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Midbrain

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61. Increased spontaneous firing rates in auditory midbrain following noise exposure are specifically abolished by a Kv3 channel modulator. (PubMed)

Increased spontaneous firing rates in auditory midbrain following noise exposure are specifically abolished by a Kv3 channel modulator. Noise exposure has been shown to produce long-lasting increases in spontaneous activity in central auditory structures in animal models, and similar pathologies are thought to contribute to clinical phenomena such as hyperacusis or tinnitus in humans. Here we demonstrate that multi-unit spontaneous neuronal activity in the inferior colliculus (IC) of mice (...) . Administration of the compound produced some reduction in the magnitude of evoked responses to a broadband noise, but unlike effects on spontaneous rates, these effects on evoked responses were not specific to recording sites with frequency tuning within the noise exposure band. Thus, the results suggest that modulators of Kv3 channels can selectively counteract increases in spontaneous activity in the auditory midbrain associated with noise exposure.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2018 Hearing Research

62. Alpha-synuclein is highly prone to distribution in the hippocampus and midbrain in tree shrews, and its fibrils seed Lewy body-like pathology in primary neurons. (PubMed)

Alpha-synuclein is highly prone to distribution in the hippocampus and midbrain in tree shrews, and its fibrils seed Lewy body-like pathology in primary neurons. The Chinese tree shrew (TS) has many unique advantages that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal model for human disease including moderate body size, low cost of feeding, short reproductive cycle and lifespan, and close phylogenetic relationship to primates. Our previous studies have shown that TS treated (...) showed that α-syn was expressed in numerous different brain regions in TS but was most abundant in the hippocampus and midbrain. The recombinant α-syn of TS displayed straight fibrils when incubated for 72 h in vitro, which is very similar to human α-syn. When exposed to primary neurons, the TS and human α-syn fibrils led to cytotoxicity and Lewy-like pathology. Our findings indicated that TS could be a potential animal model to study the pathology of α-synucleinopathies.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

2018 Experimental Gerontology

63. Children with dorsal midbrain syndrome as a result of pineal tumors. (PubMed)

Children with dorsal midbrain syndrome as a result of pineal tumors. Dorsal midbrain syndrome (also known as Parinaud syndrome and pretectal syndrome) is a well-known complication of tumors of the pineal region. However, there are few reports regarding outcomes, especially in children. The purpose of this study was to report the ophthalmic outcomes in a group of children with pineal tumors treated at a single institution.The medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with pineal region (...) tumors and evaluated at our ophthalmology clinic were studied retrospectively. Descriptive statistics were used to assess rate of dorsal midbrain syndrome, defined as one or more of the following: limitation of upgaze, pupillary light-near dissociation, and convergence retraction nystagmus. Treatment outcomes were recorded.A total of 35 subjects (age range, 5 months to 20 years) were included, 18 (51%) of whom were found to have dorsal midbrain syndrome. Of those 18, 16 patients (89%) had limitation

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2017 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

64. Diversity of bilateral synaptic assemblies for binaural computation in midbrain single neurons. (PubMed)

Diversity of bilateral synaptic assemblies for binaural computation in midbrain single neurons. Binaural hearing confers many beneficial functions but our understanding of its underlying neural substrates is limited. This study examines the bilateral synaptic assemblies and binaural computation (or integration) in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the auditory midbrain, a key convergent center. Using in-vivo whole-cell patch-clamp, the excitatory and inhibitory

2017 Hearing Research

65. Dysregulation of the causative genes for hereditary parkinsonism in the midbrain in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed)

Dysregulation of the causative genes for hereditary parkinsonism in the midbrain in Parkinson's disease. Many hereditary movement disorders with complex phenotypes without a locus symbol prefix for familial PD present as parkinsonism; however, the dysregulation of genes associated with these phenotypes in the SNpc of PD patients has not been systematically studied.Gene set enrichment analyses were performed using 10 previously published genome-wide expression datasets obtained by laser-captured

2017 Movement Disorders

66. Impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on appetite, alcohol intake behaviors, and midbrain ghrelin signaling in the rat. (PubMed)

Impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on appetite, alcohol intake behaviors, and midbrain ghrelin signaling in the rat. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery reduces appetite and stimulates new onset alcohol misuse; however, the genesis of these behavioral changes is unclear. This study is hypothesized that new onset alcohol intake is a behavioral adaptation that occurs secondary to reduced appetite and correlates with altered central ghrelin signaling.Hedonic high-fat diet (HFD) intake

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2017 Obesity

67. Intrinsic functional connectivity alterations in progressive supranuclear palsy: Differential effects in frontal cortex, motor, and midbrain networks. (PubMed)

Intrinsic functional connectivity alterations in progressive supranuclear palsy: Differential effects in frontal cortex, motor, and midbrain networks. The topography of functional network changes in progressive supranuclear palsy can be mapped by intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. The objective of this study was to study functional connectivity and its clinical and behavioral correlates in dedicated networks comprising the cognition-related default mode and the motor and midbrain functional (...) patients and controls revealed significantly decreased functional connectivity (P < 0.05, corrected) in the prefrontal cortex, which was significantly correlated with cognitive performance (P = 0.006). Of note, midbrain network connectivity in PSP patients showed increased connectivity with the thalamus, on the one hand, whereas, on the other hand, lower functional connectivity within the midbrain was significantly correlated with vertical gaze impairment, as quantified by video-oculography (P = 0.004

2017 Movement Disorders

68. Increasing GABA reverses age-related alterations in excitatory receptive fields and intensity coding of auditory midbrain neurons in aged mice. (PubMed)

Increasing GABA reverses age-related alterations in excitatory receptive fields and intensity coding of auditory midbrain neurons in aged mice. A key feature of age-related hearing loss is a reduction in the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. This loss is partially responsible for changes in central auditory processing, as inhibitory receptive fields play a critical role in shaping neural responses to sound stimuli. Vigabatrin (VGB), an antiepileptic

2017 Neurobiology of Aging

69. Quantitative T1, T2, and T2* Mapping and Semi-Quantitative Neuromelanin-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Midbrain. (PubMed)

Quantitative T1, T2, and T2* Mapping and Semi-Quantitative Neuromelanin-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Midbrain. Neuromelanin is a dark pigment granule present within certain catecholamine neurons of the human brain. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between contrast of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR relaxation times using T1, T2, and T2* mapping of the lower midbrain.The subjects were 14 healthy volunteers (11 men and 3 women, mean (...) age 29.9 ± 6.9 years). Neuromelanin-sensitive MRI was acquired using an optimized T1-weighted two-dimensional (2D)-turbo spin-echo sequence. To quantitatively evaluate the relaxation time, 2D-image data for the T1, T2, and T2* maps were also acquired. The regions of interest (substantia nigra pars compacta [SNc], superior cerebellar peduncles [SCP], cerebral peduncles [CP], and midbrain tegmentum [MT]) were manually drawn on neuromelanin-sensitive MRI to measure the contrast ratio (CR

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2016 PLoS ONE

70. A rare case of Bruns syndrome with bilateral superior oblique palsy and dorsal midbrain syndrome. (PubMed)

A rare case of Bruns syndrome with bilateral superior oblique palsy and dorsal midbrain syndrome. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy referred for evaluation of esotropia associated with a 4-year history of intermittent headaches and vomiting triggered by sudden movements, such as sneezing and coughing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 3 years previously was reported to be normal. A thorough clinical examination revealed the clinical features of Dorsal midbrain syndrome with Bruns

2017 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

71. Functional Plasticity after Unilateral Vestibular Midbrain Infarction in Human Positron Emission Tomography. (PubMed)

Functional Plasticity after Unilateral Vestibular Midbrain Infarction in Human Positron Emission Tomography. The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g (...) of vestibular function for motion perception (visual cortex). The persisting deactivation in the thalamic nuclei and frontal eye fields allows alternative functional interpretations of the thalamic nuclei: either a disconnection of ascending sensory input occurs or there is a functional mismatch between expected and actual vestibular activity. Our data support the view that both thalami operate separately for each hemisphere but receive vestibular input from ipsilateral and contralateral midbrain

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2016 PLoS ONE

72. Physiology of midbrain head movement neurons in cervical dystonia. (PubMed)

Physiology of midbrain head movement neurons in cervical dystonia. Early theories for cervical dystonia, as promoted by Hassler, emphasized the role of the midbrain interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Focus then shifted to the basal ganglia, and it was further supported with the success of deep brain stimulation. Contemporary theories suggested the role of the cerebellum, but even more recent hypotheses renewed interest in the midbrain. Although the pretectum was visited on several occasions, we (...) still do not know about the physiology of midbrain neurons in cervical dystonia.We analyzed the unique database of pretectal neurons collected in the 1970s and 1980s during historic stereotactic surgeries aimed to treat cervical dystonia. This database is valuable because such recordings could otherwise never be obtained from humans.We found the following 3 types of eye or neck movement sensitivity: eye-only neurons responded to pure vertical eye movements, neck-only neurons were sensitive to pure

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2017 Movement Disorders

73. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding? (PubMed)

Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding? Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced DA activity. On the other hand, psychostimulant drugs that increase DA signalling suppress food intake. This poses the questions of how (...) endogenous DA neuronal activity regulates feeding, and whether enhancing DA neuronal activity would either promote or reduce food intake.Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to determine the effects of enhancing DA neuronal activity on feeding behaviour. We chemogenetically activated selective midbrain DA neuronal subpopulations and assessed the effects on feeding microstructure in rats.Treatment with the psychostimulant drug amphetamine

2017 International Journal of Obesity

74. The interpeduncular fossa approach for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. (PubMed)

The interpeduncular fossa approach for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. The authors describe the interpeduncular fossa safe entry zone as a route for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. To illustrate the utility of this novel safe entry zone, the authors provide clinical data from 2 patients who underwent contralateral orbitozygomatic transinterpeduncular fossa approaches to deep cavernous malformations located medial to the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve [CN] III (...) ). These cases are supplemented by anatomical information from 6 formalin-fixed adult human brainstems and 4 silicone-injected adult human cadaveric heads on which the fiber dissection technique was used. The interpeduncular fossa may be incised to resect anteriorly located lesions that are medial to the oculomotor nerve and can serve as an alternative to the anterior mesencephalic safe entry zone (i.e., perioculomotor safe entry zone) for resection of ventromedial midbrain lesions. The interpeduncular fossa

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2017 Journal of Neurosurgery

75. Midbrain circuit regulation of individual alcohol drinking behaviors in mice (PubMed)

Midbrain circuit regulation of individual alcohol drinking behaviors in mice Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is the most prevalent substance-use disorder worldwide. There is substantial individual variability in alcohol drinking behaviors in the population, the neural circuit mechanisms of which remain elusive. Utilizing in vivo electrophysiological techniques, we find that low alcohol drinking (LAD) mice have dramatically higher ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neuron firing and burst activity

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2017 Nature communications

76. Amygdala–midbrain connectivity indicates a role for the mammalian parental care system in human altruism (PubMed)

Amygdala–midbrain connectivity indicates a role for the mammalian parental care system in human altruism Costly altruism benefitting a stranger is a rare but evolutionarily conserved phenomenon. This behaviour may be supported by limbic and midbrain circuitry that supports mammalian caregiving. In rodents, reciprocal connections between the amygdala and the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) are critical for generating protective responses toward vulnerable and distressed offspring. We used

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2017 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

77. Targeting transcriptional regulators to regenerate midbrain dopaminergic axons in Parkinson's disease (PubMed)

Targeting transcriptional regulators to regenerate midbrain dopaminergic axons in Parkinson's disease 29239326 2018 11 13 1673-5374 12 11 2017 Nov Neural regeneration research Neural Regen Res Targeting transcriptional regulators to regenerate midbrain dopaminergic axons in Parkinson's disease. 1814-1815 10.4103/1673-5374.219039 Hegarty Shane V SV Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Western Gateway Building, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Sullivan Aideen M AM Department of Anatomy

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2017 Neural Regeneration Research

78. TNF superfamily member APRIL enhances midbrain dopaminergic axon growth and contributes to the nigrostriatal projection in vivo (PubMed)

TNF superfamily member APRIL enhances midbrain dopaminergic axon growth and contributes to the nigrostriatal projection in vivo We have studied the role of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily member APRIL in the development of embryonic mouse midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. In culture, soluble APRIL enhanced axon growth during a window of development between E12 and E14 when nigrostriatal axons are growing to their targets in the striatum in vivo. April transcripts were (...) detected in both the striatum and midbrain during this period and at later stages. The axon growth-enhancing effect of APRIL was similar to that of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but in contrast to GDNF, APRIL did not promote the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The effect of APRIL on axon growth was prevented by function-blocking antibodies to one of its receptors, BCMA (TNFRSF13A), but not by function-blocking antibodies to the other APRIL receptor, TACI (TNFRSF13B

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2017 Experimental neurology

79. Pharmacological modulation of Kv3.1 mitigates auditory midbrain temporal processing deficits following auditory nerve damage (PubMed)

Pharmacological modulation of Kv3.1 mitigates auditory midbrain temporal processing deficits following auditory nerve damage Higher stages of central auditory processing compensate for a loss of cochlear nerve synapses by increasing the gain on remaining afferent inputs, thereby restoring firing rate codes for rudimentary sound features. The benefits of this compensatory plasticity are limited, as the recovery of precise temporal coding is comparatively modest. We reasoned that persistent

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2017 Scientific reports

80. Holmes Tremor Secondary to a Stabbing Lesion in the Midbrain (PubMed)

Holmes Tremor Secondary to a Stabbing Lesion in the Midbrain The development of Holmes tremor (HT) after a direct lesion of the midbrain has rarely been reported in the literature, although several etiologies have been linked with HT, such as stroke, brainstem tumors, multiple sclerosis, head trauma, or infections.A 31-year-old male, having been stabbed in the right eye, presented with a rest and action tremor in the left upper limb associated with left hemiparesis with corresponding post

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2017 Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements

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