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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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261. Two cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection associated with a new immunodeficiency syndrome related to CXCR4 dysfunctions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Two cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection associated with a new immunodeficiency syndrome related to CXCR4 dysfunctions. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a rare but severe disease mostly seen in patients with AIDS. It has been previously described in patients suffering from other kinds of immunodeficiency (e.g. primary immunodeficiency diseases in children or hairy cell leukaemia). We report two cases of disseminated MAC disease in young women

2010 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

262. Association of microsatellite polymorphisms with immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine in Merino sheep. (Abstract)

Association of microsatellite polymorphisms with immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine in Merino sheep. To study the association of polymorphisms at five microsatellite loci with immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) vaccine.Merino sheep (504 vaccinates and 430 unvaccinated controls) from a long-term Johne's vaccine trial undertaken on three different properties in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales (...) , Australia, were genotyped for five microsatellite markers located in three immunologically significant chromosome regions. The marker loci included three from the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), namely DYMS1, OLADRB and SMHCC1; and one each from the solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1), OVINRA1, and the interferon-γ (IFN-γ), o(IFN)-γ, gene regions. Associations between immune responses and genetic polymorphisms at the marker loci were examined by analysing both allelic and genotypic

2010 New Zealand veterinary journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

263. Determination of Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies from Human and Animal Origins by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat and IS1311 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing Methods Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determination of Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies from Human and Animal Origins by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat and IS1311 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing Methods Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are ubiquitous bacteria that can be found in water, food, and other environmental samples and are considered opportunistic pathogens for numerous animal species, mainly birds and pigs, as well as for humans (...) . We have recently demonstrated the usefulness of a PCR-based mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing for the molecular characterization of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium strains exclusively isolated from AIDS patients. In the present study we extended our analysis, based on eight MIRU-VNTR markers, to a strain collection comprehensively comprising the other M. avium subspecies, including M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp

2010 Journal of clinical microbiology

264. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as a trigger of type-1 diabetes: destination Sardinia, or beyond? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as a trigger of type-1 diabetes: destination Sardinia, or beyond? Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which the insulin producing beta cell population is destroyed by the infiltrated T lymphocytes. Even though the exact cause of T1DM is yet to be ascertained, varying degree of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors have been linked to the disease progress and outcome. Mycobacterium avium subsp (...) mycobacterial proteins (Hsp 65) and pancreatic glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD 65) and infant nutrition studies implicate MAP as one of the triggers for T1DM. PCR and ELISA analyses in diabetic patients from Sardinia suggest that MAP acts as a possible trigger for T1DM. Systematic mechanistic insights are needed to prove this link. Unfortunately, no easy animal model(s) or in-vitro systems are available to decipher the complex immunological network that is triggered in MAP infection leading to T1DM.

2010 Gut pathogens

265. Primary transcriptomes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis reveal proprietary pathways in tissue and macrophages Full Text available with Trip Pro

Primary transcriptomes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis reveal proprietary pathways in tissue and macrophages Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) persistently infects intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes leading to a prolonged subclinical disease. The MAP genome sequence was published in 2005, yet its transcriptional organization in natural infection is unknown. While prior research analyzed regulated gene sets utilizing defined, in vitro stress related or advanced (...) trafficking and secretion were upregulated inside the macrophages. Transcriptomes of natural infection and in vitro macrophage infection shared genes involved in transcription and inorganic ion transport and metabolism. MAP specific genes within large sequence polymorphisms of ancestral M. avium complex were downregulated exclusively in natural infection.We have unveiled common and unique MAP pathways associated with persistence, cell wall biogenesis and virulence in naturally infected cow intestines

2010 BMC genomics

267. Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease: An Official ATS/ERS/ESCMID/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline Full Text available with Trip Pro

pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium xenopi among the slowly growing NTM and Mycobacterium abscessus among the rapidly growing NTM. A panel of experts was carefully selected by leading international respiratory medicine and infectious diseases societies (ATS, ERS, ESCMID, IDSA) and included specialists in pulmonary medicine, infectious diseases and clinical microbiology, laboratory medicine, and patient advocacy. Systematic reviews were conducted (...) and can affect both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sites. Attempting to cover such a broad array of species and disease in a guideline using current guideline development methods is impossible. Therefore, this guideline focuses on pulmonary disease in adults (without cystic fibrosis or human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection) caused by the most common NTM pathogens comprising Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium xenopi among the slowly growing NTM

2020 American Thoracic Society

268. Guidelines for diagnosing and managing disseminated histoplasmosis among people living with HIV

and histopathology that are used for diagnosing histoplasmosis have several limitations; these include the need for complex laboratory infrastructure (Biosafety Level 3 laboratory), limited laboratory staff with mycology training, delays of several weeks for final diagnosis, and variable diagnostic sensitivity (10). Antibody tests are less sensitive for immunocompromised people, with sensitivity ranging between 38% and 70%, and not usually helpful for diagnosing disseminated histoplasmosis among people living (...) , this situation may occur frequently among people living with HIV (8–38%), and screening should look for both diagnoses (12). When coinfections are diagnosed, this can lead to complex patient management, with drug–drug interactions that may affect HIV, TB, and histoplasmosis treatment. In particular, rifampicin results in reduced itraconazole levels, potentially leading to ineffective treatment for histoplasmosis (40) (Annex 6). 3.4.2 Systematic review To address this concern, a systematic review

2020 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

269. Diagnosis of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in Adults. An Official ATS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline Full Text available with Trip Pro

histocompatibility complex class II, proteasomes, transporter proteins, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases have been associated with HP ( – ). Among patients with fibrotic HP, the MUC5B (mucin 5B) promoter polymorphism is more prevalent than in the general population and is associated with shortened survival ( ). HP has also been described in probands of familial pulmonary fibrosis, including those with telomere-related gene mutations ( , ). A study performed in two cohorts of patients

2020 American Thoracic Society

271. Diagnosis and Detection of Sarcoidosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

; GPA = granulomatosis with polyangiitis; LIP = lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex; M. kansasii = Mycobacterium kansasii ; MPA = microscopic polyangiitis; MPO = myeloperoxidase; p-ANCA = perinuclear ANCA; PR3 = PR3-ANCA; PET = positron emission tomography; TNF = tumor necrosis factor. *More commonly found alternative diagnoses for granulomatous disease in U.S. populations. The differential diagnosis should be prioritized on the basis of the individual’s clinical (...) release assay used for screening, and preferable to tuberculin skin testing due to anergy Nontuberculous mycobacteria (MAC and M. kansasii ) X X X X X Culture is the gold standard Aspiration pneumonia X Culture Brucella X X X X Serum agglutination and ELISA; livestock exposure history Tropheryma whippelii X X Periodic acid–Schiff stain; immunohistochemistry testing; diarrhea, weight loss, and joint pains Mycobacterium leprae X Culture is the gold standard, but can be difficult; histology; PCR

2020 American Thoracic Society

273. HIV-related opportunistic infections

infections (TB and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex ), but may also develop with other OIs. Primary and secondary prophylaxis against OIs is essential in the prevention of an initial or recurrent episode of OIs in HIV-infected patients. Prophylaxis against many OIs can be discontinued for patients who respond to ART and maintain a CD4+ count above the recommended threshold for more than 3 months. However, if the CD4+ count decreases below that threshold, prophylaxis should be resumed. Definition (...) HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) are clinical syndromes that arise as a consequence of impaired immunity in advanced stages of HIV infection. These illnesses tend to occur most often in patients who have untreated HIV infection or who fail to benefit from antiretroviral treatment. Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, candidiasis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and Mycobacterium avium complex infections are among the HIV-related OIs often encountered in clinical

2018 BMJ Best Practice

274. HIV-related opportunistic infections

infections (TB and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex ), but may also develop with other OIs. Primary and secondary prophylaxis against OIs is essential in the prevention of an initial or recurrent episode of OIs in HIV-infected patients. Prophylaxis against many OIs can be discontinued for patients who respond to ART and maintain a CD4+ count above the recommended threshold for more than 3 months. However, if the CD4+ count decreases below that threshold, prophylaxis should be resumed. Definition (...) HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) are clinical syndromes that arise as a consequence of impaired immunity in advanced stages of HIV infection. These illnesses tend to occur most often in patients who have untreated HIV infection or who fail to benefit from antiretroviral treatment. Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, candidiasis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and Mycobacterium avium complex infections are among the HIV-related OIs often encountered in clinical

2018 BMJ Best Practice

275. Overview of HIV

infection, mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections, Herpes simplex infection, and cryptosporidiosis are among the HIV-related opportunistic infections often encountered in clinical practice. Common opportunistic infection in people infected with HIV. It is an infection of the lung caused by the fungal organism Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii ). Typically causes clinical disease in severely immunocompromised patients, such as HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell counts (...) , genitourinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Common opportunistic infection in people infected with HIV. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI), also known as mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), consists of 2 mycobacterium species, M avium and M intracellulare . It traditionally causes 3 disease syndromes: pulmonary disease, cervical lymphadenitis, and disseminated disease. Common opportunistic infection in people infected with HIV. Caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii . Cats

2018 BMJ Best Practice

276. Assessment of unintentional weight loss

Pulmonary cachexia syndrome Cystic fibrosis Microscopic polyangiitis Renal cachexia syndrome Diabetes mellitus Adrenal insufficiency Hypopituitarism Pheaochromocytoma Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic lupus erythematosus Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) Polyarteritis nodosa Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) Sarcoidosis Mixed connective tissue disease (overlap syndromes) Adult-onset Still disease HIV infection Tuberculosis (extrapulmonary) Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) Histoplasmosis (...) ://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26577421?tool=bestpractice.com Pathophysiology The pathophysiology varies depending on the aetiology. Weight homeostasis is a complex process that includes the availability of food, physical activity, possible environmental exposures, and hormonal control with peptides such as leptin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin. Guyenet SJ, Schwartz MW. Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab

2018 BMJ Best Practice

277. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union

diagnosis of tuberculosis 7 2 Quality assurance 7 3 Latent TB infections 7 4 Smear microscopy 7 5 Culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex 7 6 Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in cultures and sputum using molecular assays 8 7 First- and second-line drug susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex 8 8 Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates 8 9 Use and validation of disinfectants for M. tuberculosis 8 10 Information (...) 45 4.9.1 Quality control parameters 45 References 45 5. Culture tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex 47 5.1 Background and principles 47 5.2 Biohazards and biosafety in the TB laboratory 47 5.2.1 Minimum WHO recommendations for TB culture/drug susceptibility testing facilities 48 5.3 Specimen collection, storage and transport 49 5.3.1 Sample collection 49 5.3.2 Storage of specimens 50 5.3.3 Transportation of specimens 50 5.4 Homogenisation and decontamination of specimens 50 5.4.1

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

278. BHIVA/BASHH/BIA Adult HIV Testing guidelines

diseases /internal medicine Mycobacterium avium complex or Candidaemia BHIVA/BASHH/BIA adult HIV testing guidelines 30 Mycobacterium kansasii, disseminated or extrapulmonary Mycobacterium, other species or unidentified species, disseminated or extrapulmonary Salmonella septicaemia, recurrent Cytomegalovirus, other (except liver, spleen, glands) Herpes simplex, ulcer(s) >1 month/ bronchitis/pneumonitis Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis Reactivation of American trypanosomiasis (meningoencephalitis (...) Symptomatology fitting any of the listed conditions Symptomatology fitting any of the listed conditions Respiratory Pneumonia, recurrent (two or more episodes in 12 months) Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pulmonary or extrapulmonary Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Candidiasis, bronchial/tracheal/ pulmonary Community-acquired pneumonia Invasive pneumococcal disease BHIVA/BASHH/BIA adult HIV testing guidelines 32 Appendix 2. HIV tests: definition First generation Based on viral lysate antigens to detect HIV

2020 British HIV Association

279. Acute Respiratory Illness in Immunocompromised Patients

are the mainstay imaging modalities in evaluating the immunocompromised host with ARI, nuclear scintigraphy using gallium-67 (Ga-67) or Tc-99m diethylenetriamine penta acetate (DTPA) radiotracers have quite specific but rarely used indications in this setting. Ga-67 can be used to help diagnose Mycobacterium avium intracellulare, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and lymphoma based on increased radiotracer activity in hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. However, this finding is nonspecific, and distinguishing between (...) . Generally, the complexity and severity of a patient’s clinical condition should dictate the selection of appropriate imaging procedures or treatments. Only those examinations generally used for evaluation of the patient’s condition are ranked. Other imaging studies necessary to evaluate other co-existent diseases or other medical consequences of this condition are not considered in this document. The availability of equipment or personnel may influence the selection of appropriate imaging procedures

2019 American College of Radiology

280. Cough Due to Tuberculous and Other Chronic Infections

resolution was fasterin the absence of cavitary lung disease. All studies on cough prevalence in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, fungal lung disease, and paragonimiasis were of poor quality and were excluded from the evidence review. ABBREVIATIONS: ACF = active case ?nding; ART = antiretroviral therapy; CD4 = CD4-positive T lymphocytes; CHEST = American College of Chest Physicians; DOTS = Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course; GRADE (...) resistance, poor adherence, and/or drug malabsorption compared with results in other in- dividualswithpulmonaryTB.CoughiscommoninpatientswithlunginfectionsduetoMAC, other nontuberculous mycobacteria, fungal diseases, and paragonimiasis. CHEST2018;153(2):467-497 KEY WORDS: cough; evidence-based medicine; fungal infections; Mycobacterium avium complex; nontuberculous mycobacterial; paragonimiasis; TB Summary of Recommendations and Suggestions 1. For patients with cough in high TB prevalence countries

2018 American College of Chest Physicians

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