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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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281. Second line molecular diagnosis for bovine tuberculosis to improve diagnostic schemes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

respectively is additionally employed in France, partially compensating for the weaknesses of classical diagnostic methods. We analysed a collection of bTB-like lesions from cattle presenting positive histological results albeit with negative PCR results. We present here the results of these samples, recovered from 292 animals culled between 2013 and 2016, analysed with a second line molecular diagnosis approach that consists in a combination of PCRs targeting the M. tuberculosis-M. avium complexes as well (...) Second line molecular diagnosis for bovine tuberculosis to improve diagnostic schemes. Surveillance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is partly based on the sanitary inspection of carcasses at the abattoir to detect bTB-like lesions which, in compliance with EU recommendations, are analysed by bacteriology and histopathology to disclose Mycobacterium bovis (or M. caprae) infection. Moreover, since 2012, a PCR method with similar sensitivity and specificity values of histopathology and bacteriology

2018 PLoS ONE

282. Care of the Hospitalized Patient with Acute Exacerbation of COPD

) staining, which would detect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). A Pulmonary consult is also appropriate to assist with patients that are refractory to standard treatment. Supportive Care Patients hospitalized with AECOPD require additional supportive care, often including supplemental oxygen and sometimes ventilatory support. Supplemental oxygen. Oxygen should be provided to treat hypoxemia. The usual pulse-ox target is 88-92%, to prevent hypercapnea that can be seen with high-doses of oxygen. 3,4

2016 University of Michigan Health System

284. Deltyba - delamanid

Investigational medicinal product MDR TB Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis MedDRA Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities MGIT Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT®) MIC Minimum inhibitory concentration M. tb Mycobacterium tuberculosis OBR Optimized background regimen OPDC Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization O By mouth K Pharmacokinetics QTc Corrected QT interval QTcB Individually corrected QT interval using Bazett’s formula QTcF Individually corrected QT interval using Fridericia’s (...) opinion, the CHMP assessment report and the translation timetable were re-adopted via written procedure on 5 December 2013. 2. Scientific discussion 2.1. Introduction Problem statement Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Approximately 500,000 cases of MDR-TB occur globally every year which corresponds to approximately 5% of the world’s annual burden of tuberculosis. In Europe, Japan

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

285. Clinical characteristics and etiologies of miliary nodules in the US; A single center study. (Abstract)

of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, Mycobacterium-avium complex, Epstein-Barr virus pneumonia, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, and primary lung cancer. Sputum was positive for acid fast bacilli in 4 cases (28%), and bronchoscopy had a 57% successful yield in miliary tuberculosis.Our study is the largest single-center data review evaluating the etiology of miliary nodules within the United States; most of the data exist in case reports.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 American Journal of Medicine

286. A bedaquiline/clofazimine combination regimen might add activity to the treatment of clinically relevant non-tuberculous mycobacteria. (Abstract)

tuberculosis by broth microdilution for 30 isolates. Synergy testing was performed using the chequerboard method for 22 reference strains and clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Time-kill kinetics (TK) assays with resistance monitoring of bedaquiline alone and combined with clofazimine were performed for MAB CIP 104536 and M. avium ATCC 700898; bedaquiline/clarithromycin combinations were evaluated against M. avium ATCC 700898. Interactions were (...) A bedaquiline/clofazimine combination regimen might add activity to the treatment of clinically relevant non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections are hard to treat. New antimicrobial drugs and smarter combination regimens are needed.Our aim was to determine the in vitro activity of bedaquiline against NTM and assess its synergy with established antimycobacterials.We determined MICs of bedaquiline for clinically relevant NTM species and Mycobacterium

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

287. Novel external quality assurance scheme for drug susceptibility testing of non-tuberculous mycobacteria: a multicentre pilot study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

using identical panels of 10 Mycobacterium avium (MAV) and Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) isolates. EQA results were received from 16 laboratories utilizing the broth microdilution method. Consensus modal MIC values were determined, and essential and categorical agreement rates were calculated.Twenty-four out of 31 laboratories (77.4%) reported DST for NTM routinely. Essential agreement ranged from 78.8% (amikacin) to 96.2% (linezolid) for MAV and from 76.0% (amikacin) to 100% (doxycycline) for MAB (...) . Categorical agreement ranged from 56.8% (moxifloxacin) to 100% (clarithromycin) for MAV and from 53.6% (linezolid) to 100% (doxycycline) for MAB.Our results show that interlaboratory reproducibility of DST for NTM is insufficient, highlighting the need for expanding EQA schemes. As EQAs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have led to more reliable and reproducible DST, we propose to follow a similar approach for clinically relevant NTM.

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

288. Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Southeast Asian and African Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children With Suspected Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Southeast Asian and African Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children With Suspected Tuberculosis. We enrolled 427 human immunodeficiency virus-infected children (median age, 7.3 years), 59.2% severely immunodeficient, with suspected tuberculosis in Southeast Asian and African settings. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were isolated in 46 children (10.8%); 45.7% of isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex. Southeast Asian origin, age 5-9 years

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

289. An evaluation of methods for the isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and patients assessed for lung transplantation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

RGM medium incubated at 30 °C than by any other method (sensitivity: 94.6% vs. 22.4% for conventional AFB culture; P < 0.0001). Significantly more isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus complex were isolated on RGM at 30 °C than by AFB culture (sensitivity: 96.1% vs. 58.8%; P < 0.0001). The recovery of Mycobacterium avium complex was also greater using RGM medium at 30 °C compared to AFB culture (sensitivity: 83% vs. 70.2%), although this difference was not statistically significant and a combination

2019 BMC pulmonary medicine

290. Hemoptysis requiring bronchial artery embolization in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and analyzed.Among 183 patients with NTM lung disease, Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 64, 35%) was the major cause of NTM infection, followed by M. avium (n = 59, 32.2%) and M. abscessus complex (n = 40, 21.9%). Hemoptysis developed in 78 patients (42.6%), among whom 33 (42.3%) required bronchial artery embolization (BAE). Between patients with and without hemoptysis, there were no significant differences with respect to sex, radiographic manifestations, distribution over 3 lobes on chest computed tomography

2019 BMC pulmonary medicine

291. Interrelational changes in the epidemiology and clinical features of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease and tuberculosis in a referral hospital in Japan. (Abstract)

changes in the epidemiology and clinical features of NTM-PD in relation to those of TB at a nationally-designated TB center in Japan.We reviewed all mycobacterial examination records at Fukujuji Hospital between 2006 and 2016. Cases of NTM-PD were defined according to the 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America microbiologic criteria. The current characteristics of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) were compared with those in the 1980s and circa 2000 (...) and in patients 50-74 years for NTM. The most common causative organism for NTM was Mycobacterium avium complex (87.3%), M. abscessus complex (5.5%) and M. kansasii (3.9%). Among patients with MAC-PD, the proportion of the nodular bronchiectatic (NB) form increased significantly from 60.0% to 84.4% between circa 2000 and 2016 (P < 0.01). Significant increases in the NB form were observed in both males (33.3%-70.7%, P < 0.01) and females (71.3%-89.2%, P < 0.01).The annual number of incident NTM-PD cases

2019 Respiratory medicine

292. Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from specimens of pulmonary tuberculosis suspects, Northern Tunisia: 2002-2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

species were M. fortuitum (16.6%), M. novocastrense (16.6%), M. chelonae (10.0%), M. gordonae (6.6%), M. gadium (6.6%), M. peregrinum (3.3%), M. porcinum (3.3%), and M. flavescens (3.3%). There were no bacteria of the M. avium complex, the most frequently isolated NTM globally, and the main driver of the rise of NTM-lung diseases.This study uncovered an exceptional low prevalence of PNTM isolation among HIV-negative TB suspects in Northern Tunisia, suggesting a very low burden of NTM pulmonary disease (...) /100,000 was estimated. As far as could be ascertained, this isolation rate accounts amongst the lowest reported hitherto throughout the world. Among the 30 NTM isolates that were available for culture, 27 (90.0%) have been identified to the species level. The most commonly encountered species was Mycobacterium kansasii (23.3%) subtype 1. Strikingly, all M. kansasii cases were male patients originating from Bizerte, an industrialized region particularly known for iron industry. The remaining NTM

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

293. <i>In Vitro</i> Activity of Bedaquiline and Delamanid Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Including Macrolide-Resistant Clinical Isolates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Activity of Bedaquiline and Delamanid Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Including Macrolide-Resistant Clinical Isolates. We evaluated the in vitro activities of the antimicrobial drugs bedaquiline and delamanid against the major pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Delamanid showed high MIC values for all NTM except Mycobacterium kansasii However, bedaquiline showed low MIC values for the major pathogenic NTM, including M. avium complex, M. abscessus, M. massiliense

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

294. Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial comparing intermittent versus daily treatment for non-cavitary nodular/bronchiectatic Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial comparing intermittent versus daily treatment for non-cavitary nodular/bronchiectatic Standard treatment for nodular/bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (NB MAC-LD), excluding severe-status cases, differs between Japan and other countries. Internationally, three-drug combination intermittent treatment (three times a week administration) with macrolide, ethambutol and rifampicin is recommended, but a daily treatment regimen

2019 BMJ open respiratory research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

295. Clofazimine inhalation suspension for the aerosol treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. (Abstract)

the tolerability and efficacy of a novel inhaled therapeutic in various mouse models of NTM disease.We developed clofazimine inhalation suspension (CIS), a novel formulation of clofazimine developed for inhaled administration. To determine the efficacy, minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated in vitro, and tolerability of CIS was determined in naïve mouse models over various durations. After establishing tolerability, CIS efficacy was tested in in vivo infection models of both Mycobacterium avium (...) and M. abscessus. Lung and plasma clofazimine levels after chronic treatments were evaluated.Clofazimine inhalation suspension demonstrated antimycobacterial activity in vitro, with MIC values between 0.125 and 2 μg/ml for M. avium complex and M. abscessus. Administration into naïve mice showed that CIS was well tolerated at doses up to 28 mg/kg over 28 consecutive treatments. In vivo, CIS was shown to significantly improve bacterial elimination from the lungs of both acute and chronic NTM-infected

2019 Journal of Cystic Fibrosis

296. Long-term natural history of non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease. (Abstract)

patients with newly diagnosed non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic NTM-PD caused by Mycobacterium avium complex or M. abscessus between 2003 and 2013.Of 1,021 patients, 562 (55%) initiated antibiotic treatment and 459 (45%) did not. Young age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-0.99), low body mass index (aHR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93-0.99), previous history of tuberculosis (aHR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.50), respiratory complaints such as cough (aHR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.05

2019 Respiratory medicine

297. Strong increase of true and false positive mycobacterial cultures sent to the National Reference Centre in Belgium, 2007 to 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the numbers of analyses at the NRC and false positive cultures (interpreted as containing mycobacteria at referring clinical laboratories, but with no mycobacterial DNA detected by PCR in the NRC). We reviewed mycobacterial species identified and assessed trends over time of proportions of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) vs Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc), and false positive cultures vs NTM.ResultsFrom 2007 to 2016, analyses requests to the NRC doubled from 12.6 to 25.3 per 100,000 inhabitants (...) . A small but significant increase occurred in NTM vs MTBc proportions, from 57.9% (587/1,014) to 60.3% (867/1,437) (p < 0.001). Although NTM infection notification is not mandatory in Belgium, we annually received up to 8.6 NTM per 100,000 inhabitants. M. avium predominated (ca 20% of NTM cultures), but M. intracellulare culture numbers rose significantly, from 13.0% (74/587) of NTM cultures in 2007 to 21.0% (178/867) in 2016 (RR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.07). The number of false positive cultures also

2019 Euro Surveillance

298. Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are mycobacteria, other than those in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and are commonly found in the environment. Nontuberculous mycobacteria species (most commonly Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus) are isolated from the respiratory tract of approximately 5% to 20% of individuals with cystic fibrosis; they can cause lung disease in people (...) available, it is reasonable for clinicians to follow the American Thoracic Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nodular or bronchiectatic pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium abscessus in patients with cystic fibrosis.

2012 Cochrane

299. Trial of Inhaled Molgramostim in CF Subjects With NTM Infection

Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: No Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: Yes Device Product Not Approved or Cleared by U.S. FDA: No Keywords provided by Savara Inc.: Non-tuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infection Cystic Fibrosis (CF) M. avium complex (MAC) M. abscessus complex (MABSC) Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table (...) of CF according to CFF 2017 consensus guidelines. History of chronic pulmonary infection with M. avium complex (MAC) or M. abscessus complex (MABSC) with at least 3 positive samples within the previous 2 years. Subject is either on a chronic multidrug NTM guideline based chronic antimycobacterial regimen, stopped such a regimen due to intolerability or lack of effect, or failed to fulfil the criteria for starting such a regimen. Ability to produce sputum or be willing to undergo sputum induction

2018 Clinical Trials

300. Prolonged-Use of Inhaled Gaseous Nitric Oxide (gNO) for Adult With Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Infection

. Has been previously diagnosed with NTM. [NTM defined as positive culture(s) of at least one species of Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium abscessus Complex (MABSC)] Has been previously treated with gNO for 15 days without complete eradication of NTM but with a decrease of at least 1-2 points on cultures. Male or female ≥19 years of age. Female not pregnant at time of study. Oxygen saturation on room air ≥92% at screening. (able to breathe without supplemental oxygen for 60 minutes (...) drug resistance Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Pneumonia Mycobacterium Infections Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous Lung Diseases Respiratory Tract Diseases Respiratory Tract Infections Actinomycetales Infections Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections Bacterial Infections Nitric Oxide Bronchodilator Agents Autonomic Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Physiological Effects of Drugs Anti-Asthmatic Agents Respiratory System Agents Free Radical Scavengers

2018 Clinical Trials

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