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Midbrain

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121. Efficient generation of hPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a fully defined, scalable, 3D biomaterial platform Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficient generation of hPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a fully defined, scalable, 3D biomaterial platform Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have major potential as an unlimited source of functional cells for many biomedical applications; however, the development of cell manufacturing systems to enable this promise faces many challenges. For example, there have been major recent advances in the generation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons from stem cells for Parkinson's Disease

2017 Scientific reports

122. Putative presynaptic dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia is supported by molecular evidence from post-mortem human midbrain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Putative presynaptic dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia is supported by molecular evidence from post-mortem human midbrain The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that increased subcortical dopamine underpins psychosis. In vivo imaging studies indicate an increased presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity in striatal terminals and cell bodies in the midbrain in schizophrenia; however, measures of the dopamine-synthesising enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), have not identified (...) consistent changes. We hypothesise that dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia could result from changes in expression of dopamine synthesis enzymes, receptors, transporters or catabolic enzymes. Gene expression of 12 dopamine-related molecules was examined in post-mortem midbrain (28 antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia cases/29 controls) using quantitative PCR. TH and the synaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) proteins were examined in post-mortem midbrain (26 antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia cases per

2017 Translational psychiatry

123. Medial Rectus Nuclear Palsy as a Sole Feature of Midbrain Infarction Secondary to Stenosis of Posterior Cerebral Artery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medial Rectus Nuclear Palsy as a Sole Feature of Midbrain Infarction Secondary to Stenosis of Posterior Cerebral Artery 28051035 2017 03 13 2018 11 13 2542-5641 130 1 2017 01 05 Chinese medical journal Chin. Med. J. Medial Rectus Nuclear Palsy as a Sole Feature of Midbrain Infarction Secondary to Stenosis of Posterior Cerebral Artery. 113-114 10.4103/0366-6999.196576 Zhang Zhi-Yong ZY Department of Neurology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China. Liu Zun-Jing ZJ Department

2017 Chinese medical journal

124. Tualang Honey Protects the Rat Midbrain and Lung against Repeated Paraquat Exposure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tualang Honey Protects the Rat Midbrain and Lung against Repeated Paraquat Exposure Paraquat (PQ) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and a well-known pneumotoxicant that exerts its toxic effect via oxidative stress-mediated cellular injuries. This study investigated the protective effects of Tualang honey against PQ-induced toxicity in the midbrain and lungs of rats. The rats were orally treated with distilled water (2 mL/kg/day), Tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/day), or ubiquinol (0.2 g/kg/day) throughout (...) the experimental period. Two weeks after the respective treatments, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (1 mL/kg/week) or PQ (10 mg/kg/week) once per week for four consecutive weeks. After four weekly exposures to PQ, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons in the midbrain were significantly decreased in animals from group PQ (p < 0.05). The lungs of animals from group PQ showed significantly decreased activity of superoxide dismutase

2017 Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity

125. Habenula-Induced Inhibition of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Is Diminished by Lesions of the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Habenula-Induced Inhibition of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Is Diminished by Lesions of the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region (...) that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb. To test this premise, the effects of axon-sparing lesions of the RMTg were assessed on LHb-induced inhibition of midbrain DA cell firing in anesthetized rats. Quinolinic acid lesions decreased the number of NeuN-positive neurons in the RMTg significantly while largely sparing cells in neighboring regions

2017 The Journal of Neuroscience

126. Segregated fronto‐cortical and midbrain connections in the mouse and their relation to approach and avoidance orienting behaviors Full Text available with Trip Pro

Segregated fronto‐cortical and midbrain connections in the mouse and their relation to approach and avoidance orienting behaviors The orchestration of orienting behaviors requires the interaction of many cortical and subcortical areas, for example the superior colliculus (SC), as well as prefrontal areas responsible for top-down control. Orienting involves different behaviors, such as approach and avoidance. In the rat, these behaviors are at least partially mapped onto different SC

2017 The Journal of comparative neurology

127. Immature Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Derived from Floor‐Plate Method Improve Cell Transplantation Therapy Efficacy for Parkinson's Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immature Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Derived from Floor‐Plate Method Improve Cell Transplantation Therapy Efficacy for Parkinson's Disease Recent reports have indicated human embryonic stem cells-derived midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons as proper cell resources for use in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Nevertheless, no detailed and systematic study has been conducted to identify which differentiation stages of mDA cells are most suitable for transplantation in PD therapy. Here, we

2017 Stem cells translational medicine

128. A High-fat Diet Induces a Loss of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuronal Function That Underlies Motor Abnormalities Full Text available with Trip Pro

A High-fat Diet Induces a Loss of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuronal Function That Underlies Motor Abnormalities Movement defects in obesity are associated with peripheral muscle defects, arthritis, and dysfunction of motor control by the brain. Although movement functionality is negatively correlated with obesity, the brain regions and downstream signaling pathways associated with movement defects in obesity are unclear. A dopaminergic neuronal pathway from the substantia nigra (SN

2017 Experimental neurobiology

129. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement Full Text available with Trip Pro

Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left

2017 Open veterinary journal

130. Space specific deficits in visual orientation discrimination caused by lesions in the midbrain stimulus selection network Full Text available with Trip Pro

Space specific deficits in visual orientation discrimination caused by lesions in the midbrain stimulus selection network Perceptual decisions require both analysis of sensory information and selective routing of relevant information to decision networks. This study explores the contribution of a midbrain network to visual perception in chickens. Analysis of visual orientation information in birds takes place in the forebrain sensory area called the Wulst, as it does in the primary visual (...) cortex (V1) of mammals. In contrast, the midbrain, which receives parallel retinal input, encodes orientation poorly, if at all. We discovered, however, that small electrolytic lesions in the midbrain severely impair a chicken's ability to discriminate orientations. Focal lesions were placed in the optic tectum (OT) and in the nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis (Ipc)-key nodes in the midbrain stimulus selection network-in chickens trained to perform an orientation discrimination task. A lesion

2017 Current biology : CB

131. Parkinson's Disease-Associated LRRK2 Hyperactive Kinase Mutant Disrupts Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking in Ventral Midbrain Neurons Full Text available with Trip Pro

Parkinson's Disease-Associated LRRK2 Hyperactive Kinase Mutant Disrupts Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking in Ventral Midbrain Neurons Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized pathologically by the selective loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. Recent evidence has suggested a role of LRRK2, linked to the most frequent familial PD, in regulating synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking. However, the mechanism whereby LRRK2 mutants contribute to nigral vulnerability remains unclear (...) . Here we show that the most common PD mutation LRRK2 G2019S impairs SV endocytosis in ventral midbrain (MB) neurons, including DA neurons, and the slowed endocytosis can be rescued by inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity. A similar endocytic defect, however, was not observed in LRRK2 mutant neurons from the neocortex (hereafter, cortical neurons) or the hippocampus, suggesting a brain region-specific vulnerability to the G2019S mutation. Additionally, we found MB-specific impairment of SV endocytosis

2017 The Journal of Neuroscience

132. Children with dorsal midbrain syndrome as a result of pineal tumors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Children with dorsal midbrain syndrome as a result of pineal tumors. Dorsal midbrain syndrome (also known as Parinaud syndrome and pretectal syndrome) is a well-known complication of tumors of the pineal region. However, there are few reports regarding outcomes, especially in children. The purpose of this study was to report the ophthalmic outcomes in a group of children with pineal tumors treated at a single institution.The medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with pineal region (...) tumors and evaluated at our ophthalmology clinic were studied retrospectively. Descriptive statistics were used to assess rate of dorsal midbrain syndrome, defined as one or more of the following: limitation of upgaze, pupillary light-near dissociation, and convergence retraction nystagmus. Treatment outcomes were recorded.A total of 35 subjects (age range, 5 months to 20 years) were included, 18 (51%) of whom were found to have dorsal midbrain syndrome. Of those 18, 16 patients (89%) had limitation

2017 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

133. Intrinsic functional connectivity alterations in progressive supranuclear palsy: Differential effects in frontal cortex, motor, and midbrain networks. (Abstract)

Intrinsic functional connectivity alterations in progressive supranuclear palsy: Differential effects in frontal cortex, motor, and midbrain networks. The topography of functional network changes in progressive supranuclear palsy can be mapped by intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. The objective of this study was to study functional connectivity and its clinical and behavioral correlates in dedicated networks comprising the cognition-related default mode and the motor and midbrain functional (...) patients and controls revealed significantly decreased functional connectivity (P < 0.05, corrected) in the prefrontal cortex, which was significantly correlated with cognitive performance (P = 0.006). Of note, midbrain network connectivity in PSP patients showed increased connectivity with the thalamus, on the one hand, whereas, on the other hand, lower functional connectivity within the midbrain was significantly correlated with vertical gaze impairment, as quantified by video-oculography (P = 0.004

2017 Movement Disorders

134. Dysregulation of the causative genes for hereditary parkinsonism in the midbrain in Parkinson's disease. (Abstract)

Dysregulation of the causative genes for hereditary parkinsonism in the midbrain in Parkinson's disease. Many hereditary movement disorders with complex phenotypes without a locus symbol prefix for familial PD present as parkinsonism; however, the dysregulation of genes associated with these phenotypes in the SNpc of PD patients has not been systematically studied.Gene set enrichment analyses were performed using 10 previously published genome-wide expression datasets obtained by laser-captured

2017 Movement Disorders

135. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding? (Abstract)

Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding? Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced DA activity. On the other hand, psychostimulant drugs that increase DA signalling suppress food intake. This poses the questions of how (...) endogenous DA neuronal activity regulates feeding, and whether enhancing DA neuronal activity would either promote or reduce food intake.Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to determine the effects of enhancing DA neuronal activity on feeding behaviour. We chemogenetically activated selective midbrain DA neuronal subpopulations and assessed the effects on feeding microstructure in rats.Treatment with the psychostimulant drug amphetamine

2017 International Journal of Obesity

136. The interpeduncular fossa approach for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The interpeduncular fossa approach for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. The authors describe the interpeduncular fossa safe entry zone as a route for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. To illustrate the utility of this novel safe entry zone, the authors provide clinical data from 2 patients who underwent contralateral orbitozygomatic transinterpeduncular fossa approaches to deep cavernous malformations located medial to the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve [CN] III (...) ). These cases are supplemented by anatomical information from 6 formalin-fixed adult human brainstems and 4 silicone-injected adult human cadaveric heads on which the fiber dissection technique was used. The interpeduncular fossa may be incised to resect anteriorly located lesions that are medial to the oculomotor nerve and can serve as an alternative to the anterior mesencephalic safe entry zone (i.e., perioculomotor safe entry zone) for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. The interpeduncular fossa

2017 Journal of Neurosurgery

137. Midbrain

Midbrain Midbrain Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Midbrain Midbrain Aka: Midbrain II. Anatomy: Superior (Rostral (...) ) Midbrain Components Superior colliculus Superior (rostral) bump on each side of the upper Midbrain Visual reflex center (visual function, orientation of head and eyes) Aqueduct Single small midline CSF conduit nucleus ( ) Medial, immediately anterior to aqueduct s course anteriorly, and exit in the superior Midbrain at the midline Medial Geniculate Body Communication relay between the inferior colliculus and the auditory cortex Continued pain and sensation tracts from the spinal cord Proprioception

2018 FP Notebook

138. Functional Plasticity after Unilateral Vestibular Midbrain Infarction in Human Positron Emission Tomography. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional Plasticity after Unilateral Vestibular Midbrain Infarction in Human Positron Emission Tomography. The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g (...) of vestibular function for motion perception (visual cortex). The persisting deactivation in the thalamic nuclei and frontal eye fields allows alternative functional interpretations of the thalamic nuclei: either a disconnection of ascending sensory input occurs or there is a functional mismatch between expected and actual vestibular activity. Our data support the view that both thalami operate separately for each hemisphere but receive vestibular input from ipsilateral and contralateral midbrain

2016 PLoS ONE

139. Quantitative T1, T2, and T2* Mapping and Semi-Quantitative Neuromelanin-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Midbrain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantitative T1, T2, and T2* Mapping and Semi-Quantitative Neuromelanin-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Midbrain. Neuromelanin is a dark pigment granule present within certain catecholamine neurons of the human brain. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between contrast of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR relaxation times using T1, T2, and T2* mapping of the lower midbrain.The subjects were 14 healthy volunteers (11 men and 3 women, mean (...) age 29.9 ± 6.9 years). Neuromelanin-sensitive MRI was acquired using an optimized T1-weighted two-dimensional (2D)-turbo spin-echo sequence. To quantitatively evaluate the relaxation time, 2D-image data for the T1, T2, and T2* maps were also acquired. The regions of interest (substantia nigra pars compacta [SNc], superior cerebellar peduncles [SCP], cerebral peduncles [CP], and midbrain tegmentum [MT]) were manually drawn on neuromelanin-sensitive MRI to measure the contrast ratio (CR

2016 PLoS ONE

140. Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Increase NMDAR-GluN2B Synaptic Currents in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Increase NMDAR-GluN2B Synaptic Currents in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. The psychostimulants amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (MA) are widely abused illicit drugs. Here we show that both psychostimulants acutely increase NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic currents and decrease AMPA receptor (AMPAR)/NMDAR ratios in midbrain dopamine neurons. The potentiation depends on the transport of AMPH into the cell by the dopamine transporter. NMDAR-GluN2B receptor (...) , indicate that potentiated NMDARs reside on the plasma membrane and are not inserted de novo. In behavioral studies, GluN2B inhibitors reduce MA-mediated locomotor activity, without affecting basal activity. These results reveal an important interaction between dopamine and glutamatergic signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons in response to acute administration of psychostimulants.

2016 Neuropsychopharmacology

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