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Motor Activity Abnormality

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1. Aberrant Hyperconnectivity in the Motor System at Rest Is Linked to Motor Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. (PubMed)

. Therefore, altered functional connectivity suggests a specific intrinsic and tonic neural abnormality in the motor system in schizophrenia. Furthermore, altered neural activity at rest was linked to motor abnormalities on the behavioral level. Thus, aberrant resting state connectivity may indicate a system out of balance, which produces characteristic behavioral alterations.© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved (...) Aberrant Hyperconnectivity in the Motor System at Rest Is Linked to Motor Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Motor abnormalities are frequently observed in schizophrenia and structural alterations of the motor system have been reported. The association of aberrant motor network function, however, has not been tested. We hypothesized that abnormal functional connectivity would be related to the degree of motor abnormalities in schizophrenia. In 90 subjects (46 patients) we

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2017 Schizophrenia bulletin

2. Motor Activity Abnormality

Motor Activity Abnormality Motor Activity Abnormality Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Motor Activity Abnormality Motor (...) Activity Abnormality Aka: Motor Activity Abnormality , Akathisia , Bradykinesia , Catatonia II. Definitions Akathisia Motor restlessness or psychomotor aggitation May present as inability to sit still, pacing or wringing hands Bradykinesia Motor slowing or psychomotor retardation May present as generalized motor and emotional slowing Catatonia Severe Bradykinesia to the point of immobility and muscular rigidity Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from

2018 FP Notebook

3. Identification of age-dependent motor and neuropsychological behavioural abnormalities in a mouse model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II. (PubMed)

of the cognitive, skeletal and motor abnormalities present in the MPS II mouse model by performing time course behavioural examinations of working memory, anxiety, activity levels, sociability and coordination and balance, up to 8 months of age. Cognitive decline associated with alterations in spatial working memory is detectable at 8 months of age in MPS II mice using spontaneous alternation, together with an altered response to novel environments and anxiolytic behaviour in the open-field. Coordination (...) Identification of age-dependent motor and neuropsychological behavioural abnormalities in a mouse model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II. Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the IDS gene, leading to a deficiency in the iduronate-2-sulfatase enzyme that is involved in heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate catabolism. In constitutive form, MPS II is a multi-system disease characterised by progressive neurocognitive

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2017 PLoS ONE

4. Rebound excitability mediates motor abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease (PubMed)

is the key for inducing motor abnormalities in PD patients. We reveal that in response to inhibition, thalamic neurons generate rebound firing at the end of inhibition. This rebound firing increases motor cortical activity and induces muscular responses that triggers Parkinsonian motor dysfunction. Genetic and optogenetic intervention of the rebound firing prevent motor dysfunction in a mouse model of PD. Our results suggest that inhibitory synaptic mechanism mediates motor dysfunction by generating (...) Rebound excitability mediates motor abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder resulting from loss of dopamine neurons. In dopamine deficient state, the basal ganglia increases inhibitory synaptic outputs to the thalamus. This increased inhibition by the basal ganglia output is known to reduce firing rate of thalamic neurons that relay motor signals to the motor cortex. This 'rate model' suggests that the reduced excitability of thalamic neurons

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2018 BMB reports

5. γδT cells but not αβT cells contribute to sepsis-induced white matter injury and motor abnormalities in mice (PubMed)

injury and subsequent motor function abnormalities in early life. Modulating the activity of γδT cells in the early stages of preterm white matter injury might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of perinatal brain injury. (...) γδT cells but not αβT cells contribute to sepsis-induced white matter injury and motor abnormalities in mice Infection and sepsis are associated with brain white matter injury in preterm infants and the subsequent development of cerebral palsy.In the present study, we used a neonatal mouse sepsis-induced white matter injury model to determine the contribution of different T cell subsets (αβT cells and γδT cells) to white matter injury and consequent behavioral changes. C57BL/6J wild-type

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2017 Journal of neuroinflammation

6. A High-fat Diet Induces a Loss of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuronal Function That Underlies Motor Abnormalities (PubMed)

) to the striatum is responsible for regulating grip strength and motor initiation through tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity-dependent dopamine release. We found that mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited decreased movement in open-field tests and an increase in missteps in a vertical grid test compared with normally fed mice. This motor abnormality was associated with a significant reduction of TH in the SN and striatum. We further found that phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which modulates TH (...) A High-fat Diet Induces a Loss of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuronal Function That Underlies Motor Abnormalities Movement defects in obesity are associated with peripheral muscle defects, arthritis, and dysfunction of motor control by the brain. Although movement functionality is negatively correlated with obesity, the brain regions and downstream signaling pathways associated with movement defects in obesity are unclear. A dopaminergic neuronal pathway from the substantia nigra (SN

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2017 Experimental neurobiology

7. Abnormal response of distal Schwann cells to denervation in a mouse model of motor neuron disease (PubMed)

Abnormal response of distal Schwann cells to denervation in a mouse model of motor neuron disease In several animal models of motor neuron disease, degeneration begins in the periphery. Clarifying the possible role of Schwann cells remains a priority. We recently showed that terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) exhibit abnormalities in postnatal mice that express mutations of the SOD1 enzyme found in inherited human motor neuron disease. TSC abnormalities appeared before disease-related denervation (...) cell death following denervation. Denervated SOD1 NMJs viewed 7 days after denervation with the electron microscope confirmed the absence of TSCs overlying endplates. These observations demonstrate that SOD1 TSCs and distal SCs respond abnormally to denervation. This behavior can be expected to hinder reinnervation and raises further questions concerning the ability of SOD1 TSCs to support normal functioning of motor terminals.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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2016 Experimental neurology

8. Motor neurone disease: assessment and management

, including personal care, dressing and bathing, housework, shopping, food preparation, eating and drinking, and ability to continue with current work and usual activities. Mobility and avoiding falls and problems from loss of dexterity. The home environment and the need for adaptations. The need for assistive technology, such as environmental control systems. [new 2016] [new 2016] 1.9.2 Provide equipment and adaptations that meet the person's needs without delay, Motor neurone disease: assessment (...) Motor neurone disease: assessment and management Motor neurone disease: assessment and Motor neurone disease: assessment and management management NICE guideline Published: 24 February 2016 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng42 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

9. Developmental protein kinase C hyper-activation results in microcephaly and behavioral abnormalities in zebrafish (PubMed)

development and induces a long-lasting head size deficit. The anatomical and cellular analysis revealed reduced neural precursor proliferation and newborn neuron formation. β-Catenin that is essential for brain growth is dramatically degraded. Stabilization of β-catenin by gsk3β inhibition partially restores the head size deficit. In addition, the neuropathogenic effect of developmental PKC hyper-activation was further supported by the alterations in the behavioral domain including motor abnormalities (...) Developmental protein kinase C hyper-activation results in microcephaly and behavioral abnormalities in zebrafish Susceptible genetic polymorphisms and altered expression levels of protein kinase C (PKC)-encoding genes suggest overactivation of PKC in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) development. To delineate the pathological role of PKC, we pharmacologically stimulated its activity during the early development of zebrafish. Results demonstrated that PKC hyper-activation perturbs zebrafish

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2018 Translational psychiatry

10. Abnormal subcortical activity in congenital mirror movement disorder with RAD51 mutation (PubMed)

Abnormal subcortical activity in congenital mirror movement disorder with RAD51 mutation Congenital mirror movement disorder (CMMD) is characterized by unintended, nonsuppressible, homologous mirroring activity contralateral to the movement on the intended side of the body. In healthy controls, unilateral movements are accompanied with predominantly contralateral cortical activity, whereas in CMMD, in line with the abnormal behavior, bilateral cortical activity is observed for unilateral motor (...) during manual motor actions in two right-handed affected brothers and sex, age, education, and socioeconomically matched healthy individuals.Genetic analyses revealed heterozygous RAD51 c.401C>T mutation which cosegregated with the phenotype in two affected members of the family. Consistent with previous literature, our fMRI results on these two affected individuals showed that mirror movements were closely related to abnormal cortical activity in M1 and SMA during unimanual movements. Furthermore

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2018 Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

11. Abnormalities in the evoked frontal oscillatory activity of first-episode psychosis: A TMS/EEG study. (PubMed)

Abnormalities in the evoked frontal oscillatory activity of first-episode psychosis: A TMS/EEG study. TMS with simultaneous EEG allows assessing the intrinsic oscillatory activity of cortical neurons. We recently showed reduced frontal cortical oscillations in chronic schizophrenia (SCZ). Here we investigated the oscillatory activity of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients after TMS of a frontal area, the motor cortex. Compared to healthy controls, FEP patients had significantly reduced beta

2018 Schizophrenia Research

12. Effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on neural activation during a simple motor task in healthy individuals: A functional MRI study. (PubMed)

Effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on neural activation during a simple motor task in healthy individuals: A functional MRI study. The dopaminergic system plays a key role in motor function and motor abnormalities have been shown to be a specific feature of psychosis. Due to their dopaminergic action, antipsychotic drugs may be expected to modulate motor function, but the precise effects of these drugs on motor function remain unclear. We carried out a within-subject, double-blind (...) , randomized study of the effects of aripiprazole, haloperidol and placebo on motor function in 20 healthy men. For each condition, motor performance on an auditory-paced task was investigated. We entered maps of neural activation into a random effects general linear regression model to investigate motor function main effects. Whole-brain imaging revealed a significant treatment effect in a distributed network encompassing posterior orbitofrontal/anterior insula cortices, and the inferior temporal

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2018 Human brain mapping

13. Decreased anterior cingulate activation in a motor task in youths with bipolar disorder. (PubMed)

Decreased anterior cingulate activation in a motor task in youths with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder (BP) is characterized by abnormal shifts in mood between episodes of mania and severe depression, both of which have been linked with psychomotor disturbances. This study compares brain activation patterns in motor networks between euthymic youths with BP and healthy controls (HC) during the completion of a simple motor task.Thirty-five youths with BP and 35 HC (aged 10-19) completed a self (...) -paced sequential bilateral finger-tapping task, consisting of a 4-minute scan block with alternating 20-second periods of either the tapping task (six blocks) or rest (six blocks), while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical and behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A between-group whole-brain analysis compared activation pattern differences while controlling for effects of age and sex. Clusters meeting whole-brain false discovery rate (FDR

2018 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

14. Oscillatory Activity in the Cortex, Motor Thalamus and Nucleus Reticularis Thalami in Acute TTX and Chronic 6-OHDA Dopamine-Depleted Animals (PubMed)

of PD. The abnormal oscillatory activity in frequency interval of other bands, in particular the dampening of low frequencies in thalamic stations, in both states of DA depletion might also underlie PD motor and non-motor symptoms. Our data highlighted the effects of acute depletion of DA and the strict interplay in the oscillatory activity between the MTh and NRT in both acute and chronic stage of DA depletion. Moreover, our findings emphasize early alterations in the NRT, a crucial station (...) Oscillatory Activity in the Cortex, Motor Thalamus and Nucleus Reticularis Thalami in Acute TTX and Chronic 6-OHDA Dopamine-Depleted Animals The motor thalamus (MTh) and the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) have been largely neglected in Parkinson's disease (PD) research, despite their key role as interface between basal ganglia (BG) and cortex (Cx). In the present study, we investigated the oscillatory activity within the Cx, MTh, and NRT, in normal and different dopamine (DA)-deficient

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2018 Frontiers in neurology

15. Effects of Long-Term Treatment with T-PEMF on Forearm Muscle Activation and Motor Function in Parkinson's Disease (PubMed)

Effects of Long-Term Treatment with T-PEMF on Forearm Muscle Activation and Motor Function in Parkinson's Disease Bipolar pulsed electromagnetic stimulation applied to the brain (T-PEMF) is a non-pharmacological treatment which has been shown to stimulate nerve growth, attenuate nerve abnormalities, and improve microcirculation. We report on a 62-year-old, medically well-treated man with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. He was treated with T-PEMF, 30 min per day for three 8-week periods (...) separated by two 1-week breaks. The disease made his handwriting impossible to read mainly due to small letters and lack of fluency. Forearm EMG measured during standardized conditions showed an involuntary spiky EMG pattern with regular burst activity (on his left side) at baseline. The intervention normalized the handwriting and forearm EMG. The UPDRS-motor score decreased from 25 to 17, and UPDRS-II-handwriting decreased from a pre-intervention value of 3 to 0 after the intervention. Finally

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2018 Case reports in neurology

16. Aberrant cerebellar Purkinje cell activity as the cause of motor attacks in a mouse model of episodic ataxia type 2 (PubMed)

Aberrant cerebellar Purkinje cell activity as the cause of motor attacks in a mouse model of episodic ataxia type 2 Many cerebellar-induced neurological disorders, such as ataxias and cerebellar-induced dystonias, are associated with abnormal Purkinje cell activity. In tottering mice, a well-established mouse model of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), cerebellar Purkinje cells are required for the initiation of motor attacks. How Purkinje cells contribute to the initiation of attacks is not known (...) , and to date there are no reports on the activity of Purkinje cells during motor attacks in the tottering mice. Here, we show that tottering Purkinje cells exhibit high-frequency burst firing during attacks, reminiscent of other mouse models of cerebellar-induced motor dysfunction. We recorded the activity of Purkinje cells in awake head-restrained tottering mice at baseline, or during caffeine-induced attacks. During motor attacks, firing of Purkinje cells transformed to high-frequency burst firing

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2018 Disease models & mechanisms

17. Abnormal gait, reduced locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination in Dgcr2-deficient mice (PubMed)

Abnormal gait, reduced locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination in Dgcr2-deficient mice It has been suggested that the DGCR2 gene plays a role in the pathogenesis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. To analyze its function, we used our Dgcr2-knock-out/EGFP-knock-in mice (Dgcr2-KO mice). At 20-26 weeks of age, approximately 20% of Dgcr2-KO mice showed gait abnormalities with trembling and difficulty in balancing. Footprint test revealed awkward movements in Dgcr2-KO mice soon after they were (...) placed on the floor. Once they started walking, their stride lengths were not different from wild-type mice. In short-term open field test, Dgcr2-KO mice travelled a significantly shorter distance and walked more slowly than wild-type mice during the initial 5 min after being placed in a new environment. In long-term open field test, Dgcr2-KO mice exhibited reduced cage activity compared to wild-type mice on the first day, but not on later days. Dgcr2-KO mice showed reduced latency to fall

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2015 Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

18. Abnormal Motor Activity and Thermoregulation in a Schizophrenia Rat Model for Translational Science (PubMed)

Abnormal Motor Activity and Thermoregulation in a Schizophrenia Rat Model for Translational Science Schizophrenia is accompanied by altered motor activity and abnormal thermoregulation; therefore, the presence of these symptoms can enhance the face validity of a schizophrenia animal model. The goal was to characterize these parameters in freely moving condition of a new substrain of rats showing several schizophrenia-related alterations.Male Wistar rats were used: the new substrain housed (...) determined.Decreased motor activity with fragmented pattern was observed in the new substrain. However, these animals had higher body temperature during the active phase, and they showed wider range of its alterations, too. The changes in light conditions and different interventions produced blunted hyperactivity and altered body temperature responses in the new substrain. Poincaré plot analysis of body temperature revealed enhanced short- and long-term variabilities during the active phase compared

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2015 PloS one

19. Treatment of cerebellar motor dysfunction and ataxia

sclerosis (MS), and metabolic disorders. Motor signs resulting from cerebellar dysfunction may include some or all of the following: imbalance, impaired coordination, limb and body tremor, dysarthria, and oculomotor abnormalities. Other neurologic symptoms and signs may accompany cerebellar dysfunction, including dystonia, muscle weakness, oculomotor abnormalities, neuropathy, parkinsonism, spasticity, impaired visual acuity, and sensory impairment; these symptoms and signs are beyond the scope (...) Treatment of cerebellar motor dysfunction and ataxia Comprehensive systematic review summary: Treatment of cerebellar motor dysfunction and ataxia | Neurology Advertisement Search for this keyword Main menu User menu Search Search for this keyword The most widely read and highly cited peer-reviewed neurology journal Share March 06, 2018 ; 90 (10) Special Article Comprehensive systematic review summary: Treatment of cerebellar motor dysfunction and ataxia Report of the Guideline Development

2018 American Academy of Neurology

20. Persistent microglial activation and synaptic loss with behavioral abnormalities in mouse offspring exposed to CASPR2-antibodies in utero. (PubMed)

Persistent microglial activation and synaptic loss with behavioral abnormalities in mouse offspring exposed to CASPR2-antibodies in utero. Gestational transfer of maternal antibodies against fetal neuronal proteins may be relevant to some neurodevelopmental disorders, but until recently there were no proteins identified. We recently reported a fivefold increase in CASPR2-antibodies in mid-gestation sera from mothers of children with intellectual and motor disabilities. Here, we exposed mice (...) in utero to purified IgG from patients with CASPR2-antibodies (CASPR2-IgGs) or from healthy controls (HC-IgGs). CASPR2-IgG but not HC-IgG bound to fetal brain parenchyma, from which CASPR2-antibodies could be eluted. CASPR2-IgG exposed neonates achieved milestones similarly to HC-IgG exposed controls but, when adult, the CASPR2-IgG exposed progeny showed marked social interaction deficits, abnormally located glutamatergic neurons in layers V-VI of the somatosensory cortex, a 16% increase in activated

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2017 Acta neuropathologica

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