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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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181. Altered Toll-Like Receptor 9 Signaling in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Bovine Monocytes Reveals Potential Therapeutic Targets (PubMed)

Altered Toll-Like Receptor 9 Signaling in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Bovine Monocytes Reveals Potential Therapeutic Targets Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. The complex, multifaceted interaction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with its host includes dampening the ability of infected cells to respond to stimuli that promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. By disrupting host defenses, M (...) . avium subsp. paratuberculosis creates an intracellular environment that favors the establishment and maintenance of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors that initiate innate immune responses to microbial challenge and are also immunotherapeutic targets. For example, TLR9 contributes to host defense against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and its agonists (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides [ODNs]) are under investigation for treatment of Johne's disease and other infections. Here we

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2013 Infection and immunity

182. Mycobacterium Biofilms (PubMed)

. Biofilm-forming mycobacteria have been reported in many environmental studies, especially in water systems. NTM cause respiratory disease in patients with underlying diseases, such as old tuberculosis scars, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis. Pathogens can be either slowly growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium avium complex, or rapidly growing species, such as Mycobacterium abscessus. Another important biofilm-related group of infections are those associated with biomaterials (...) Mycobacterium Biofilms The genus Mycobacterium includes human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae) and environmental organisms known as non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that, when associated with biomaterials and chronic disease, can cause human infections. A common pathogenic factor of mycobacteria is the formation of biofilms. Various molecules are involved in this process, including glycopeptidolipids, shorter-chain mycolic acids, and GroEL1 chaperone. Nutrients

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2018 Frontiers in microbiology

183. Evaluation of the Vitek MS v3.0 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia Species (PubMed)

. abscessus, and M. avium complexes and within the M. fortuitum and M. mucogenicum groups could be differentiated. Among the 312 Nocardia isolates tested, 236 (76%) were correctly identified to the species level, with an additional 44 (14%) correctly identified to the complex level. Species within the N. nova and N. transvalensis complexes could not always be differentiated. Eleven percent of the isolates (103/963) underwent repeat testing in order to get a final result. Identification of a representative (...) Evaluation of the Vitek MS v3.0 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia Species This multicenter study was designed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of the Vitek MS v3.0 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry system for identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia species compared to DNA sequencing. A total of 963 clinical isolates

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2018 Journal of clinical microbiology

184. The Presence of Coexisting Lung Cancer and Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium in a Solitary Mass (PubMed)

. avium complex was detected in the cancer tissue culture. CONCLUSIONS Physicians should suspect the co-existent lung cancer and NTM infection in patients with solitary lung masses that yield a positive mycobacterium culture result for sputum or bronchial lavage fluid. (...) The Presence of Coexisting Lung Cancer and Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium in a Solitary Mass BACKGROUND Whereas non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) pulmonary disease can mimic lung cancer as a solitary pulmonary nodule or mass, the coexistence of lung cancer and NTM pulmonary disease in a single nodule or mass is rare. We report such a rare case, highlighting that during a bronchoscopes examination which comprises taking a transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB), bronchial brushing, and bronchial

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2018 The American journal of case reports

185. Rare case of Mycobacterium nebraskense presenting as asymptomatic cavitary lung lesion (PubMed)

4.5 cm pleural-based opacity in right lung base with a small cavity. Sputum smear for Acid-fast bacilli was positive. Mycobacterial culture reported positive growth of M. nebraskense, while polymerase chain reaction returned negative for Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. With the patient asymptomatic and her constipation improved, she was discharged with plans for close follow-up as outpatient. Conclusion: M. nebraskense (...) Rare case of Mycobacterium nebraskense presenting as asymptomatic cavitary lung lesion Introduction: Mycobacterium Nebraskense is a rare nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The first isolate of the species was from human sputum at University of Nebraska Medical Center. There are only a few cases have been reported and the exact behavior of the disease is not clearly described. Here, we present a case from New York City incidentally found to have a cavitary lung lesion due to M

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2018 Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives

186. Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species causing mycobacteriosis in farmed aquatic animals of South Africa (PubMed)

, Mycobacterium fortuitum, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex, and Mycobacterium szulgai. Phylogenetic analysis of mycobacteria, based on esxA and esxB genes, separated slow growing from rapidly growing mycobacteria as well as pathogenic from non-pathogenic mycobacteria in some cases.Isolation of the different NTM species from samples presenting granuloma suggests the significance of these NTM species in causing mycobacteriosis in these aquatic animals. The study also revealed the potential of esxA (...) Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species causing mycobacteriosis in farmed aquatic animals of South Africa Mycobacteriosis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), is among the most chronic diseases of aquatic animals. In addition, fish mycobacteriosis has substantial economic consequences especially in the aquaculture and fisheries industry as infections may significantly decrease production and trade. Some fish NTM pathogens are highly virulent and zoonotic; as such, infection of aquaria

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2018 BMC microbiology

187. Mycobacterium chimaera Hepatitis: A New Disease Entity. (PubMed)

Mycobacterium chimaera Hepatitis: A New Disease Entity. Mycobacterium chimaera was identified as a species within the Mycobacterium avium complex in 2004. Until recently, it was predominantly seen in immunocompromised patients. In 2015, an outbreak of disseminated M. chimaera disease was described in European patients after undergoing open-heart surgery in which contaminated heater-cooler water units were used. Using whole genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, investigators found

2018 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

188. Mycobacterium triplex Pulmonary Disease with Acquired Macrolide Resistance in Immunocompetent Patients. (PubMed)

Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Macrolides 0 RNA, Ribosomal, 16S IM Anti-Bacterial Agents adverse effects pharmacology therapeutic use Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial Female Humans Immunocompetence Lung diagnostic imaging microbiology Lung Diseases drug therapy Macrolides adverse effects therapeutic use Middle Aged Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous diagnosis drug therapy Mycobacterium avium Complex drug effects Nontuberculous Mycobacteria drug effects genetics isolation & purification RNA (...) Mycobacterium triplex Pulmonary Disease with Acquired Macrolide Resistance in Immunocompetent Patients. 29309938 2018 11 08 2018 11 08 1469-0691 24 6 2018 Jun Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Mycobacterium triplex pulmonary disease with acquired macrolide resistance in immunocompetent patients. 671-672 S1198-743X(17)30713-9 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.12.018 Matsuda S S

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2018 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

189. Characterization of non-tuberculous mycobacterium from humans and water in an Agropastoral area in Zambia. (PubMed)

Characterization of non-tuberculous mycobacterium from humans and water in an Agropastoral area in Zambia. The non-tuberculous mycobacteria include those mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. In Zambia, Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are gaining recognition as pathogens of public health significance. However, there is scanty information on the isolation and speciation (...) water, Borehole water, rivers, wells and streams. Standard TB culture methods were employed to isolate Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria and later 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region Sequencing was employed to characterize NTM.Seven (7, 4.6%) NTM species were identified from humans with M. arupense (3, 42.9%) being the most common organism, while twenty three (23, 15.4%) NTM were identified from water with the common species being Mycobacterium gordonae (5, 21.7%). Mycobacterium avium

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

190. Fast update of undetected Mycobacterium chimaera infections to reveal unsuspected cases. (PubMed)

retrospective Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complex isolates, which corresponded to a patient who had undergone heart valve replacement in a different institution. Whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that he was the first case in Spain with involvement of the strain responsible for the global outbreak. These results highlight the relevance of retrospective tracking for undetected M. chimaera infections.Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All (...) Fast update of undetected Mycobacterium chimaera infections to reveal unsuspected cases. Mycobacterium chimaera is involved in a worldwide alert due to contaminated heater-cooler units. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based procedure was implemented to survey undetected cases of M. chimaera infection. PCR was negative in the 59 prosthetic heart valves from patients with PCR-16SrRNA-negative infective endocarditis. PCR identified M. chimaera in one of 15 clinically significant

2018 Journal of Hospital Infection

191. Endobronchial Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacterium Infection Presenting in a Healthy Child. (PubMed)

Endobronchial Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacterium Infection Presenting in a Healthy Child. To describe a safe and effective treatment for endobronchial Mycobacterium avium complex.Case report and literature review.We present a case of endobronchial M. avium complex in a healthy child treated with serial carbon-dioxide laser excisions and antibiotic triple therapy using azithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol. No current guideline for the treatment of these lesions in the pediatric population

2018 Rhinology and Laryngology

192. Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association (PubMed)

Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated (...) the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb). Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565) further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level.Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among

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2012 BMC genomics

193. Characterization of Clinical and Environmental Mycobacterium avium Spp. Isolates and Their Interaction with Human Macrophages (PubMed)

Characterization of Clinical and Environmental Mycobacterium avium Spp. Isolates and Their Interaction with Human Macrophages Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are naturally occurring bacteria in the environment. A link has been suggested between M. avium strains in drinking water and clinical isolates from infected individuals. There is a need to develop new screening methodologies that can identify specific virulence properties of M. avium isolates found in water that predict (...) a level of risk to exposed individuals. In this work we have characterized 15 clinical and environmental M. avium spp. isolates provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve our understanding of the key processes involved in the binding, uptake and survival of these isolates in primary human macrophages. M. avium serovar 8 was predominant among the isolates studied. Different amounts and exposure of mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and glycopeptidolipids (GPLs), both

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2012 PloS one

194. Inter- and Intra-subtype genotypic differences that differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains (PubMed)

Inter- and Intra-subtype genotypic differences that differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the aetiological agent of Johne's disease or paratuberculosis and is included within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Map strains are of two major types often referred to as 'Sheep' or 'S-type' and 'Cattle' or 'C-type'. With the advent of more discriminatory typing techniques it has been possible to further (...) among the S-type isolates, some of them not previously published. Both PFGE and IS900-RFLP segregated the S-type strains into types I and III and the results concurred with those of the gyr SNP analysis. Nine MIRU-VNTR genotypes were identified in these isolates. MIRU-VNTR analysis differentiated Map strains from other members of Mycobacterium avium Complex, and Map S-type from C-type but not type I from III. Pigmented Map isolates were found of type I or III.This is the largest panel of S-type

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2012 BMC microbiology

195. Sardinian Type 1 diabetes patients, Transthyretin and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection (PubMed)

Sardinian Type 1 diabetes patients, Transthyretin and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an enteric granulomatous disease. Recently, MAP has been associated with different autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis. Transthyretin (TTR) is a plasma transport protein for thyroid hormone and forms a complex with retinol-binding protein. Reduced

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2012 Gut pathogens

196. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169 (PubMed)

Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169 We report here the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169T was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, although Fl-0169T possesses unique virulence genes.Copyright © 2017 Pfaller et al.

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2017 Genome Announcements

197. Evaluation of GenoType NTM-DR Assay for Identification of Mycobacterium chimaera (PubMed)

Evaluation of GenoType NTM-DR Assay for Identification of Mycobacterium chimaera Identification of species within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is difficult, and most current diagnostic laboratory tests cannot distinguish between species included in the complex. Differentiation of species within the MAC is important, as Mycobacterium chimaera has recently emerged as a major cause of invasive cardiovascular infections following open heart surgery. A new commercial diagnostic assay (...) assay was in agreement with 16S rRNA and 16S-23S ITS gene sequencing results. Misidentification occurred with 16 isolates which belonged to four species included in the MAC that are rarely encountered in clinical specimens. Despite some limitations of this assay, GenoType NTM-DR had 100% specificity for identifying M. chimaera This novel assay will enable diagnostic laboratories to differentiate species belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex and to accurately identify M. chimaera It can

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2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

198. Target-Specific Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Mycobacterium chimaera DNA (PubMed)

Target-Specific Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Mycobacterium chimaera DNA Mycobacterium chimaera is an opportunistic environmental mycobacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex. Although most commonly associated with pulmonary disease, there has been growing awareness of invasive M. chimaera infections following cardiac surgery. Investigations suggest worldwide spread of a specific M. chimaera clone, associated with contaminated hospital heater

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2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

199. Mycobacterium chimaera Isolates from Heater–Cooler Units, United Kingdom (PubMed)

Chimera Humans Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous microbiology Mycobacterium avium Complex Nontuberculous Mycobacteria isolation & purification United Kingdom Mycobacterium chimaera United Kingdom bacteria cardiac surgical procedures cross-infection disease outbreaks equipment contamination genome heater–cooler units nontuberculous mycobacteria tuberculosis and other mycobacteria 2017 6 20 6 0 2017 6 20 6 0 2017 11 14 6 0 ppublish 28628453 10.3201/eid2307.170442 PMC5512474 Clin Infect Dis. 2017 (...) Mycobacterium chimaera Isolates from Heater–Cooler Units, United Kingdom 28628453 2017 11 13 2018 12 02 1080-6059 23 7 2017 07 Emerging infectious diseases Emerging Infect. Dis. Mycobacterium chimaera Isolates from Heater-Cooler Units, United Kingdom. 1227 10.3201/eid2307.170442 Hedge Jessica J Lamagni Theresa T Moore Ginny G Walker James J Crook Derrick D Chand Meera M eng Letter Comment United States Emerg Infect Dis 9508155 1080-6040 IM Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Mar;23 (3):507-509 28035898

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2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

200. Insights from the Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium lepraemurium: Massive Gene Decay and Reductive Evolution (PubMed)

might be related to Mycobacterium avium In this study, the complete genome of M. lepraemurium was sequenced using a combination of PacBio and Illumina sequencing. Phylogenomic analyses confirmed that M. lepraemurium is a distinct species within the M. avium complex (MAC). The M. lepraemurium genome is 4.05 Mb in length, which is considerably smaller than other MAC genomes, and it comprises 2,682 functional genes and 1,139 pseudogenes, which indicates that M. lepraemurium has undergone genome (...) Insights from the Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium lepraemurium: Massive Gene Decay and Reductive Evolution Mycobacterium lepraemurium is the causative agent of murine leprosy, a chronic, granulomatous disease similar to human leprosy. Due to the similar clinical manifestations of human and murine leprosy and the difficulty of growing both bacilli axenically, Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepraemurium were once thought to be closely related, although it was later suggested that M. lepraemurium

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2017 mBio

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