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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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282. CRACKCast Episode 183 – The Immunocompromised Patient

and are found in high concentrations in blood and spleen recognize infected cells and respond by directly killing these cells secrete cytokines that activate macrophages to destroy phagocytosed microbes important in defense against intracellular microbes particularly viruses and intracellular bacteria such as L. monocytogenes. CELLULAR IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella sp. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Legionella sp. Nocardia sp. Fungi Cryptococcus (...) the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract. Immunoglobulin E (IgE), surface of mast cells and basophils responsible for immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions important in defense against helminthic pathogens. IgG widely distributed in tissues accounts for 75% of the total immunoglobulin mass. It crosses the placenta and provides fetal immunity during the first 6 months of life Congenital or acquired deficiencies of IgG lead to infection with encapsulated organisms Complement complex interaction of 30

2018 CandiEM

283. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the Gastrointestinal Tract VIII. Intra-abdominal Infections IX. Bone and Joint Infections X. Urinary Tract Infections XI. Genital Infections XII. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections XIII. Arthropod-Borne Infections XIV. Viral Syndromes XV. Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Unlike other areas of the diagnostic laboratory, clinical microbiology is a science of interpretive judgment that is becoming more complex, not less. Even with the advent of laboratory automation and the integration (...) container, RT, 2 h Abbreviations: AFB, acid-fast bacilli; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test; RT, room temperature. a Contact the microbiology laboratory regarding appropriate collection and transport devices and procedures as transport media such as Cary-Blair or parasite preservative transport for stool specimens, boric acid for urines, and specialized containers for Mycobacterium tuberculosis are often critical

2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America

284. Evaluation of the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex obtained from sputum samples. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex obtained from sputum samples. An increase in the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in recent years has accelerated the search for novel tools for the rapid diagnosis of TB infection. This study evaluated the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct (GTMD) assay (Hain Lifescience) for direct detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from sputum samples and compared it with conventional (...) methods. The GTMD test is a commercial assay produced using strip techniques and works based on a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique. This test allows 23S rRNA amplification-based detection of MTBC, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium malmoense directly from decontaminated clinical samples within 6 h. In the present study, 115 sputum samples were processed to detect acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using two microscopy methods (carbol

2010 Journal of Medical Microbiology

285. Treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: an official ATS/ERS/ESCMID/IDSA clinical practice guideline Full Text available with Trip Pro

species and subspecies, some of which can produce disease in humans of all ages and can affect both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sites. This guideline focuses on pulmonary disease in adults (without cystic fibrosis or human immunodeficiency virus infection) caused by the most common NTM pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii , and Mycobacterium xenopi among the slowly growing NTM and Mycobacterium abscessus among the rapidly growing NTM. A panel of experts was carefully

2020 EvidenceUpdates

286. CRACKCast Episode 132 – HIV/AIDS

prophylaxis is indicated and is cost-effective. Prophylaxis is started for PCP when CD4+ counts are less than 200 cells/μL, for toxoplasmosis, when CD4+ counts are less than 100 cells/μL and, for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, when CD4+ counts are less than 50 cells/μL (Table 124.2). [2] List 5 risk factors for HIV / AIDS Contact with semen, blood, vaginal secretions, and breast milk of viremic individuals These fluids must come into contact with damaged tissue / mucous membrane / entry (...) , spleen, or nodes), onset at age >1 mo Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with loss of vision) Encephalopathy, HIV related Herpes simplex: chronic ulcers (>1 mo duration) or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis (onset at age >1 mo) Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (>1 mo duration) Lymphoma, Burkitt’s (or equivalent term) Kaposi’s sarcoma Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term) Lymphoma, primary, of brain Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium

2017 CandiEM

287. CRACKCast E094 – Gastroenteritis

species Rotavirus—South America, Asia, Africa Recent camping Giardia, Aeromonas, Cryptosporidium Recent antibiotics: Increase in C. difficile infection Daycare exposure: Rotavirus Exposure to raw seafood: Non Cholera Vibrio Anal-receptive sex—men who have sex with men: Shigella, Campylobacter, Salmonella HIV-positive status: Mycobacterium avium-intracellular complex, microsporidia, CMV, Giardia Outbreaks: Cruise ships—norovirus Contaminated local water, food, products, restaurants; organism usually (...) work-up. What additional steps may be required? Usual bacterial suspects plus (don’t forget primary HIV induced diarrhea, HAART induced, and salmonella / vibrio!): Cytomegalovirus Cyclospora Cryptosporidium Isospora Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex Giardia Workup: Stool examination & cultures C Diff toxins and salmonella PCR CMV and MAI if CD4+ count <200 Acid fast smear for Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Isospora, and Cyclospora sigmoidoscopy *If above workup negative consider small

2017 CandiEM

288. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children: Official ATS/IDSA/CDC Clinical Practice Guidelines

tests (NAATs) should be available with rapid turnaround times from specimen collection. Table 2. Essential Laboratory Tests for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Test Time Required I. Nucleic acid amplification test, detection (NAAT -TB) 1 d II. Nucleic acid amplification test, resistance markers (NAAT -R) 1–2 d III. Acid-fast bacilli microscopy 1 d IV. Growth detection Liquid Solid Up to 6–8 wk (average 10–14 d) (average 3–4 wk) V. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (...) Health, Nashville, Tennessee, 14 Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, and 15 University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock Background. Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuber- culosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its

2017 American Thoracic Society

289. Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea Full Text available with Trip Pro

organisms including, but not limited to, Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Cystoisospora , microsporidia, Mycobacterium avium complex, and cytomegalovirus (strong, moderate). 13. Diagnostic testing is not recommended in most cases of uncomplicated traveler’s diarrhea unless treatment is indicated. Travelers with diarrhea lasting 14 days or longer should be evaluated for intestinal parasitic infections (strong, moderate). Testing for C. difficile should be performed in travelers treated with antimicrobial (...) Hemochromatosis or hemoglobinopathy Y. enterocolitica , Salmonella AIDS, immunosuppressive therapies Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Cystoisospora , microsporidia, Mycobacterium avium –intercellulare complex, cytomegalovirus Anal-genital, oral-anal, or digital-anal contact Shigella , Salmonella , Campylobacter , E. histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Cryptosporidium as well as sexually transmitted infections Exposure or Condition Pathogen(s) Foodborne Foodborne outbreaks in hotels, cruise ships, resorts

2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America

290. Float Tanks: Review of Current Guidance and Considerations for Public Health Inspectors

, Department of Health; 2015. p. 5. Available from: http://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/~/media/Files/Corporate/gene ral%20documents/water/PDF/Guidelines-for-Float- Tanks.ashx. 16. Moraga-McHaley SA, Landen M, Krapfl H, Sewell CM. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis with Mycobacterium avium complex among spa workers. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2013 Jan-Mar;19(1):55-61. 17. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC): an all-inclusive model public swimming pool and spa code

2017 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

291. Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are mycobacteria, other than those in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and are commonly found in the environment. Nontuberculous mycobacteria species (most commonly Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus) are isolated from the respiratory tract of approximately 5% to 40% of individuals with cystic fibrosis; they can cause lung disease in people (...) evidence for the effectiveness of different antimicrobial treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis. Until such evidence becomes available, it is reasonable for clinicians to follow published clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nodular or bronchiectatic pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium abscessus in patients with cystic fibrosis.

2016 Cochrane

292. Arikayce - antibiotic containing the active substance amikacin

application for Arikayce (amikacin) On 8 June 2016, Insmed Limited officially notified the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) that it wishes to withdraw its application for a marketing authorisation for Arikayce intended for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. What is Arikayce? Arikayce is an antibiotic containing the active substance amikacin. It was to be available as a suspension for inhalation. What was Arikayce expected to be used for? Arikayce (...) was expected to be used to treat adults with a lung infection caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), a group of bacteria commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It was to be used in patients whose infection has persisted despite previous treatment. Arikayce was designated an ‘orphan medicine’ (a medicine to be used in rare diseases) on 8 April 2014 for treating infections caused by MAC and similar bacteria. Further information on the orphan designation can be found here. How

2016 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

293. Pathology tests for active mycobacterial infection

amplification test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in patients with signs and symptoms consistent with active tuberculosis. Fee: To be advised MBS item number Nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of non-tuberculous mycobacteria species in patients with a compatible clinical disease. Fee: To be advised 7. Summary of Public Consultation Feedback/Consumer Issues No specific Consumer impact statement was provided in the assessment. 8. Mycoba The use an addit intende for who (...) patients with other specimen types such as HIV-positive with M. avium complex (MAC) disease or patients with disseminated bacteraemia. NAAT testing identifies a complex of mycobacteria however, there are different NAAT tests for different types of mycobacteria. ESC considered that under certain circumstances for one patient for the same episode multiple NAAT tests may be required. ESC agreed that the proposed comparators were appropriate. However, ESC noted that culture is an imperfect reference

2015 Medical Services Advisory Committee

294. Is there a role for tedizolid in the treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Is there a role for tedizolid in the treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease? Pulmonary infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are hard to treat and have low cure rates despite intensive multidrug therapy.To assess the feasibility of tedizolid, a new oxazolidinone, for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus.We determined MICs of tedizolid for 113 isolates of NTM. Synergy with key antimycobacterial drugs was assessed using the chequerboard (...) inhibit the intracellular bacterial population of both M. avium and M. abscessus.Tedizolid should be further investigated in pharmacodynamic studies and clinical trials for M. avium complex pulmonary disease. It is less active against M. abscessus, but still promising.© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

2020 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

295. Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease: An Official ATS/ERS/ESCMID/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline. Full Text available with Trip Pro

avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium xenopi among the slowly growing NTM and Mycobacterium abscessus among the rapidly growing NTM. A panel of experts was carefully selected by leading international respiratory medicine and infectious diseases societies (ATS, ERS, ESCMID, IDSA) and included specialists in pulmonary medicine, infectious diseases and clinical microbiology, laboratory medicine, and patient advocacy. Systematic reviews were conducted around each of 22 PICO (...) Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease: An Official ATS/ERS/ESCMID/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) represent over 190 species and subspecies, some of which can produce disease in humans of all ages and can affect both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sites. This guideline focuses on pulmonary disease in adults (without cystic fibrosis or human immunodeficiency virus infection) caused by the most common NTM pathogens such as Mycobacterium

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

296. Variability in the Management of Adults with Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease. (Abstract)

pulmonary NTM treatment outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults. Demographic and clinical information were abstracted through medical record review. Microbiologic and clinical cure were evaluated using previously defined criteria.Of 297 patients diagnosed with pulmonary NTM, the most frequent NTM species were Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (83.2%), M. kansasii (7.7%), and M. abscessus (3.4%). Two hundred forty-five (82.5%) patients received treatment, while 45 (15.2%) were

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

297. Differential Sensitivity of Mycobacteria to Isoniazid Is Related to Differences in KatG-Mediated Enzymatic Activation of the Drug. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential Sensitivity of Mycobacteria to Isoniazid Is Related to Differences in KatG-Mediated Enzymatic Activation of the Drug. Isoniazid (INH) is a cornerstone of antitubercular therapy. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria are the only mycobacteria sensitive to clinically relevant concentrations of INH. All other mycobacteria, including M. marinum and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis are resistant. INH requires activation by bacterial KatG to inhibit mycobacterial growth. We tested (...) the role of the differences between M. tuberculosis KatG and that of other mycobacteria in INH sensitivity. We cloned the M. boviskatG gene into M. marinum and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and measured the MIC of INH. We recombinantly expressed KatG of these mycobacteria and tested in vitro binding to, and activation of, INH. Introduction of katG from M. bovis into M. marinum and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis rendered them 20 to 30 times more sensitive to INH. Analysis of different katG

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

298. The impact of adjuvant surgical treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease on prognosis and outcome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with antibiotics who were matched statistically 1:1 using a propensity score calculated from age, sex, body mass index, and radiologic features of disease.In the surgically treated patients, the median age was 58 (interquartile range, 47-65) years and 65.7% were female. Twenty-eight patients had Mycobacterium avium complex. Operations comprised four pneumonectomies, two bilobectomies, one bilobectomy plus segmentectomy, 17 lobectomies, two segmentectomies, and nine lobectomies plus segmentectomies

2020 Respiratory research

299. Preliminary validation of the NTM Module: a patient-reported outcome measure for patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. (Abstract)

Preliminary validation of the NTM Module: a patient-reported outcome measure for patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause chronic, debilitating pulmonary disease. Patient-reported outcomes provide measures of symptoms, functioning and treatment response. Here we describe the preliminary validation of the recently developed NTM Module.The study population included Northwest NTM Biobank patients in whom Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC

2020 European Respiratory Journal

300. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of Clofazimine among Clinical Isolates of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria and Its Impact on Treatment Outcome. (Abstract)

for clofazimine were measured in clinical isolates from NTM-PD patients who participated in a prospective study at Seoul National University Hospital. The MIC was determined by using the broth microdilution concentration method. Correlation between MIC and conversion to negative of sputum culture with clofazimine was determined.Of a total 189 isolates, 133 strains were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and 40 strains were M abscessus. Although the clofazimine MICs for MAC ranged from 0.031 mg/L to 8 mg/L

2020 Chest

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