquiline/clofazimine combination regimen might add activity to the treatment of clinically relevant non-tuberculous mycobacteria. (Abstract)

tuberculosis by broth microdilution for 30 isolates. Synergy testing was performed using the chequerboard method for 22 reference strains and clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Time-kill kinetics (TK) assays with resistance monitoring of bedaquiline alone and combined with clofazimine were performed for MAB CIP 104536 and M. avium ATCC 700898; bedaquiline/clarithromycin combinations were evaluated against M. avium ATCC 700898. Interactions were (...) A bedaquiline/clofazimine combination regimen might add activity to the treatment of clinically relevant non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections are hard to treat. New antimicrobial drugs and smarter combination regimens are needed.Our aim was to determine the in vitro activity of bedaquiline against NTM and assess its synergy with established antimycobacterials.We determined MICs of bedaquiline for clinically relevant NTM species and Mycobacterium

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

319. Clinical characteristics and etiologies of miliary nodules in the US; A single center study. (Abstract)

of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, Mycobacterium-avium complex, Epstein-Barr virus pneumonia, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, and primary lung cancer. Sputum was positive for acid fast bacilli in 4 cases (28%), and bronchoscopy had a 57% successful yield in miliary tuberculosis.Our study is the largest single-center data review evaluating the etiology of miliary nodules within the United States; most of the data exist in case reports.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 American Journal of Medicine

320. An evaluation of methods for the isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and patients assessed for lung transplantation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

RGM medium incubated at 30 °C than by any other method (sensitivity: 94.6% vs. 22.4% for conventional AFB culture; P < 0.0001). Significantly more isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus complex were isolated on RGM at 30 °C than by AFB culture (sensitivity: 96.1% vs. 58.8%; P < 0.0001). The recovery of Mycobacterium avium complex was also greater using RGM medium at 30 °C compared to AFB culture (sensitivity: 83% vs. 70.2%), although this difference was not statistically significant and a combination

2019 BMC pulmonary medicine

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