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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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241. Multiplex PCR for detection of clarithromycin resistance and simultaneous species identification of Mycobacterium avium complex. (Abstract)

Multiplex PCR for detection of clarithromycin resistance and simultaneous species identification of Mycobacterium avium complex. Multiplex PCR (mPCR) was established for the simultaneous detection of clarithromycin (CLR) resistance and species identification of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). mPCR was tested on 218 MAC clinical isolates. CLR-resistance was detected by mPCR in 31 of 35 isolates identified by a microdilution method. Of the remaining 187 susceptible isolates identified by mPCR (...) , 183 isolates had MIC < or = 8 microg/ml (susceptible), 3 with MIC of 16 (intermediate resistant) and 1 with MIC of > or = 32 microg/ml (resistant). Comparing with the PCR-restriction enzyme analysis, mPCR concordantly identified 185 isolates either as being M. avium or M. intracellulare, whereas one isolate was misidentified and 32 isolates could not be identified. Comparing with reference methods, the mPCR showed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value

2010 Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

242. Hospital Water Filters as a Source of Mycobacterium avium Complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hospital Water Filters as a Source of Mycobacterium avium Complex. Bronchoscopes and the filters used for washing them were found to yield high numbers of Mycobacterium avium isolates sharing the same repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint pattern as M. avium isolates recovered from patient samples collected by bronchoscopy. Water and biofilm samples collected from the bronchoscopy preparation laboratory yielded M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium malmoense (...) and Mycobacterium gordonae. Several M. avium and M. intracellulare isolates from water samples in the bronchoscopy laboratory had rep-PCR patterns matching those of patient bronchoscopy isolates. Five of the 22 (23 %) M. avium patient bronchoscopy isolates and 42 of the 56 (75 %) M. intracellulare patient bronchoscopy isolates could have been due to contamination from the water supply.

2010 Journal of Medical Microbiology

243. PCR amplification and high resolution melt curve analysis as a rapid diagnostic method to genotype members of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PCR amplification and high resolution melt curve analysis as a rapid diagnostic method to genotype members of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Some of the members of the Mycobacterium avium–intracellulare (MAI) complex are recognized as human pathogens in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The current molecular methods that are available for genotyping the MAI complex members can be both expensive and technically demanding. In this report, we describe (...) for the first time the application of a real-time PCR and high-resolution melt approach to differentiate between the complex members by targeting a member of the Pro- Pro-Glu gene family, MACPPE24. To this end, reference strains of the M. avium subspecies and Mycobacterium intracellulare were used to optimize the technique. Then, this real-time PCR–high-resolution melt approach was used to distinguish ten M. avium ssp. hominissuis field isolates from the M. intracellulare reference strain.

2010 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

244. Lady Windermere Syndrome After Cardiac Surgery Procedure: A Case of Mycobacterium avium Complex Pneumonia. (Abstract)

Lady Windermere Syndrome After Cardiac Surgery Procedure: A Case of Mycobacterium avium Complex Pneumonia. We present a patient with Lady Windermere syndrome after coronary bypass operation. To avoid the sternal pain that occurred after every cough episode, this patient used to receive large doses of antitussive drugs. In a poorly drained lung, this usage leads to the development of regions of colonization with Mycobacterium avium complex. It is concerning that the lack of diagnosis for 18

2010 Annals of Thoracic Surgery

245. Clinical usefulness of combination chemotherapy for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease. (Abstract)

Clinical usefulness of combination chemotherapy for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease. BACKGROUND: This study compared the clinical usefulness of combination chemotherapy including various doses of clarithromycin (CAM) for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. METHODS: The subjects were divided into three groups receiving combination chemotherapy at various dose levels of CAM. The analysis of microbiological effects was based on the sputum conversion rate and sputum

2010 Journal of Infection

246. Mimicry of the Pathogenic Mycobacterium Vacuole In Vitro Elicits the Bacterial Intracellular Phenotype, Including Early-Onset Macrophage Death Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mimicry of the Pathogenic Mycobacterium Vacuole In Vitro Elicits the Bacterial Intracellular Phenotype, Including Early-Onset Macrophage Death Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) within macrophages undergoes a phenotype change that allows for more efficient entry into surrounding host cells. We hypothesized that, by developing an in vitro system resembling the intravacuolar environment, one could generate insights into the mycobacterial intracellular phenotype. MAC was incubated in "elemental (...) of the intracellular phenotype. It was demonstrated that bacteria harboring the intracellular phenotype induced early-onset macrophage death more efficiently than bacteria grown in broth. This new trace elemental mixture mimicking the condition of the vacuole at different time points has the potential to become an effective laboratory tool for the study of the MAC and Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease process, increasing the understanding of the interaction with macrophages.

2011 Infection and immunity

247. Mycobacterial peritonitis: difference between non-tuberculous mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

ascites were identified and compared according to causative pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or NTM). Those with NTM peritonitis were further classified into the 'probable' and 'possible' groups based on diagnostic evidence. Twenty-five patients with NTM peritonitis and 65 with tuberculous peritonitis were reviewed. Mycobacterium avium complex was the most common NTM pathogen (52%). There was no obvious difference between the 'probable' and 'possible' NTM peritonitis groups regarding age (...) Mycobacterial peritonitis: difference between non-tuberculous mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unlike tuberculous peritonitis, peritonitis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has unclear clinical manifestations. This study aimed to clarify the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of NTM peritonitis and compare it to tuberculous peritonitis. This retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2008 in a medical centre in Taiwan. Patients with mycobacteria isolated from

2011 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

248. Primary transcriptomes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis reveal proprietary pathways in tissue and macrophages Full Text available with Trip Pro

Primary transcriptomes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis reveal proprietary pathways in tissue and macrophages Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) persistently infects intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes leading to a prolonged subclinical disease. The MAP genome sequence was published in 2005, yet its transcriptional organization in natural infection is unknown. While prior research analyzed regulated gene sets utilizing defined, in vitro stress related or advanced (...) trafficking and secretion were upregulated inside the macrophages. Transcriptomes of natural infection and in vitro macrophage infection shared genes involved in transcription and inorganic ion transport and metabolism. MAP specific genes within large sequence polymorphisms of ancestral M. avium complex were downregulated exclusively in natural infection.We have unveiled common and unique MAP pathways associated with persistence, cell wall biogenesis and virulence in naturally infected cow intestines

2010 BMC genomics

249. Determination of Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies from Human and Animal Origins by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat and IS1311 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing Methods Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determination of Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies from Human and Animal Origins by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat and IS1311 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing Methods Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are ubiquitous bacteria that can be found in water, food, and other environmental samples and are considered opportunistic pathogens for numerous animal species, mainly birds and pigs, as well as for humans (...) . We have recently demonstrated the usefulness of a PCR-based mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing for the molecular characterization of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium strains exclusively isolated from AIDS patients. In the present study we extended our analysis, based on eight MIRU-VNTR markers, to a strain collection comprehensively comprising the other M. avium subspecies, including M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp

2010 Journal of clinical microbiology

250. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as a trigger of type-1 diabetes: destination Sardinia, or beyond? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as a trigger of type-1 diabetes: destination Sardinia, or beyond? Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which the insulin producing beta cell population is destroyed by the infiltrated T lymphocytes. Even though the exact cause of T1DM is yet to be ascertained, varying degree of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors have been linked to the disease progress and outcome. Mycobacterium avium subsp (...) mycobacterial proteins (Hsp 65) and pancreatic glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD 65) and infant nutrition studies implicate MAP as one of the triggers for T1DM. PCR and ELISA analyses in diabetic patients from Sardinia suggest that MAP acts as a possible trigger for T1DM. Systematic mechanistic insights are needed to prove this link. Unfortunately, no easy animal model(s) or in-vitro systems are available to decipher the complex immunological network that is triggered in MAP infection leading to T1DM.

2010 Gut pathogens

251. Two cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection associated with a new immunodeficiency syndrome related to CXCR4 dysfunctions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Two cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection associated with a new immunodeficiency syndrome related to CXCR4 dysfunctions. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a rare but severe disease mostly seen in patients with AIDS. It has been previously described in patients suffering from other kinds of immunodeficiency (e.g. primary immunodeficiency diseases in children or hairy cell leukaemia). We report two cases of disseminated MAC disease in young women

2010 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

252. Association of microsatellite polymorphisms with immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine in Merino sheep. (Abstract)

Association of microsatellite polymorphisms with immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine in Merino sheep. To study the association of polymorphisms at five microsatellite loci with immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) vaccine.Merino sheep (504 vaccinates and 430 unvaccinated controls) from a long-term Johne's vaccine trial undertaken on three different properties in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales (...) , Australia, were genotyped for five microsatellite markers located in three immunologically significant chromosome regions. The marker loci included three from the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), namely DYMS1, OLADRB and SMHCC1; and one each from the solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1), OVINRA1, and the interferon-γ (IFN-γ), o(IFN)-γ, gene regions. Associations between immune responses and genetic polymorphisms at the marker loci were examined by analysing both allelic and genotypic

2010 New Zealand veterinary journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

255. Diagnosis and Detection of Sarcoidosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

; GPA = granulomatosis with polyangiitis; LIP = lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex; M. kansasii = Mycobacterium kansasii ; MPA = microscopic polyangiitis; MPO = myeloperoxidase; p-ANCA = perinuclear ANCA; PR3 = PR3-ANCA; PET = positron emission tomography; TNF = tumor necrosis factor. *More commonly found alternative diagnoses for granulomatous disease in U.S. populations. The differential diagnosis should be prioritized on the basis of the individual’s clinical (...) release assay used for screening, and preferable to tuberculin skin testing due to anergy Nontuberculous mycobacteria (MAC and M. kansasii ) X X X X X Culture is the gold standard Aspiration pneumonia X Culture Brucella X X X X Serum agglutination and ELISA; livestock exposure history Tropheryma whippelii X X Periodic acid–Schiff stain; immunohistochemistry testing; diarrhea, weight loss, and joint pains Mycobacterium leprae X Culture is the gold standard, but can be difficult; histology; PCR

2020 American Thoracic Society

257. Guidelines for diagnosing and managing disseminated histoplasmosis among people living with HIV

and histopathology that are used for diagnosing histoplasmosis have several limitations; these include the need for complex laboratory infrastructure (Biosafety Level 3 laboratory), limited laboratory staff with mycology training, delays of several weeks for final diagnosis, and variable diagnostic sensitivity (10). Antibody tests are less sensitive for immunocompromised people, with sensitivity ranging between 38% and 70%, and not usually helpful for diagnosing disseminated histoplasmosis among people living (...) , this situation may occur frequently among people living with HIV (8–38%), and screening should look for both diagnoses (12). When coinfections are diagnosed, this can lead to complex patient management, with drug–drug interactions that may affect HIV, TB, and histoplasmosis treatment. In particular, rifampicin results in reduced itraconazole levels, potentially leading to ineffective treatment for histoplasmosis (40) (Annex 6). 3.4.2 Systematic review To address this concern, a systematic review

2020 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

258. Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease: An Official ATS/ERS/ESCMID/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline Full Text available with Trip Pro

pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium xenopi among the slowly growing NTM and Mycobacterium abscessus among the rapidly growing NTM. A panel of experts was carefully selected by leading international respiratory medicine and infectious diseases societies (ATS, ERS, ESCMID, IDSA) and included specialists in pulmonary medicine, infectious diseases and clinical microbiology, laboratory medicine, and patient advocacy. Systematic reviews were conducted (...) and can affect both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sites. Attempting to cover such a broad array of species and disease in a guideline using current guideline development methods is impossible. Therefore, this guideline focuses on pulmonary disease in adults (without cystic fibrosis or human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection) caused by the most common NTM pathogens comprising Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium xenopi among the slowly growing NTM

2020 American Thoracic Society

259. Overview of HIV

infection, mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections, Herpes simplex infection, and cryptosporidiosis are among the HIV-related opportunistic infections often encountered in clinical practice. Common opportunistic infection in people infected with HIV. It is an infection of the lung caused by the fungal organism Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii ). Typically causes clinical disease in severely immunocompromised patients, such as HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell counts (...) , genitourinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Common opportunistic infection in people infected with HIV. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI), also known as mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), consists of 2 mycobacterium species, M avium and M intracellulare . It traditionally causes 3 disease syndromes: pulmonary disease, cervical lymphadenitis, and disseminated disease. Common opportunistic infection in people infected with HIV. Caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii . Cats

2018 BMJ Best Practice

260. HIV-related opportunistic infections

infections (TB and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex ), but may also develop with other OIs. Primary and secondary prophylaxis against OIs is essential in the prevention of an initial or recurrent episode of OIs in HIV-infected patients. Prophylaxis against many OIs can be discontinued for patients who respond to ART and maintain a CD4+ count above the recommended threshold for more than 3 months. However, if the CD4+ count decreases below that threshold, prophylaxis should be resumed. Definition (...) HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) are clinical syndromes that arise as a consequence of impaired immunity in advanced stages of HIV infection. These illnesses tend to occur most often in patients who have untreated HIV infection or who fail to benefit from antiretroviral treatment. Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, candidiasis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and Mycobacterium avium complex infections are among the HIV-related OIs often encountered in clinical

2018 BMJ Best Practice

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