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81. Impact of financial inclusion in low? and middle?income countries: A systematic review of reviews Full Text available with Trip Pro

a brief examination of the impact evidence for graduation and livelihoods programmes. In terms of evidence gaps, it is noteworthy that none of the meta‐studies we reviewed (high‐, medium‐ or low‐confidence) managed to assess debt levels or indebtedness patterns in depth as an outcome of financial inclusion. While we cannot comment on the reasons for the lack of attention paid to the issue, except that we are aware of it also being a blind spot of the underlying primary studies, we find (...) of consumption is difficult to ascertain, because changes in consumption levels are might stem from positive causes (such as having more available income) or negative causes (such as higher costs or spending on credit). 3.3.2 Social Under the heading of “social outcomes” we collect the gamut of other beneficial outcomes that are not strictly behavioural, economic or gender‐related. We break these down further into three broad categories: health (physical health, nutrition, mental and psychological health

2019 Campbell Collaboration

82. Staff and associate specialist (SAS) grade handbook

are aimed at supporting those who are returning to work, or who have suffered illness or other difficulties in their careers. Again these are great resources for all our members, SAS anaesthetists and clinical leads. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those who have given support to the SAS Committee and to the preparation of this handbook. Particularly to my fellow members of the SAS Committee, the President, Officers and Board of the Association of Anaesthetists and the staff at 21 (...) . How to write a paper 20. Pensions and financial planning 21. Leadership and management 22. Local Education and Training Board Appendix 1: Checklist for CESR application4 Association of Anaesthetists | The SAS Handbook 2020 Back to contents 1. Why Join the Association of Anaesthetists? There are many reasons why SAS anaesthetists should join the Association of Anaesthetists. The obvious reasons are the benefits you can get from being a member. For all of us, study leave budgets and leave are under

2020 Association of Anaesthetists of GB and Ireland

83. Improving outdoor air quality and health: review of interventions

local action 12 The overall approach 14 Next steps 15 Abbreviations and acronyms 16 Introduction 20 The case for action 20 Exposure to air pollution 21 The main air pollutants of health concern 28 Air quality policies in the UK 36 The PHE evidence review methodology 41 Steering Group 41 Rapid evidence assessments 41 PHE report methodology 43 Using a modified Delphi to rank air pollution problems 43 Results: Vehicle/fuel interventions 50 Key messages 50 Research questions 51 Principles: maximising (...) of between 28,000 and 36,000 deaths each year attributed to human- made air pollution ? a close association with cardiovascular and respiratory disease including lung cancer ? emerging evidence that other organs may also be affected, with possible effects on dementia, low birth weight and diabetes ? emerging evidence that children in their early years are especially at risk, including asthma and poorer lung development People are exposed to outdoor air pollution in the places where they live, work

2019 Public Health England

84. Preventing and Managing Infectious Diseases Among People who Inject Drugs in Ontario

Preventing and Managing Infectious Diseases Among People who Inject Drugs in Ontario Evidence Brief Preventing and Managing Infectious Diseases Among People who Inject Drugs in Ontario 28 February 2019 McMaster Health Forum 1 Evidence >> Insight >> Action Evidence Brief: Preventing and Managing Infectious Diseases Among People who Inject Drugs in Ontario 28 February 2019 McMaster Health Forum 2 Evidence >> Insight >> Action McMaster Health Forum The McMaster Health Forum’s goal is to generate (...) . Evidence brief: Preventing and managing infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Ontario. Hamilton, Ontario: McMaster Health Forum, 28 February 2019. Product registration numbers ISSN 1925-2250 (online) McMaster Health Forum 3 Evidence >> Insight >> Action Table of Contents KEY MESSAGES 5 REPORT 7 THE PROBLEM 8 Injection drug use is associated with increased risk of a range of infectious diseases 9 Stigma and discrimination experienced by people who inject drugs may reduce timely access

2019 McMaster Health Forum

85. Population-level strategies to support healthy weight

interventions in remote stores 19 Adopt mandatory limits on nutrients of concern (e.g. trans fat, sodium, saturated fat, added sugars) in foods in targeted food categories * 20 Establish clear national targets for reductions in sodium, saturated fat and added sugar in key food categories (including packaged foods and out-of-home meals) * Physical activity 21 Enact policy changes to support and enable changes to the built environment to improve walkability, cycling and public transport use * 22 Undertake (...) The problem of obesity The prevalence of overweight and obesity 1 has risen sharply over the past 40 years. In Australia, approximately 63% of the adult population and 27% of children have either overweight or obesity 3 . Obesity is a major risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, musculoskeletal conditions and many cancers 4 . In 2015, obesity and dietary risk factors were responsible for 8.4% and 7.3% of the total disease burden in Australia, with a further 2.5

2019 Sax Institute Evidence Check

86. Pregnancy and Renal Disease

Practice Guideline Pregnancy and Renal Disease – September 2019 44 6. Huang Q, Gao Y, Yu Y et al. Urinary spot albumin:creatinine ratio for documenting proteinuria in women with preeclampsia. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 5:9-15. 7. Waugh J, Hooper R, Lamb E et al. Spot protein-creatinine ratio and spot albumin-creatinine ratio in the assessment of pre-eclampsia: a diagnostic accuracy study with decision-analytic model-based economic evaluation and acceptability analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2017; 21:1 (...) : the management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy [CG107]. 2011. Available at: (accessed 22nd May 2019). 5. Healthcare Commission. Towards better births: a review of maternity services in England. Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection; 2008 6. Valentin M, Muller F, Beaujard MP et al. First-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in women with renal disease. Prenat Diagn. 2015; 35:244-248. Renal Association Clinical Practice Guideline Pregnancy and Renal

2019 Renal Association

87. Laboratory diagnosis of G6PD deficiency Full Text available with Trip Pro

and dried blood spots collected onto filter paper can also be used. Samples give reliable results even after storage for up to five days at 25°C or for up to 21 days at 4°C. Method Thaw an aliquot of the reaction mixture and allow it to come to room temperature. Mix 20 μl of whole anticoagulated blood with 0·2 ml of reaction mixture. Spot one drop (20 μl) of this mixture onto non‐fluorescent filter paper such as Whatman No. 1, as soon as it has been mixed, and again at intervals of 5 and 10 min from (...) ) and permanent neurological damage or death. Haemolysis does not seem to contribute as much as impaired bilirubin conjugation and clearance by the liver (Kaplan et al. , ). G6PD‐deficient newborn babies who also inherit a mutation of the uridine‐diphosphate‐glucuronosyltransferase 1 ( UGT1A1 ) gene promoter, responsible for Gilbert syndrome, are particularly at risk for neonatal jaundice (Kaplan et al. , ). Neonatal screening for G6PD deficiency is routinely performed in many countries, mainly on dried blood

2020 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

88. Infection prevention and control

, Middlesbrough, UK; Honorary Secretary, Association of Anaesthetists 7 Consultant, Department of Anaesthetics, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry, UK; Difficult Airway Society Association of Anaesthetists 21 Portland Place, London, W1B 1PY Tel: +44 (0)20 7631 1650 Email: Association of Anaesthetists is the brand name used to refer to both the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland and its related charity, AAGBI Foundation (...) has also been published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) [2] and the World Health Organization [3]. Why were these guidelines developed? Since the previous guidelines were published there have been a number of changes and advances in infection prevention and control, including an increase in the use of single-use equipment and a reduction in the threat of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. How and why does this statement differ from existing guidelines? The previous

2020 Association of Anaesthetists of GB and Ireland

89. Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

– An integrated approach v Abbreviations AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ALT Alanine aminotransferase Anti-HB Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen Anti-HCV Antibody to HCV ART Antiretroviral therapy BBV Blood-borne virus CD4 Cluster of differentiation 4 CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention DAA Direct-acting antiviral DBS Dried blood spot DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid EACS European AIDS Clinical Society EASL European Association for the Study of the Liver EATG European AIDS Treatment Group EU (...) with strengthening Europe’s defences against infectious diseases, ECDC published its first evidence-based guidance on HIV testing in 2010 [21]. In consideration of the rapid developments in the field of HIV diagnostics and testing, ECDC commissioned an evaluation of this guidance in 2015 [22]. Encouragingly, stakeholders stated that they referenced and used the ECDC guidance extensively in developing national policies, guidelines and testing strategies. They favoured an update of the guidance to ensure

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

90. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

pneumococcal vaccine for adults with diabetes. A one-time revaccination is recommended for individuals 65 years of age or older who were previously immunized when they were younger than 65 years of age if the vaccine was administered more than 5 years ago. Other indications for repeat vaccination include nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal disease, and other immunocompromised states, such as post-organ transplantation. Hepatitis B vaccine (usually 3 doses over 6 months) should be routinely provided (...) , lifestyle interventions, and goal setting (see Table 3); glycemic management (see Tables 4- 10); and pharmacologic management of hypertension (see Table 11) and hyperlipidemia. Screening for comorbidities and complications. Routine screening and prompt treatment for cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, tobacco use) and for microvascular disease (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) are recommended in the time frames below. Treatment of comorbidities and complications. Management

2020 University of Michigan Health System

91. Management of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Guideline Recommendations From the International Consensus Group

. Group members reviewed the evidence pro?les and, using a consensus process, voted on recommendations and determined the strength of recommendations as strong or conditional. Recommendations: Preendoscopic management: The group suggestsusingaGlasgowBlatchfordscoreof1orlesstoidentify patients at very low risk for rebleeding, who may not require hospitalization. In patients without cardiovascular disease, the suggested hemoglobin threshold for blood transfusion is less than80g/L (...) ,withahigherthresholdforthosewithcardiovascular disease. Endoscopic management: The group suggests that pa- tients with acute UGIB undergo endoscopy within 24 hours of presentation. Thermocoagulation and sclerosant injection are recommended,andclipsaresuggested,forendoscopictherapy in patients with high-risk stigmata. Use of TC-325 (hemostatic powder) was suggested as temporizing therapy, but not as sole treatment, in patients with actively bleeding ulcers. Pharmaco- logic management: The group recommends that patients with bleeding ulcers

2020 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

92. WHO guideline on use of ferritin concentrations to assess iron status in individuals and populations

? 20 Summary of evidence 20 Summar y of the considerations of the members of guideline development group 21 for determining the direction and strength of the recommendations Recommendations 21 Remarks 22 Question 3. How should ferritin be measured? 22 Summary of evidence 22 Summar y of the considerations of the members of guideline development group 23 for determining the direction and strength of the recommendations Recommendations 24 Remarks 24 Question 4. Should ferritin be measured (...) -review 60 ANNEX 8. WHO Secretariat 61 WHO Regional and Country Office 62vii PUBLICATION HISTORY This WHO guideline on use of ferritin concentrations to assess iron status in individuals and populations is an update of, and supersedes, previous recommendations in the World Health Organization (WHO)/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publication, Assessing the iron status of population, first published in 2004), and recommendations related to ferritin in Iron deficiency anaemia

2020 World Health Organisation Guidelines

93. Noninvasive Nonpharmacological Treatment for Chronic Pain

organizations in their efforts to improve the quality of healthcare in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requested this report from the EPC Program at AHRQ. AHRQ assigned this report to the following EPC: Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Center (Contract Number 290-2015-00009-I). The reports and assessments provide organizations with comprehensive, evidence-based information on common medical conditions and new healthcare technologies and strategies. They also (...) exercise, 21 acupuncture, 22 and complementary health approaches 23 for chronic pain management, as well as a review of chronic pain treatment guidelines on the use of manual and physical therapies. 24 Applicability New trials included for this update did not provide additional clarity on applicability. The applicability of our findings continues to be impacted by a number of factors. Symptom duration, clinical characteristics, comorbid conditions, the presence of overlapping chronic pain conditions

2020 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

94. Prostate Cancer

., et al. Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array. Nat Genet, 2013. 45: 385. 20. Amin Al Olama, A., et al. Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans. Hum Mol Genet, 2015. 24: 5589. 21. Schumacher, F.R., et al. Association analyses of more than 140,000 men identify 63 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci. Nat Genet, 2018. 50: 928. 22. Pritchard, C.C., et al (...) . 29. Esposito, K., et al. Effect of metabolic syndrome and its components on prostate cancer risk: meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest, 2013. 36: 132. 30. Blanc-Lapierre, A., et al. Metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada. BMC Public Health, 2015. 15: 913. 31. Preston, M.A., et al. Metformin use and prostate cancer risk. Eur Urol, 2014. 66: 1012. 32. Freedland, S.J., et al. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer and high-grade

2020 European Association of Urology

95. Consensus Practice Guidelines on Interventions for Lumbar Facet Joint Pain from a Multispecialty, International Working Group Full Text available with Trip Pro

pain and pain aggravation with Valsalva maneuver were associated with positive response to the blocks. Lewinnek and Warfield performed a small, retrospective study in 21 individuals with refractory LBP, reporting their results with IA LA and steroid injections (1.5 mL) into the areas of maximal tenderness and pathology identified on X-rays. Patients were selected based on the presence of paraspinal tenderness and negative correlates for other etiologies, such as nerve root tension signs. They found (...) no association between physical signs and symptoms for the most part did not evaluate this metric. Studies have also shown that maneuvers associated with radicular signs (eg, pain worsened by coughing, pain radiating below the knee) may be predictive of negative diagnostic facet blocks. Similar to other interventions for chronic pain, greater disease burden and psychiatric comorbidities may be associated with definitive treatment failure. When selecting targets for blocks, levels should be determined based

2020 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

96. Key Questions on COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease

Syndrome X, Angina, Stable, Heart Defects, Congenital, Dyslipidemias, Geriatrics, Heart Failure, Angiography, Diagnostic Imaging, Pericarditis, Secondary Prevention, Hypertension, Pulmonary, Sleep Apnea Syndromes, Sports, Angina, Stable, Exercise Test, Heart Valve Diseases, Aneurysm, COVID-19, Coronavirus, Coronavirus Infections, Cardiology Magazine, ACC Publications > > Feature | Key Questions on COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease Heart House 2400 N Street NW Washington, DC 20037 Phone: , ext. 5603 (...) Key Questions on COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease Feature | Key Questions on COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease - American College of Cardiology ') Search All Types Search or Menu or in the . This FAQ is intended to be topical, not comprehensive. Quick Links: What is the role of troponin measurement in COVID-19? Category: Biomarker Management Patient Type: COVID+ Prevalence: COMMON Principal Guidance: Troponin is commonly elevated in patients COVID-19 and does necessarily indicate

2020 American College of Cardiology

97. Nephrolithiasis

episodes. Definition Nephrolithiasis refers to the presence of crystalline stones (calculi) within the urinary system (kidneys and ureter). Such renal stones are composed of varying amounts of crystalloid and organic matrix. Ureteric stones almost always originate in the kidney but then pass down into the ureter. Stoller ML. Urinary stone disease. In: Tanagho EA, McAninch JW, eds. Smith's General Urology, 16th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill: 2004: 256-291. History and exam acute, severe flank pain (...) , but with a warning and precaution regarding possible cardiovascular events. The manufacturer was required to conduct a large postmarketing safety clinical trial. The double-blind study (CARES) compared cardiovascular outcomes in patients with gout and major cardiovascular disease (n = 6198) who were randomised to febuxostat or to allopurinol. Treatment groups did not differ with respect to a primary composite outcome of cardiovascular events. However, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality were

2018 BMJ Best Practice

98. Supporting vulnerable people on Glasgow streets: views of service providers

Records of Scotland on inequalities in leading causes of disease, published in 2018, found that drug use disorders are 17 times more prevalent in poorer than richer areas and are the leading cause of premature death in young adults 3 . Addressing drug-related harm is one of the Scottish Government’s national public health priorities 4 and features as a key strand of Greater Glasgow and Clyde’s Public Health Strategy, ‘Turning the Tide Through Prevention’ 5 . Given the links between homelessness, rough (...) media within Glasgow – there’s a lot of folk saying, these poor homeless people nothing happens with them because they assume that somebody begging is homeless. So, on the one hand you are constantly trying to counter a message that suggests that we’re not doing enough. Then you’ve got another cohort that’s saying ‘well why are you helping these people, it’s self-inflicted, you know they are a nuisance, they are a blight, and they bring the image of the city down’.” [Interview 5] Alternative giving

2019 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

99. Performance of the Belgian health system

, but we have also set quite some green lights. In road traffic, we pay little attention to them because they indicate that the road is clear. Here, we invite the reader to slow down and take a close look at them in order to become aware of the positive aspects of our system. And even when the situation seems more critical, you will find that it often evolves favourably. Does this mean that everything is going well, that we can rest on our laurels? Of course not: mental health, flu vaccination, breast (...) – Indicators specifically on population aged 75+ 74 Table 21 – Indicators on end of life care for patients with terminal cancer 77 Table 22 – Indicators on mother and newborn care 81 KCE Report 313C Performance report 2019 5 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATION DEFINITION ADL Activities of daily living AMI Acute myocardial infarction BAPCOC Belgian Antibiotic Policy Coordination Committee BCR Belgian Cancer Registry CT Computed Tomography DDD Defined Daily Dose DTP Diphtheria - Tetanus - Pertussis EBP

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

100. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical Screening and Cervical Cancer

member Wendy Norton, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery, De Montfort University, Leicester and RCN Women’s Health Forum Committee member Claire Cohen, Head of Health Information and Engagement, Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust Supported byROYAL COLLEGE OF NURSING 3 1. Introduction 4 2. Human papillomavirus 5 3. Human papillomavirus vaccination 7 4. Cervical screening 8 5. Cervical cancer 16 – Colposcopy 17 6. Conclusion 19 7. Glossary 20 8. References 21 9 (...) . Further reading and resources 24 ContentsHUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV), CERVICAL SCREENING AND CERVICAL CANCERS 4 1. Introduction Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in women; most deaths occur in low to middle income countries (WHO, 2014a). However, cervical cancer is, generally, a preventable disease. The primary cause of cervical abnormalities and cancer is persistent or chronic infection with one or more of the high-risk (oncogenic) types of human

2018 Royal College of Nursing

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