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Midbrain

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161. Neuroprotective Effects of 7, 8-dihydroxyflavone on Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons in MPP+-treated Monkeys (Full text)

Neuroprotective Effects of 7, 8-dihydroxyflavone on Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons in MPP+-treated Monkeys Parkinson's disease (PD) is one common neurodegenerative disease caused by a significant loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Previous reports showed that 7, 8- dihydroxyflavone (7, 8-DHF) as a potent TrkB agonist can mimic BDNF and play neuroprotective roles for mouse dopaminergic neurons. Nonetheless, the safety and neuroprotective effects are unclear in monkey models of PD. Here, we (...) find that 7, 8-DHF could be absorbed and metabolized into 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavone through oral administration in monkeys. The half-life time of 7, 8-DHF in monkey plasma is about 4-8 hrs. Furthermore, these monkeys maintain health state throughout the course of seven-month treatments of 7, 8-DHF (30 mg/kg/day). Importantly, 7, 8-DHF treatments can prevent the progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons by attenuating neurotoxic effects of MPP+ and display strong neuroprotective

2016 Scientific reports PubMed

162. Efficiently Specified Ventral Midbrain Dopamine Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Under Xeno‐Free Conditions Restore Motor Deficits in Parkinsonian Rodents (Full text)

Efficiently Specified Ventral Midbrain Dopamine Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Under Xeno‐Free Conditions Restore Motor Deficits in Parkinsonian Rodents Recent studies have shown evidence for the functional integration of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived ventral midbrain dopamine (vmDA) neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Although these cells present a sustainable alternative to fetal mesencephalic grafts, a number of hurdles require attention prior

2016 Stem cells translational medicine PubMed

163. Midbrain dopamine neurons signal aversion in a reward-context-dependent manner (Full text)

Midbrain dopamine neurons signal aversion in a reward-context-dependent manner Dopamine is thought to regulate learning from appetitive and aversive events. Here we examined how optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of mice respond to aversive events in different conditions. In low reward contexts, most dopamine neurons were exclusively inhibited by aversive events, and expectation reduced dopamine neurons' responses to reward and punishment. When

2016 eLife PubMed

164. Midbrain Gene Screening Identifies a New Mesoaccumbal Glutamatergic Pathway and a Marker for Dopamine Cells Neuroprotected in Parkinson’s Disease (Full text)

Midbrain Gene Screening Identifies a New Mesoaccumbal Glutamatergic Pathway and a Marker for Dopamine Cells Neuroprotected in Parkinson’s Disease The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the midbrain are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Based on the recently unraveled heterogeneity within the VTA and SNc, where glutamate, GABA and co-releasing neurons have been found to co-exist with the classical (...) dopamine neurons, there is a compelling need for identification of gene expression patterns that represent this heterogeneity and that are of value for development of human therapies. Here, several unique gene expression patterns were identified in the mouse midbrain of which NeuroD6 and Grp were expressed within different dopaminergic subpopulations of the VTA, and TrpV1 within a small heterogeneous population. Optogenetics-coupled in vivo amperometry revealed a previously unknown glutamatergic

2016 Scientific reports PubMed

165. Definition of a critical spatiotemporal window within which primary cilia control midbrain dopaminergic neurogenesis (Full text)

Definition of a critical spatiotemporal window within which primary cilia control midbrain dopaminergic neurogenesis Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are generated in the ventral midbrain floor plate depending on Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling for induction. Primary cilia transduce canonical SHH signals. Loss of intraflagellar transport protein IFT88, essential for ciliary function, disrupts SHH signaling in the ventral midbrain and results in the reduction in mDA progenitors and neurons. We

2016 Neurogenesis PubMed

166. Midbrain Synchrony to Envelope Structure Supports Behavioral Sensitivity to Single-Formant Vowel-Like Sounds in Noise (Full text)

Midbrain Synchrony to Envelope Structure Supports Behavioral Sensitivity to Single-Formant Vowel-Like Sounds in Noise Vowels make a strong contribution to speech perception under natural conditions. Vowels are encoded in the auditory nerve primarily through neural synchrony to temporal fine structure and to envelope fluctuations rather than through average discharge rate. Neural synchrony is thought to contribute less to vowel coding in central auditory nuclei, consistent with more limited (...) synchronization to fine structure and the emergence of average-rate coding of envelope fluctuations. However, this hypothesis is largely unexplored, especially in background noise. The present study examined coding mechanisms at the level of the midbrain that support behavioral sensitivity to simple vowel-like sounds using neurophysiological recordings and matched behavioral experiments in the budgerigar. Stimuli were harmonic tone complexes with energy concentrated at one spectral peak, or formant frequency

2016 JARO: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology PubMed

167. Auditory Midbrain Implant Study

Auditory Midbrain Implant Study Auditory Midbrain Implant Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Auditory Midbrain Implant Study The safety and scientific validity of this study (...) Cochlear Information provided by (Responsible Party): Hannover Medical School Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The objectives of the clinical study are to implant five deaf patients (those with Neurofibromatosis Type II, NF2) with a new two-shank auditory midbrain implant array (AMI; developed by Cochlear Limited) into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in order to assess the safety, reliability, consistency of placement, and performance of the AMI device. The clinical

2016 Clinical Trials

168. Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Increase NMDAR-GluN2B Synaptic Currents in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. (Full text)

Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Increase NMDAR-GluN2B Synaptic Currents in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. The psychostimulants amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (MA) are widely abused illicit drugs. Here we show that both psychostimulants acutely increase NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic currents and decrease AMPA receptor (AMPAR)/NMDAR ratios in midbrain dopamine neurons. The potentiation depends on the transport of AMPH into the cell by the dopamine transporter. NMDAR-GluN2B receptor (...) , indicate that potentiated NMDARs reside on the plasma membrane and are not inserted de novo. In behavioral studies, GluN2B inhibitors reduce MA-mediated locomotor activity, without affecting basal activity. These results reveal an important interaction between dopamine and glutamatergic signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons in response to acute administration of psychostimulants.

2016 Neuropsychopharmacology PubMed

169. Chemogenetic Activation of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Affects Attention, but not Impulsivity, in the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time-Task in Rats. (Full text)

Chemogenetic Activation of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Affects Attention, but not Impulsivity, in the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time-Task in Rats. Attentional impairments and exaggerated impulsivity are key features of psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These deficits in attentional performance and impulsive behaviors have been associated with aberrant dopamine (DA) signaling, but it remains unknown whether these deficits (...) result from enhanced DA neuronal activity in the midbrain. Here, we took a novel approach by testing the impact of chemogenetically activating DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on attention and impulsivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats. We found that activation of DA neurons in both the VTA and SNc impaired attention by increasing trial omissions. In addition, SNc DA neuron activation decreased attentional accuracy

2016 Neuropsychopharmacology PubMed

170. Sex Differences in Midbrain Dopamine D2-Type Receptor Availability and Association with Nicotine Dependence. (Full text)

Sex Differences in Midbrain Dopamine D2-Type Receptor Availability and Association with Nicotine Dependence. Women differ from men in smoking-related behaviors, among them a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. Unlike female smokers, male smokers have lower striatal dopamine D2-type receptor availability (binding potential, BPND) than nonsmokers and exhibit greater smoking-induced striatal dopamine release. Because dopamine D2-type autoreceptors in the midbrain influence striatal dopamine (...) release, a function that has been linked to addiction, we tested for sex differences in midbrain dopamine D2-type receptor BPND and in relationships between midbrain BPND, nicotine dependence and striatal dopamine D2-type receptor BPND. Positron emission tomography was used with [18F]fallypride to measure BPND in a midbrain region, encompassing the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, in 18 daily smokers (7 women, 11 men) and 19 nonsmokers (10 women, 9 men). A significant sex-by-group

2016 Neuropsychopharmacology PubMed

171. Incorporating Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves Models of Auditory Cortical Processing (Full text)

Incorporating Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves Models of Auditory Cortical Processing Adaptation to stimulus statistics, such as the mean level and contrast of recently heard sounds, has been demonstrated at various levels of the auditory pathway. It allows the nervous system to operate over the wide range of intensities and contrasts found in the natural world. Yet current standard models of the response properties of auditory neurons do not incorporate such adaptation. Here we (...) than the standard LN model for a range of synthetic and natural stimuli. The IC Adaptation model introduces no extra free parameters, so it improves predictions without sacrificing parsimony. Furthermore, the time constants of adaptation in the IC appear to be matched to the statistics of natural sounds, suggesting that neurons in the auditory midbrain predict the mean level of future sounds and adapt their responses appropriately.An ability to accurately predict how sensory neurons respond

2016 The Journal of Neuroscience PubMed

172. Specificity and impact of adrenergic projections to the midbrain dopamine system (Full text)

Specificity and impact of adrenergic projections to the midbrain dopamine system Dopamine (DA) is a neuromodulator that regulates different brain circuits involved in cognitive functions, motor coordination, and emotions. Dysregulation of DA is associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and substance abuse. Several lines of research have shown that the midbrain DA system is regulated by the central adrenergic system. This review focuses on adrenergic (...) interactions with midbrain DA neurons. It discusses the current neuroanatomy including source of adrenergic innervation, type of synapses, and adrenoceptors expression. It also discusses adrenergic regulation of DA cell activity and neurotransmitter release. Finally, it reviews several neurological and psychiatric disorders where changes in adrenergic system are associated with dysregulation of the midbrain DA system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System.Copyright ©

2016 Brain research PubMed

173. Physical Interactions and Functional Relationships of Neuroligin 2 and Midbrain Serotonin Transporters (Full text)

Physical Interactions and Functional Relationships of Neuroligin 2 and Midbrain Serotonin Transporters The neurotransmitter serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] modulates many key brain functions including those subserving sensation, emotion, reward, and cognition. Efficient clearance of 5-HT after release is achieved by the antidepressant-sensitive 5-HT transporter (SERT, SLC6A4). To identify novel SERT regulators, we pursued a proteomic analysis of mouse midbrain SERT complexes, evaluating (...) findings in the context of prior studies that established a SERT-linked transcriptome. Remarkably, both efforts converged on a relationship of SERT with the synaptic adhesion protein neuroligin 2 (NLGN2), a post-synaptic partner for presynaptic neurexins, and a protein well-known to organize inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Western blots of midbrain reciprocal immunoprecipitations confirmed SERT/NLGN2 associations, and also extended to other NLGN2 associated proteins [e.g., α-neurexin (NRXN), gephyrin

2016 Frontiers in synaptic neuroscience PubMed

174. Microstructure of the Midbrain and Cervical Spinal Cord in Idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study (Full text)

Microstructure of the Midbrain and Cervical Spinal Cord in Idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows the study of white matter microstructure in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to examine the DTI metrics of the cervical spinal cord and the brainstem up to the midbrain in patients with idiopathic restless legs (RLS) compared to matched healthy controls.DTI analysis of the cervical spinal cord and the brainstem (...) up into the midbrain was performed in 25 patients with idiopathic RLS and 25 matched healthy controls. Data analysis in the brain was performed by voxelwise comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps at group level. Cervical spinal cord data analysis was performed by slicewise analysis of averaged FA values in axial slices along the spinal cord.Voxelwise comparison of FA maps in the brainstem showed significant microstructural alterations in two clusters in the midbrain bilaterally. Slicewise

2016 Sleep PubMed

175. Perinatal Exposure to Neuregulin-1 Results in Disinhibition of Adult Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons: Implication in Schizophrenia Modeling (Full text)

Perinatal Exposure to Neuregulin-1 Results in Disinhibition of Adult Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons: Implication in Schizophrenia Modeling Aberrant neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signals are suggested to associate with the neuropathophysiology of schizophrenia. Employing a mouse schizophrenia model established by neonatal neuregulin-1 challenge, we analysed postpubertal consequence of the NRG1 pretreatment for the electrophysiological property of nigral dopamine neurons. In vivo single unit recordings from

2016 Scientific reports PubMed

176. Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds (Full text)

Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds This study investigated auditory stimulus selectivity in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the echolocating bat, an animal that relies on hearing to guide its orienting behaviors. Multichannel, single-unit recordings were taken across laminae of the midbrain SC of the awake, passively listening big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Species-specific frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sound sequences with dynamic spectrotemporal features served

2016 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PubMed

177. Midbrain dopamine neurons compute inferred and cached value prediction errors in a common framework (Full text)

Midbrain dopamine neurons compute inferred and cached value prediction errors in a common framework Midbrain dopamine neurons have been proposed to signal reward prediction errors as defined in temporal difference (TD) learning algorithms. While these models have been extremely powerful in interpreting dopamine activity, they typically do not use value derived through inference in computing errors. This is important because much real world behavior - and thus many opportunities for error-driven

2016 eLife PubMed

178. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward (Full text)

Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain (...) dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing

2016 The Journal of Neuroscience PubMed

179. Midbrain

Midbrain Midbrain Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Midbrain Midbrain Aka: Midbrain II. Anatomy: Superior (Rostral (...) ) Midbrain Components Superior colliculus Superior (rostral) bump on each side of the upper Midbrain Visual reflex center (visual function, orientation of head and eyes) Aqueduct Single small midline CSF conduit nucleus ( ) Medial, immediately anterior to aqueduct s course anteriorly, and exit in the superior Midbrain at the midline Medial Geniculate Body Communication relay between the inferior colliculus and the auditory cortex Continued pain and sensation tracts from the spinal cord Proprioception

2018 FP Notebook

180. Melanocortin 3 Receptor Signaling in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Increases the Motivation for Food Reward. (Full text)

Melanocortin 3 Receptor Signaling in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Increases the Motivation for Food Reward. The central melanocortin (MC) system mediates its effects on food intake via MC3 (MC3R) and MC4 receptors (MC4R). Although the role of MC4R in meal size determination, satiation, food preference, and motivation is well established, the involvement of MC3R in the modulation of food intake has been less explored. Here, we investigated the role of MC3R on the incentive motivation for food

2016 Neuropsychopharmacology PubMed

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