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Mycobacterium Avium Complex

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181. Mycobacterium Biofilms (PubMed)

. Biofilm-forming mycobacteria have been reported in many environmental studies, especially in water systems. NTM cause respiratory disease in patients with underlying diseases, such as old tuberculosis scars, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis. Pathogens can be either slowly growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium avium complex, or rapidly growing species, such as Mycobacterium abscessus. Another important biofilm-related group of infections are those associated with biomaterials (...) Mycobacterium Biofilms The genus Mycobacterium includes human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae) and environmental organisms known as non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that, when associated with biomaterials and chronic disease, can cause human infections. A common pathogenic factor of mycobacteria is the formation of biofilms. Various molecules are involved in this process, including glycopeptidolipids, shorter-chain mycolic acids, and GroEL1 chaperone. Nutrients

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2018 Frontiers in microbiology

182. Rare case of Mycobacterium nebraskense presenting as asymptomatic cavitary lung lesion (PubMed)

4.5 cm pleural-based opacity in right lung base with a small cavity. Sputum smear for Acid-fast bacilli was positive. Mycobacterial culture reported positive growth of M. nebraskense, while polymerase chain reaction returned negative for Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. With the patient asymptomatic and her constipation improved, she was discharged with plans for close follow-up as outpatient. Conclusion: M. nebraskense (...) Rare case of Mycobacterium nebraskense presenting as asymptomatic cavitary lung lesion Introduction: Mycobacterium Nebraskense is a rare nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The first isolate of the species was from human sputum at University of Nebraska Medical Center. There are only a few cases have been reported and the exact behavior of the disease is not clearly described. Here, we present a case from New York City incidentally found to have a cavitary lung lesion due to M

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2018 Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives

183. Evaluation of the Vitek MS v3.0 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia Species (PubMed)

. abscessus, and M. avium complexes and within the M. fortuitum and M. mucogenicum groups could be differentiated. Among the 312 Nocardia isolates tested, 236 (76%) were correctly identified to the species level, with an additional 44 (14%) correctly identified to the complex level. Species within the N. nova and N. transvalensis complexes could not always be differentiated. Eleven percent of the isolates (103/963) underwent repeat testing in order to get a final result. Identification of a representative (...) Evaluation of the Vitek MS v3.0 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia Species This multicenter study was designed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of the Vitek MS v3.0 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry system for identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia species compared to DNA sequencing. A total of 963 clinical isolates

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2018 Journal of clinical microbiology

184. The Presence of Coexisting Lung Cancer and Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium in a Solitary Mass (PubMed)

. avium complex was detected in the cancer tissue culture. CONCLUSIONS Physicians should suspect the co-existent lung cancer and NTM infection in patients with solitary lung masses that yield a positive mycobacterium culture result for sputum or bronchial lavage fluid. (...) The Presence of Coexisting Lung Cancer and Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium in a Solitary Mass BACKGROUND Whereas non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) pulmonary disease can mimic lung cancer as a solitary pulmonary nodule or mass, the coexistence of lung cancer and NTM pulmonary disease in a single nodule or mass is rare. We report such a rare case, highlighting that during a bronchoscopes examination which comprises taking a transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB), bronchial brushing, and bronchial

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2018 The American journal of case reports

185. Mycobacterium chimaera Hepatitis: A New Disease Entity. (PubMed)

Mycobacterium chimaera Hepatitis: A New Disease Entity. Mycobacterium chimaera was identified as a species within the Mycobacterium avium complex in 2004. Until recently, it was predominantly seen in immunocompromised patients. In 2015, an outbreak of disseminated M. chimaera disease was described in European patients after undergoing open-heart surgery in which contaminated heater-cooler water units were used. Using whole genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, investigators found

2018 American Journal of Surgical Pathology

186. Fast update of undetected Mycobacterium chimaera infections to reveal unsuspected cases. (PubMed)

retrospective Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complex isolates, which corresponded to a patient who had undergone heart valve replacement in a different institution. Whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that he was the first case in Spain with involvement of the strain responsible for the global outbreak. These results highlight the relevance of retrospective tracking for undetected M. chimaera infections.Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All (...) Fast update of undetected Mycobacterium chimaera infections to reveal unsuspected cases. Mycobacterium chimaera is involved in a worldwide alert due to contaminated heater-cooler units. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based procedure was implemented to survey undetected cases of M. chimaera infection. PCR was negative in the 59 prosthetic heart valves from patients with PCR-16SrRNA-negative infective endocarditis. PCR identified M. chimaera in one of 15 clinically significant

2018 Journal of Hospital Infection

187. Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association (PubMed)

Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated (...) the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb). Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565) further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level.Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among

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2012 BMC genomics

188. Characterization of Clinical and Environmental Mycobacterium avium Spp. Isolates and Their Interaction with Human Macrophages (PubMed)

Characterization of Clinical and Environmental Mycobacterium avium Spp. Isolates and Their Interaction with Human Macrophages Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are naturally occurring bacteria in the environment. A link has been suggested between M. avium strains in drinking water and clinical isolates from infected individuals. There is a need to develop new screening methodologies that can identify specific virulence properties of M. avium isolates found in water that predict (...) a level of risk to exposed individuals. In this work we have characterized 15 clinical and environmental M. avium spp. isolates provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve our understanding of the key processes involved in the binding, uptake and survival of these isolates in primary human macrophages. M. avium serovar 8 was predominant among the isolates studied. Different amounts and exposure of mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and glycopeptidolipids (GPLs), both

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2012 PloS one

189. Inter- and Intra-subtype genotypic differences that differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains (PubMed)

Inter- and Intra-subtype genotypic differences that differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the aetiological agent of Johne's disease or paratuberculosis and is included within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Map strains are of two major types often referred to as 'Sheep' or 'S-type' and 'Cattle' or 'C-type'. With the advent of more discriminatory typing techniques it has been possible to further (...) among the S-type isolates, some of them not previously published. Both PFGE and IS900-RFLP segregated the S-type strains into types I and III and the results concurred with those of the gyr SNP analysis. Nine MIRU-VNTR genotypes were identified in these isolates. MIRU-VNTR analysis differentiated Map strains from other members of Mycobacterium avium Complex, and Map S-type from C-type but not type I from III. Pigmented Map isolates were found of type I or III.This is the largest panel of S-type

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2012 BMC microbiology

190. Sardinian Type 1 diabetes patients, Transthyretin and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection (PubMed)

Sardinian Type 1 diabetes patients, Transthyretin and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an enteric granulomatous disease. Recently, MAP has been associated with different autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis. Transthyretin (TTR) is a plasma transport protein for thyroid hormone and forms a complex with retinol-binding protein. Reduced

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2012 Gut pathogens

191. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis is altered in low-iron conditions. (PubMed)

Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis is altered in low-iron conditions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the Mycobacterium avium complex is often characterized by a lack of correlation between in vitro results and clinical response. The reason for this discrepancy might lie in the difference between in vitro susceptibility testing conditions and the actual environment experienced by mycobacteria in the host. The availability of iron is one (...) such difference, which is limited in host macrophages upon infection, but abundant in susceptibility testing media. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to determine whether iron limitation affects the antibiotic susceptibility profile of M. avium subspecies hominissuis.Susceptibilities to multiple antibiotics targeting various cellular processes were determined in media with normal- and low-iron concentrations using the resazurin microplate assay. Differences in susceptibilities were evaluated by monitoring

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2012 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

192. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare brain abscess in HIV-positive patient (PubMed)

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare brain abscess in HIV-positive patient Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is among the most common opportunistic bacterial (...) infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from cryptococcal meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, etc. Common presentations of mycobacterium avium complex are fever, lymphadenitis and respiratory disease. Immune reconstitution disease is also known to manifest with MAC infections in PLHIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Very few cases of central nervous system involvement due to NTM infection have been described. We are reporting a case of advanced

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2012 Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology

193. Lactase persistence, NOD2 status and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection associations to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (PubMed)

Lactase persistence, NOD2 status and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection associations to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), which includes both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is caused by a complex interplay involving genetic predisposition, environmental factors and an infectious agent. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a promising pathogen candidate since it produces a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease

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2012 Gut pathogens

194. Comparison of methods available for the identification of Mycobacterium chimaera. (PubMed)

Comparison of methods available for the identification of Mycobacterium chimaera. Mycobacterium chimaera is a recently described nontuberculous mycobacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Because this species is implicated in a worldwide outbreak due to contaminated heater-cooler unit water tanks during open-heart surgery, it has become mandatory for clinical microbiology laboratories to be able to differentiate M. chimaera from the other MAC species, especially M (...) , GenoType Mycobacterium CM and GenoType NTM-DR) and (c) matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using Microflex LT.There was a high concordance for species determination between the reference ITS sequencing and the GenoType NTM-DR test (39/41, 95%), the INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria test (38/41, 93%) and the hsp65 sequencing (38/41, 93%). The GenoType Mycobacterium CM test did not distinguish M. chimaera from M. intracellulare. MALDI-TOF MS distinguished two M

2017 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

195. Disseminated Cutaneous Infection of Mycobacterium colombiense in a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome (PubMed)

Disseminated Cutaneous Infection of Mycobacterium colombiense in a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Mycobacterium colombiense (M. colombiense) is a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). To our knowledge, this is the third case report of an M. colombiense infection. An 80-year-old man, immunocompromised by myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), developed a skin rash with exfoliation and eruption on his face and scalp. Mycobacteria were detected in pus samples. Broad-range polymerase (...) chain reaction (PCR) revealed the mycobacteria to be M. colombiense. The lesions resolved after daily administration of rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin. In conclusion, broad-range PCR identified this rare mycobacterium, allowing for the administration of appropriate combination antibiotic therapy.

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2017 Internal Medicine

196. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169 (PubMed)

Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169 We report here the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169T was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, although Fl-0169T possesses unique virulence genes.Copyright © 2017 Pfaller et al.

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2017 Genome Announcements

197. Target-Specific Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Mycobacterium chimaera DNA (PubMed)

Target-Specific Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Mycobacterium chimaera DNA Mycobacterium chimaera is an opportunistic environmental mycobacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex. Although most commonly associated with pulmonary disease, there has been growing awareness of invasive M. chimaera infections following cardiac surgery. Investigations suggest worldwide spread of a specific M. chimaera clone, associated with contaminated hospital heater

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2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

198. Evaluation of GenoType NTM-DR Assay for Identification of Mycobacterium chimaera (PubMed)

Evaluation of GenoType NTM-DR Assay for Identification of Mycobacterium chimaera Identification of species within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is difficult, and most current diagnostic laboratory tests cannot distinguish between species included in the complex. Differentiation of species within the MAC is important, as Mycobacterium chimaera has recently emerged as a major cause of invasive cardiovascular infections following open heart surgery. A new commercial diagnostic assay (...) assay was in agreement with 16S rRNA and 16S-23S ITS gene sequencing results. Misidentification occurred with 16 isolates which belonged to four species included in the MAC that are rarely encountered in clinical specimens. Despite some limitations of this assay, GenoType NTM-DR had 100% specificity for identifying M. chimaera This novel assay will enable diagnostic laboratories to differentiate species belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex and to accurately identify M. chimaera It can

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2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

199. Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculin-positive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease (PubMed)

. avium complex organism. One macaque from the contract quarantine facility tested culture positive for M. kansasii. Genomic testing and target gene RNA expression analysis of the 2 M. kansasii isolates were performed to evaluate possible kinship and affected genes that might contribute to susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Genotyping of the 2 isolates revealed 2 genetically distinct strains (strains 1 and 4). The presence of positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease raises (...) Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculin-positive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes

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2017 Comparative medicine

200. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera SJ42, a Nonoutbreak Strain from an Immunocompromised Patient with Pulmonary Disease (PubMed)

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera SJ42, a Nonoutbreak Strain from an Immunocompromised Patient with Pulmonary Disease Mycobacterium chimaera, a nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause respiratory and disseminated disease. We report the complete genome sequence of a strain, SJ42, isolated from an immunocompromised male presenting with MAC pneumonia, assembled from Illumina and Oxford

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2017 Genome Announcements

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