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Midbrain

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141. The interpeduncular fossa approach for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The interpeduncular fossa approach for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. The authors describe the interpeduncular fossa safe entry zone as a route for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. To illustrate the utility of this novel safe entry zone, the authors provide clinical data from 2 patients who underwent contralateral orbitozygomatic transinterpeduncular fossa approaches to deep cavernous malformations located medial to the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve [CN] III (...) ). These cases are supplemented by anatomical information from 6 formalin-fixed adult human brainstems and 4 silicone-injected adult human cadaveric heads on which the fiber dissection technique was used. The interpeduncular fossa may be incised to resect anteriorly located lesions that are medial to the oculomotor nerve and can serve as an alternative to the anterior mesencephalic safe entry zone (i.e., perioculomotor safe entry zone) for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. The interpeduncular fossa

2017 Journal of Neurosurgery

142. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding? (Abstract)

Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding? Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced DA activity. On the other hand, psychostimulant drugs that increase DA signalling suppress food intake. This poses the questions of how (...) endogenous DA neuronal activity regulates feeding, and whether enhancing DA neuronal activity would either promote or reduce food intake.Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to determine the effects of enhancing DA neuronal activity on feeding behaviour. We chemogenetically activated selective midbrain DA neuronal subpopulations and assessed the effects on feeding microstructure in rats.Treatment with the psychostimulant drug amphetamine

2017 International Journal of Obesity

143. Physiology of midbrain head movement neurons in cervical dystonia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Physiology of midbrain head movement neurons in cervical dystonia. Early theories for cervical dystonia, as promoted by Hassler, emphasized the role of the midbrain interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Focus then shifted to the basal ganglia, and it was further supported with the success of deep brain stimulation. Contemporary theories suggested the role of the cerebellum, but even more recent hypotheses renewed interest in the midbrain. Although the pretectum was visited on several occasions, we (...) still do not know about the physiology of midbrain neurons in cervical dystonia.We analyzed the unique database of pretectal neurons collected in the 1970s and 1980s during historic stereotactic surgeries aimed to treat cervical dystonia. This database is valuable because such recordings could otherwise never be obtained from humans.We found the following 3 types of eye or neck movement sensitivity: eye-only neurons responded to pure vertical eye movements, neck-only neurons were sensitive to pure

2017 Movement Disorders

144. Children with dorsal midbrain syndrome as a result of pineal tumors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Children with dorsal midbrain syndrome as a result of pineal tumors. Dorsal midbrain syndrome (also known as Parinaud syndrome and pretectal syndrome) is a well-known complication of tumors of the pineal region. However, there are few reports regarding outcomes, especially in children. The purpose of this study was to report the ophthalmic outcomes in a group of children with pineal tumors treated at a single institution.The medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with pineal region (...) tumors and evaluated at our ophthalmology clinic were studied retrospectively. Descriptive statistics were used to assess rate of dorsal midbrain syndrome, defined as one or more of the following: limitation of upgaze, pupillary light-near dissociation, and convergence retraction nystagmus. Treatment outcomes were recorded.A total of 35 subjects (age range, 5 months to 20 years) were included, 18 (51%) of whom were found to have dorsal midbrain syndrome. Of those 18, 16 patients (89%) had limitation

2017 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

145. Diversity of bilateral synaptic assemblies for binaural computation in midbrain single neurons. (Abstract)

Diversity of bilateral synaptic assemblies for binaural computation in midbrain single neurons. Binaural hearing confers many beneficial functions but our understanding of its underlying neural substrates is limited. This study examines the bilateral synaptic assemblies and binaural computation (or integration) in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the auditory midbrain, a key convergent center. Using in-vivo whole-cell patch-clamp, the excitatory and inhibitory

2017 Hearing Research

146. Intrinsic functional connectivity alterations in progressive supranuclear palsy: Differential effects in frontal cortex, motor, and midbrain networks. (Abstract)

Intrinsic functional connectivity alterations in progressive supranuclear palsy: Differential effects in frontal cortex, motor, and midbrain networks. The topography of functional network changes in progressive supranuclear palsy can be mapped by intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. The objective of this study was to study functional connectivity and its clinical and behavioral correlates in dedicated networks comprising the cognition-related default mode and the motor and midbrain functional (...) patients and controls revealed significantly decreased functional connectivity (P < 0.05, corrected) in the prefrontal cortex, which was significantly correlated with cognitive performance (P = 0.006). Of note, midbrain network connectivity in PSP patients showed increased connectivity with the thalamus, on the one hand, whereas, on the other hand, lower functional connectivity within the midbrain was significantly correlated with vertical gaze impairment, as quantified by video-oculography (P = 0.004

2017 Movement Disorders

147. Dysregulation of the causative genes for hereditary parkinsonism in the midbrain in Parkinson's disease. (Abstract)

Dysregulation of the causative genes for hereditary parkinsonism in the midbrain in Parkinson's disease. Many hereditary movement disorders with complex phenotypes without a locus symbol prefix for familial PD present as parkinsonism; however, the dysregulation of genes associated with these phenotypes in the SNpc of PD patients has not been systematically studied.Gene set enrichment analyses were performed using 10 previously published genome-wide expression datasets obtained by laser-captured

2017 Movement Disorders

148. Increasing GABA reverses age-related alterations in excitatory receptive fields and intensity coding of auditory midbrain neurons in aged mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increasing GABA reverses age-related alterations in excitatory receptive fields and intensity coding of auditory midbrain neurons in aged mice. A key feature of age-related hearing loss is a reduction in the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. This loss is partially responsible for changes in central auditory processing, as inhibitory receptive fields play a critical role in shaping neural responses to sound stimuli. Vigabatrin (VGB), an antiepileptic

2017 Neurobiology of Aging

149. Impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on appetite, alcohol intake behaviors, and midbrain ghrelin signaling in the rat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on appetite, alcohol intake behaviors, and midbrain ghrelin signaling in the rat. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery reduces appetite and stimulates new onset alcohol misuse; however, the genesis of these behavioral changes is unclear. This study is hypothesized that new onset alcohol intake is a behavioral adaptation that occurs secondary to reduced appetite and correlates with altered central ghrelin signaling.Hedonic high-fat diet (HFD) intake

2017 Obesity

150. Midbrain dopamine neurons compute inferred and cached value prediction errors in a common framework Full Text available with Trip Pro

Midbrain dopamine neurons compute inferred and cached value prediction errors in a common framework Midbrain dopamine neurons have been proposed to signal reward prediction errors as defined in temporal difference (TD) learning algorithms. While these models have been extremely powerful in interpreting dopamine activity, they typically do not use value derived through inference in computing errors. This is important because much real world behavior - and thus many opportunities for error-driven

2016 eLife

151. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward Full Text available with Trip Pro

Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain (...) dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing

2016 The Journal of Neuroscience

152. Perinatal Exposure to Neuregulin-1 Results in Disinhibition of Adult Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons: Implication in Schizophrenia Modeling Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perinatal Exposure to Neuregulin-1 Results in Disinhibition of Adult Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons: Implication in Schizophrenia Modeling Aberrant neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signals are suggested to associate with the neuropathophysiology of schizophrenia. Employing a mouse schizophrenia model established by neonatal neuregulin-1 challenge, we analysed postpubertal consequence of the NRG1 pretreatment for the electrophysiological property of nigral dopamine neurons. In vivo single unit recordings from

2016 Scientific reports

153. Cholinergic Mesopontine Signals Govern Locomotion and Reward Through Dissociable Midbrain Pathways Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cholinergic Mesopontine Signals Govern Locomotion and Reward Through Dissociable Midbrain Pathways The mesopontine tegmentum, including the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (PPN and LDT), provides major cholinergic inputs to midbrain and regulates locomotion and reward. To delineate the underlying projection-specific circuit mechanisms, we employed optogenetics to control mesopontine cholinergic neurons at somata and at divergent projections within distinct midbrain areas

2016 Neuron

154. Reward and choice encoding in terminals of midbrain dopamine neurons depends on striatal target Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reward and choice encoding in terminals of midbrain dopamine neurons depends on striatal target Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain provide rich topographic innervation of the striatum and are central to learning and to generating actions. Despite the importance of this DA innervation, it remains unclear whether and how DA neurons are specialized on the basis of the location of their striatal target. Thus, we sought to compare the function of subpopulations of DA neurons that target

2016 Nature neuroscience

155. Effects of Electrical Stimulation in the Inferior Colliculus on Frequency Discrimination by Rhesus Monkeys and Implications for the Auditory Midbrain Implant Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Electrical Stimulation in the Inferior Colliculus on Frequency Discrimination by Rhesus Monkeys and Implications for the Auditory Midbrain Implant Understanding the relationship between the auditory selectivity of neurons and their contribution to perception is critical to the design of effective auditory brain prosthetics. These prosthetics seek to mimic natural activity patterns to achieve desired perceptual outcomes. We measured the contribution of inferior colliculus (IC) sites (...) for the auditory midbrain implant suggested by our findings is to increase the number and spatial extent of electrodes, to increase the size of the region that can be electrically activated, and to provide a greater range of evoked percepts.Patients with hearing loss stemming from causes that interrupt the auditory pathway after the cochlea need a brain prosthetic to restore hearing. Recently, prosthetic stimulation in the human inferior colliculus (IC) was evaluated in a clinical trial. Thus far, speech

2016 The Journal of Neuroscience

156. D-serine in the midbrain periaqueductal gray contributes to morphine tolerance in rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

D-serine in the midbrain periaqueductal gray contributes to morphine tolerance in rats The N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor plays a critical role in morphine tolerance. D-serine, a co-agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, participates in many physiological and pathophysiological processes via regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. The purinergic P2X7 receptor activation can induce the D-serine release in the central nervous system. This study aimed (...) to investigate the role of the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray D-serine in the mechanism of morphine tolerance in rats. The development of morphine tolerance was induced in normal adult male Sprague-Dawley rats through subcutaneous injection of morphine (10 mg/kg). The analgesic effect of morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed by measuring mechanical withdrawal thresholds in rats with an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer. The D-serine concentration and serine racemase expression levels

2016 Molecular pain

157. Ldb1 Is Essential for the Development of Isthmic Organizer and Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ldb1 Is Essential for the Development of Isthmic Organizer and Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons LIM domain-binding protein 1 (Ldb1) is a nuclear cofactor that interacts with LIM homeodomain proteins to form multiprotein complexes that are important for transcription regulation. Ldb1 has been shown to play essential roles in various processes during mouse embryogenesis. To determine the role of Ldb1 in mid- and hindbrain development, we have generated a conditional mutant with a specific deletion (...) of the Ldb1 in the Engrailed-1-expressing region of the developing mid- and hindbrain. Our study showed that the deletion impaired the expression of signaling molecules, such as fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and Wnt1, in the isthmic organizer and the expression of Shh in the ventral midbrain. The midbrain and the cerebellum were severely reduced in size, and the midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons were missing in the mutant. These defects are identical to the phenotype that has been observed

2016 Stem cells and development

158. Convergence‐Retraction Nystagmus Associated with Dorsal Midbrain Lesions in Three Dogs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Convergence‐Retraction Nystagmus Associated with Dorsal Midbrain Lesions in Three Dogs 27169871 2017 05 30 2018 11 13 1939-1676 30 4 2016 Jul Journal of veterinary internal medicine J. Vet. Intern. Med. Convergence-Retraction Nystagmus Associated with Dorsal Midbrain Lesions in Three Dogs. 1229-34 10.1111/jvim.13966 Crawford A H AH Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, Herts, UK. Beltran E E Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary

2016 Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

159. SLC35D3 increases autophagic activity in midbrain dopaminergic neurons by enhancing BECN1-ATG14-PIK3C3 complex formation Full Text available with Trip Pro

SLC35D3 increases autophagic activity in midbrain dopaminergic neurons by enhancing BECN1-ATG14-PIK3C3 complex formation Searching for new regulators of autophagy involved in selective dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We here report that an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated transmembrane protein SLC35D3 is selectively expressed in subsets of midbrain DA neurons in about 10% TH (tyrosine hydroxylase)-positive neurons in the substantia

2016 Autophagy

160. Physical Interactions and Functional Relationships of Neuroligin 2 and Midbrain Serotonin Transporters Full Text available with Trip Pro

Physical Interactions and Functional Relationships of Neuroligin 2 and Midbrain Serotonin Transporters The neurotransmitter serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] modulates many key brain functions including those subserving sensation, emotion, reward, and cognition. Efficient clearance of 5-HT after release is achieved by the antidepressant-sensitive 5-HT transporter (SERT, SLC6A4). To identify novel SERT regulators, we pursued a proteomic analysis of mouse midbrain SERT complexes, evaluating (...) findings in the context of prior studies that established a SERT-linked transcriptome. Remarkably, both efforts converged on a relationship of SERT with the synaptic adhesion protein neuroligin 2 (NLGN2), a post-synaptic partner for presynaptic neurexins, and a protein well-known to organize inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Western blots of midbrain reciprocal immunoprecipitations confirmed SERT/NLGN2 associations, and also extended to other NLGN2 associated proteins [e.g., α-neurexin (NRXN), gephyrin

2016 Frontiers in synaptic neuroscience

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